Abstract

A technique has been developed for the localized treatment of laser damage sites in fused silica optics by CO2 laser melt-flow smoothing, by using a 50 to 125  μm diameter beam in a regime that avoids mass removal by ablation. A detailed calibration of the laser irradiance for the threshold ablation of craters was carried out for a range of beam diameters and pulses in the 20   μs to 200   ms range. The results agree with a thermal model that also provides estimates of the melt depth for the different irradiation conditions. Smoothing trials for glass melting at irradiance values just below the ablation threshold irradiance were conducted to determine the optimum conditions and limits for the smoothing process. The technique has been found to remove damage pits up to a depth of 0 .5   μm, while the small melt depth associated with localized treatment limits the smoothing to a 5  μm lateral size.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. F. Monjardin, K. M. Nowak, A. R. Holdsworth, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, "Characterization and correction of radiation from micro-lensed stacked laser diode bars," paper presented at Advanced Solid State Photonics Conference, San Antonio, Texas (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. R. M. Brusasco, B. Penetrante, J. A. Butler, and L. W. Hrubesh, "Localized CO2-laser treatment for mitigation of 351-nm damage growth in fused silica", in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4679, 40-48 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Mendez, H. J. Baker, K. M. Nowak, F. J. Villarreal, and D. R. Hall, "Highly localized CO2 laser cleaning and damage repair of silica optical surfaces" in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5647, 165-177 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. K. White, N. A. Miszkowski, W. A. Kurylo, and J. M. Shaw, "Flow properties and contour modeling of fusible borophosphosilicate glasses," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 822-826 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. H. Doremus "Viscosity of silica," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7619-7629 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. L. Schick, "A thermodynamic analysis of the high temperature vaporization properties of silica," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.), 60, 331-362 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. von Allmen and A. Blatter, Laser Beam Interactions with Materials, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), Chap. 3, pp. 41-67.
  20. Laser damaged window samples were supplied by AWE, Aldermaston, UK.

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

L. Hrubesh, J. Adams, M. Feit, W. Sell, J. Stanley, E. Miller, S. Thomson, P. Whitman, and R. Hackel "Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 273-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Mendez, H. J. Baker, K. M. Nowak, F. J. Villarreal, and D. R. Hall, "Highly localized CO2 laser cleaning and damage repair of silica optical surfaces" in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5647, 165-177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, "Mechanisms of CO2 laser mitigation of laser damage growth in fused silica," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932, 91-103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

R. H. Doremus "Viscosity of silica," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7619-7629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Brusasco, B. Penetrante, J. A. Butler, and L. W. Hrubesh, "Localized CO2-laser treatment for mitigation of 351-nm damage growth in fused silica", in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4679, 40-48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. A. J. Markillie, H. J. Baker, F. Villarreal, and D. R. Hall, "The effect of vaporization and melt ejection on laser machining of silica glass micro-optical components," Appl. Opt. 41, 5660-5667 (2002).

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

F. Vega, N. Lupon, J. A. Cebrian, and F. Laguarta, "Laser application for optical glass polishing," Opt. Eng. 37, 272-279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Bosseboeuf, J. Boulmer, and D. Débarre, "Planarization of rough silicon surfaces by laser annealing," Appl. Surf. Sci. 109-110, 473-476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

L. K. White, N. A. Miszkowski, W. A. Kurylo, and J. M. Shaw, "Flow properties and contour modeling of fusible borophosphosilicate glasses," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 822-826 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1982 (1)

1960 (1)

H. L. Schick, "A thermodynamic analysis of the high temperature vaporization properties of silica," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.), 60, 331-362 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J.

L. Hrubesh, J. Adams, M. Feit, W. Sell, J. Stanley, E. Miller, S. Thomson, P. Whitman, and R. Hackel "Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 273-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Armani, D.

D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Armengol, J.

Baker, H. J.

K. M. Nowak, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, "Efficient laser polishing of silica micro-optic components," Appl. Opt. 45, 162-171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Mendez, H. J. Baker, K. M. Nowak, F. J. Villarreal, and D. R. Hall, "Highly localized CO2 laser cleaning and damage repair of silica optical surfaces" in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5647, 165-177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. J. Markillie, H. J. Baker, F. Villarreal, and D. R. Hall, "The effect of vaporization and melt ejection on laser machining of silica glass micro-optical components," Appl. Opt. 41, 5660-5667 (2002).

J. F. Monjardin, K. M. Nowak, A. R. Holdsworth, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, "Characterization and correction of radiation from micro-lensed stacked laser diode bars," paper presented at Advanced Solid State Photonics Conference, San Antonio, Texas (2003).

Blatter, A.

M. von Allmen and A. Blatter, Laser Beam Interactions with Materials, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), Chap. 3, pp. 41-67.

Blewett, I. J.

Bosseboeuf, A.

A. Bosseboeuf, J. Boulmer, and D. Débarre, "Planarization of rough silicon surfaces by laser annealing," Appl. Surf. Sci. 109-110, 473-476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boulmer, J.

A. Bosseboeuf, J. Boulmer, and D. Débarre, "Planarization of rough silicon surfaces by laser annealing," Appl. Surf. Sci. 109-110, 473-476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brusasco, R. M.

R. M. Brusasco, B. Penetrante, J. A. Butler, and L. W. Hrubesh, "Localized CO2-laser treatment for mitigation of 351-nm damage growth in fused silica", in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4679, 40-48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Burnham, A. K.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Butler, J. A.

R. M. Brusasco, B. Penetrante, J. A. Butler, and L. W. Hrubesh, "Localized CO2-laser treatment for mitigation of 351-nm damage growth in fused silica", in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4679, 40-48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Carr, J. W.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Cebrian, J. A.

F. Vega, N. Lupon, J. A. Cebrian, and F. Laguarta, "Laser application for optical glass polishing," Opt. Eng. 37, 272-279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Débarre, D.

A. Bosseboeuf, J. Boulmer, and D. Débarre, "Planarization of rough silicon surfaces by laser annealing," Appl. Surf. Sci. 109-110, 473-476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Donohue, E. E.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Doremus, R. H.

R. H. Doremus "Viscosity of silica," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7619-7629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M.

L. Hrubesh, J. Adams, M. Feit, W. Sell, J. Stanley, E. Miller, S. Thomson, P. Whitman, and R. Hackel "Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 273-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, "Mechanisms of CO2 laser mitigation of laser damage growth in fused silica," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932, 91-103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

French, P.

Grundler, W.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Hackel, L. A.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Hackel, R.

L. Hrubesh, J. Adams, M. Feit, W. Sell, J. Stanley, E. Miller, S. Thomson, P. Whitman, and R. Hackel "Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 273-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. R.

K. M. Nowak, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, "Efficient laser polishing of silica micro-optic components," Appl. Opt. 45, 162-171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Mendez, H. J. Baker, K. M. Nowak, F. J. Villarreal, and D. R. Hall, "Highly localized CO2 laser cleaning and damage repair of silica optical surfaces" in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5647, 165-177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. J. Markillie, H. J. Baker, F. Villarreal, and D. R. Hall, "The effect of vaporization and melt ejection on laser machining of silica glass micro-optical components," Appl. Opt. 41, 5660-5667 (2002).

J. F. Monjardin, K. M. Nowak, A. R. Holdsworth, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, "Characterization and correction of radiation from micro-lensed stacked laser diode bars," paper presented at Advanced Solid State Photonics Conference, San Antonio, Texas (2003).

Hand, D. P.

Hill, R. M.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Holdsworth, A. R.

J. F. Monjardin, K. M. Nowak, A. R. Holdsworth, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, "Characterization and correction of radiation from micro-lensed stacked laser diode bars," paper presented at Advanced Solid State Photonics Conference, San Antonio, Texas (2003).

Hrubesh, L.

L. Hrubesh, J. Adams, M. Feit, W. Sell, J. Stanley, E. Miller, S. Thomson, P. Whitman, and R. Hackel "Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 273-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hrubesh, L. W.

R. M. Brusasco, B. Penetrante, J. A. Butler, and L. W. Hrubesh, "Localized CO2-laser treatment for mitigation of 351-nm damage growth in fused silica", in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4679, 40-48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Jones, J. D. C.

Key, M. H.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Kippenberg, T.

D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M. R.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Kuhn, A.

Kurylo, W. A.

L. K. White, N. A. Miszkowski, W. A. Kurylo, and J. M. Shaw, "Flow properties and contour modeling of fusible borophosphosilicate glasses," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 822-826 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laguarta, F.

F. Vega, N. Lupon, J. A. Cebrian, and F. Laguarta, "Laser application for optical glass polishing," Opt. Eng. 37, 272-279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Laguarta, N. Lupon, and J. Armengol, "Optical-glass polishing by controlled laser surface-heat treatment," Appl. Opt. 33, 6508-6513 (1994).

Lowdermilk, W. H.

Lupon, N.

F. Vega, N. Lupon, J. A. Cebrian, and F. Laguarta, "Laser application for optical glass polishing," Opt. Eng. 37, 272-279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Laguarta, N. Lupon, and J. Armengol, "Optical-glass polishing by controlled laser surface-heat treatment," Appl. Opt. 33, 6508-6513 (1994).

Maricle, S. M.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Markillie, G. A. J.

McLachalan, A. D.

Mendez, E.

E. Mendez, H. J. Baker, K. M. Nowak, F. J. Villarreal, and D. R. Hall, "Highly localized CO2 laser cleaning and damage repair of silica optical surfaces" in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5647, 165-177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, F. P.

Milam, D.

Miller, E.

L. Hrubesh, J. Adams, M. Feit, W. Sell, J. Stanley, E. Miller, S. Thomson, P. Whitman, and R. Hackel "Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 273-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miszkowski, N. A.

L. K. White, N. A. Miszkowski, W. A. Kurylo, and J. M. Shaw, "Flow properties and contour modeling of fusible borophosphosilicate glasses," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 822-826 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Molander, W. A.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Monjardin, J. F.

J. F. Monjardin, K. M. Nowak, A. R. Holdsworth, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, "Characterization and correction of radiation from micro-lensed stacked laser diode bars," paper presented at Advanced Solid State Photonics Conference, San Antonio, Texas (2003).

Norton, M. A.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Nowak, K. M.

K. M. Nowak, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, "Efficient laser polishing of silica micro-optic components," Appl. Opt. 45, 162-171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Mendez, H. J. Baker, K. M. Nowak, F. J. Villarreal, and D. R. Hall, "Highly localized CO2 laser cleaning and damage repair of silica optical surfaces" in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5647, 165-177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Monjardin, K. M. Nowak, A. R. Holdsworth, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, "Characterization and correction of radiation from micro-lensed stacked laser diode bars," paper presented at Advanced Solid State Photonics Conference, San Antonio, Texas (2003).

Penetrante, B.

R. M. Brusasco, B. Penetrante, J. A. Butler, and L. W. Hrubesh, "Localized CO2-laser treatment for mitigation of 351-nm damage growth in fused silica", in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4679, 40-48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Penetrante, B. M.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Richmond, M.

Rubenchik, A.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, "Mechanisms of CO2 laser mitigation of laser damage growth in fused silica," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932, 91-103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schick, H. L.

H. L. Schick, "A thermodynamic analysis of the high temperature vaporization properties of silica," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.), 60, 331-362 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Sell, W.

L. Hrubesh, J. Adams, M. Feit, W. Sell, J. Stanley, E. Miller, S. Thomson, P. Whitman, and R. Hackel "Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 273-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. M.

L. K. White, N. A. Miszkowski, W. A. Kurylo, and J. M. Shaw, "Flow properties and contour modeling of fusible borophosphosilicate glasses," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 822-826 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S.

D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, J.

L. Hrubesh, J. Adams, M. Feit, W. Sell, J. Stanley, E. Miller, S. Thomson, P. Whitman, and R. Hackel "Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 273-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Summers, L. J.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

Temple, P. A.

Thomson, S.

L. Hrubesh, J. Adams, M. Feit, W. Sell, J. Stanley, E. Miller, S. Thomson, P. Whitman, and R. Hackel "Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 273-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vega, F.

F. Vega, N. Lupon, J. A. Cebrian, and F. Laguarta, "Laser application for optical glass polishing," Opt. Eng. 37, 272-279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Villarreal, F.

Villarreal, F. J.

E. Mendez, H. J. Baker, K. M. Nowak, F. J. Villarreal, and D. R. Hall, "Highly localized CO2 laser cleaning and damage repair of silica optical surfaces" in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5647, 165-177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

von Allmen, M.

M. von Allmen and A. Blatter, Laser Beam Interactions with Materials, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), Chap. 3, pp. 41-67.

Wegner, P. J.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

White, L. K.

L. K. White, N. A. Miszkowski, W. A. Kurylo, and J. M. Shaw, "Flow properties and contour modeling of fusible borophosphosilicate glasses," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 822-826 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Whitman, P.

L. Hrubesh, J. Adams, M. Feit, W. Sell, J. Stanley, E. Miller, S. Thomson, P. Whitman, and R. Hackel "Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 273-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

A. Bosseboeuf, J. Boulmer, and D. Débarre, "Planarization of rough silicon surfaces by laser annealing," Appl. Surf. Sci. 109-110, 473-476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

H. L. Schick, "A thermodynamic analysis of the high temperature vaporization properties of silica," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.), 60, 331-362 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. H. Doremus "Viscosity of silica," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7619-7629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

L. K. White, N. A. Miszkowski, W. A. Kurylo, and J. M. Shaw, "Flow properties and contour modeling of fusible borophosphosilicate glasses," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 822-826 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Vega, N. Lupon, J. A. Cebrian, and F. Laguarta, "Laser application for optical glass polishing," Opt. Eng. 37, 272-279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

L. Hrubesh, J. Adams, M. Feit, W. Sell, J. Stanley, E. Miller, S. Thomson, P. Whitman, and R. Hackel "Surface damage growth mitigation on KDP/DKDP optics using single-crystal diamond micro-machining," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 273-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Brusasco, B. Penetrante, J. A. Butler, and L. W. Hrubesh, "Localized CO2-laser treatment for mitigation of 351-nm damage growth in fused silica", in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4679, 40-48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, "Mechanisms of CO2 laser mitigation of laser damage growth in fused silica," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932, 91-103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Mendez, H. J. Baker, K. M. Nowak, F. J. Villarreal, and D. R. Hall, "Highly localized CO2 laser cleaning and damage repair of silica optical surfaces" in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5647, 165-177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, E. E. Donohue, S. M. Maricle, B. M. Penetrante, R. M. Brusasco, W. Grundler, J. A. Butler, J. W. Carr, R. M. Hill, L. J. Summers, M. D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, M. H. Key, P. J. Wegner, A. K. Burnham, L. A. Hackel, and M. R. Kozlowski, "Methods for mitigation growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics at 351 nm," presented at the XXXIII Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Colorado, 2001).

J. F. Monjardin, K. M. Nowak, A. R. Holdsworth, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, "Characterization and correction of radiation from micro-lensed stacked laser diode bars," paper presented at Advanced Solid State Photonics Conference, San Antonio, Texas (2003).

M. von Allmen and A. Blatter, Laser Beam Interactions with Materials, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), Chap. 3, pp. 41-67.

Laser damaged window samples were supplied by AWE, Aldermaston, UK.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation of viscosity and vapor pressure of silica with temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Matrix of laser produced craters with a 50 μm laser spot diameter at 50–300 μs pulse duration and 25–350 kW cm−2 irradiance values used to determine ablation threshold. The inset AFM image corresponds to a 100 μs pulse at 150 kW cm−2 and is less than 200 nm in depth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of heat flow calculation predictions and experimental data of the threshold ablation irradiance versus laser pulse duration for the spot diameter shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated variation of melt depth versus pulse duration for several different values of laser spot diameter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser smoothing trials along and alongside a scribe line using a 50 μm laser spot diameter with pulse widths of 100 μs and 5 ms. AFM image of an unwanted bump produced by surface tension forces (corresponding to area inside the white dashed square at 133 kW cm−2 and 100 μs pulse width).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of surface smoothing of the scribe line on the number N of laser pulses at an irradiance value (31 kW cm−2) corresponding to 90% of the threshold for ablation mass loss, using pulses of duration 200 ms and 50 μm laser spot diameter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example of individual damaged areas before and after treatment. (a) Damaged area before treatment, (c) damaged area after treatment with 125 μm laser spot diameter at 200 ms at ∼90% ablation threshold. AFM scans of the same individual pit under the melt spot (b) before and (d) after the treatment (images inverted in the z direction for improved clarity).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Large area of damage (left) before treatment and (right) after treatment with a 50 μm laser spot diameter at 200 ms pulse duration at 38.8 kW cm−2. A raster scan treatment covered the area inside the dashed line with five laser pulses per position overlapping each 5 μm in the x and y directions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Further detail of the damage repair treatment shown in Fig. 8. Image of AFM scan of the area inside the white dashed line showing the damage before and after the treatment.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Laser-induced attenuation of surface fluctuations obtained by fast Fourier transform analysis of the AFM data of the damaged and repaired areas of damage of Fig. 10.

Equations (1)

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I th = 2 K T o 1 R [ 0 2 k t exp ( α 2 β 2 4 ) erfc ( α β 2 ) × α β ( 1 2 β 2 ω 0 2 ) - 1 d β ] 1 .

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