Abstract

Unexpected diurnal discrepancies between high-quality spectroradiometers were observed during the 2000 Nordic Ozone Group Intercomparison campaign. The spectral ratios of the irradiances showed a diurnal variation of 29%. This cannot be explained by the nonideal angular response of the instruments' input optics in one plane (cosine effect). Instead, by using a radiative transfer model, we show that differences in the angular response in four azimuth planes have the potential to bias the measured data by up to 4.4% (azimuth effect). Other relevant factors are also discussed and quantified and are shown to be significant when diurnal changes in radiation are explained by environmental factors, or when measured data are compared with model or satellite data. Again, intercomparison campaigns have the potential to reveal errors that would otherwise remain undetected.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (5)

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, "Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer and A. Kylling, "Technical note: the libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations--description and examples of use," Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 1319-1381 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Ylianttila and J. Schreder, "Temperature effects on PTFE diffusers," Opt. Mater. 32, 1811-1814 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Gorts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, and A. R. Webb, "A traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 5321-5331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bais, S. Kazadzis, K. Garane, N. Kouremeti, J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, T. Koskela, P. Görts, and J. Schreder, "Portable device for characterizing the angular response of UV spectroradiometers," Appl. Opt. 44, 7136-7143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

C. D. Thomas, A. Cameron, R. E. Green, M. Bakkenes, L. J. Beaumont, Y. C. Collingham, B. F. N. Erasmus, M. Ferreira de Siqueira, A. Grainger, L. Hannah, L. Hughes, B. Huntley, A. S. van Jaarsveld, G. F. Midgley, L. Miles, M. A. Ortega-Huerta, A. T. Peterson, O. L. Phillips, and S. E. Williams, "Extinction risk from climate change," Nature 427, 145-148 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Oreskes, "The Scientific consensus on climate change," Science 306, 1686-1687 (2004), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/306/5702/1686.pdf.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

O. Meinander, W. Josefsson, J. Kaurola, T. Koskela, and K. Lakkala, "Spike detection and correction in Brewer spectroradiometer ultraviolet spectra," Opt. Eng. 42, 1812-1819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

A. Kazantzidis, D. S. Balis, A. Bais, S. Kazadzis, E. Galani, and E. Kosmidis, "Comparison of model calculations with spectral UV measurements during the SUSPEN campaign: the effect of aerosols," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 1529-1539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszcznski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, "SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12 509-12 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Weatherhead, D. Theisen, A. Stevermer, J. Enagonio, B. Rabinovitch, P. Disterhoft, K. Lantz, R. Meltzer, J. Sabburg, J. DeLuisi, J. Rives, and J. Shreffler, "Temperature dependence of the Brewer ultraviolet data," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 34 121-34 129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

T. Landelius and W. Josefsson, "Methods for cosine correction of broadband UV data and their effect on the relation between UV irradiance and cloudiness," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4795-4802 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Cappellani and C. Kochler, "Temperature effects correction in a Brewer MKIV spectrophotometer for solar UV measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4829-4831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumathaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, and W. M. F. Wauben, "From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915-4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. Solomon, "Stratospheric ozone depletion: a review of concepts and history," Rev. Geophys. 37, 275-316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard and G. Seckmeyer, "Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321-14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, and M. Blumthaler, "Erythemally weighted radiometers in solar UV monitoring: results from the WMO/STUK intercomparison," Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 212-221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, D. Balis, C. S. Zerefos, and M. Blumthaler, "Correcting global solar ultraviolet spectra recorded by a Brewer spectroradiometer for its angular response error," Appl. Opt. 37, 6339-6344 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

U. Feister, R. Grewe, and K. Gericke, "A method for correction of cosine errors in measurements of spectral UV irradiance," Sol. Energy 60, 313-332 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Weihs and A. Webb, "Accuracy of spectral UV model calculations. Part 2: Comparison of UV calculations with measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1551-1560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, and W. Ambach, "Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a non ideal cosine response," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493-2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. Slaper, H. A. J. M. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, and F. Kuik, "Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721-2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. Seckmeyer and G. Bernhard, "Cosine error correction of spectral UV irradiances," in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 2049, 140-151 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, and J. D. Shanklin, "Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal C10x/NOx interaction," Nature 315, 207-210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ambach, W.

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, and W. Ambach, "Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a non ideal cosine response," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493-2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bais, A.

A. Bais, S. Kazadzis, K. Garane, N. Kouremeti, J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, T. Koskela, P. Görts, and J. Schreder, "Portable device for characterizing the angular response of UV spectroradiometers," Appl. Opt. 44, 7136-7143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kazantzidis, D. S. Balis, A. Bais, S. Kazadzis, E. Galani, and E. Kosmidis, "Comparison of model calculations with spectral UV measurements during the SUSPEN campaign: the effect of aerosols," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 1529-1539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, K. Dehne, U. Feister, B. Mayer, P. Taalas, E. Weatherhead, and A. Webb, "Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. Part 1: Spectral instruments," Global Atmospheric Watch Report No. 125, TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organisation, 2001).

Bais, A. F.

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Gorts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, and A. R. Webb, "A traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 5321-5331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszcznski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, "SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12 509-12 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, D. Balis, C. S. Zerefos, and M. Blumthaler, "Correcting global solar ultraviolet spectra recorded by a Brewer spectroradiometer for its angular response error," Appl. Opt. 37, 6339-6344 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, "Spectrometers: operational errors and uncertainties," in Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Modeling, Measurements and Effects, C.S.Zerefos and A.F.Bais, eds., NATO ASI Series, Series I: Global Environmental Change (Springer-Verlag, 1997), Vol. 52, pp. 165-174.

Bakkenes, M.

C. D. Thomas, A. Cameron, R. E. Green, M. Bakkenes, L. J. Beaumont, Y. C. Collingham, B. F. N. Erasmus, M. Ferreira de Siqueira, A. Grainger, L. Hannah, L. Hughes, B. Huntley, A. S. van Jaarsveld, G. F. Midgley, L. Miles, M. A. Ortega-Huerta, A. T. Peterson, O. L. Phillips, and S. E. Williams, "Extinction risk from climate change," Nature 427, 145-148 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balis, D.

Balis, D. S.

A. Kazantzidis, D. S. Balis, A. Bais, S. Kazadzis, E. Galani, and E. Kosmidis, "Comparison of model calculations with spectral UV measurements during the SUSPEN campaign: the effect of aerosols," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 1529-1539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beaumont, L. J.

C. D. Thomas, A. Cameron, R. E. Green, M. Bakkenes, L. J. Beaumont, Y. C. Collingham, B. F. N. Erasmus, M. Ferreira de Siqueira, A. Grainger, L. Hannah, L. Hughes, B. Huntley, A. S. van Jaarsveld, G. F. Midgley, L. Miles, M. A. Ortega-Huerta, A. T. Peterson, O. L. Phillips, and S. E. Williams, "Extinction risk from climate change," Nature 427, 145-148 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernhard, G.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszcznski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, "SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12 509-12 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard and G. Seckmeyer, "Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321-14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer and G. Bernhard, "Cosine error correction of spectral UV irradiances," in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 2049, 140-151 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, K. Dehne, U. Feister, B. Mayer, P. Taalas, E. Weatherhead, and A. Webb, "Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. Part 1: Spectral instruments," Global Atmospheric Watch Report No. 125, TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organisation, 2001).

Blumathaler, M.

M. van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumathaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, and W. M. F. Wauben, "From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915-4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blumthaler, M.

A. Bais, S. Kazadzis, K. Garane, N. Kouremeti, J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, T. Koskela, P. Görts, and J. Schreder, "Portable device for characterizing the angular response of UV spectroradiometers," Appl. Opt. 44, 7136-7143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Gorts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, and A. R. Webb, "A traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 5321-5331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszcznski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, "SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12 509-12 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, and M. Blumthaler, "Erythemally weighted radiometers in solar UV monitoring: results from the WMO/STUK intercomparison," Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 212-221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, D. Balis, C. S. Zerefos, and M. Blumthaler, "Correcting global solar ultraviolet spectra recorded by a Brewer spectroradiometer for its angular response error," Appl. Opt. 37, 6339-6344 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, and W. Ambach, "Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a non ideal cosine response," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493-2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Slaper, H. A. J. M. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, and F. Kuik, "Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721-2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, K. Dehne, U. Feister, B. Mayer, P. Taalas, E. Weatherhead, and A. Webb, "Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. Part 1: Spectral instruments," Global Atmospheric Watch Report No. 125, TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organisation, 2001).

Bolsée, D.

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A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszcznski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, "SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12 509-12 525 (2001).
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B. Mayer and A. Kylling, "Technical note: the libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations--description and examples of use," Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 1319-1381 (2005).
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A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszcznski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, "SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12 509-12 525 (2001).
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K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, "Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
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C. D. Thomas, A. Cameron, R. E. Green, M. Bakkenes, L. J. Beaumont, Y. C. Collingham, B. F. N. Erasmus, M. Ferreira de Siqueira, A. Grainger, L. Hannah, L. Hughes, B. Huntley, A. S. van Jaarsveld, G. F. Midgley, L. Miles, M. A. Ortega-Huerta, A. T. Peterson, O. L. Phillips, and S. E. Williams, "Extinction risk from climate change," Nature 427, 145-148 (2004).
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K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, "Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
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G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, K. Dehne, U. Feister, B. Mayer, P. Taalas, E. Weatherhead, and A. Webb, "Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. Part 1: Spectral instruments," Global Atmospheric Watch Report No. 125, TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organisation, 2001).

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M. van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumathaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, and W. M. F. Wauben, "From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915-4925 (2000).
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E. Weatherhead, D. Theisen, A. Stevermer, J. Enagonio, B. Rabinovitch, P. Disterhoft, K. Lantz, R. Meltzer, J. Sabburg, J. DeLuisi, J. Rives, and J. Shreffler, "Temperature dependence of the Brewer ultraviolet data," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 34 121-34 129 (2001).
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J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Gorts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, and A. R. Webb, "A traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 5321-5331 (2005).
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A. Bais, S. Kazadzis, K. Garane, N. Kouremeti, J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, T. Koskela, P. Görts, and J. Schreder, "Portable device for characterizing the angular response of UV spectroradiometers," Appl. Opt. 44, 7136-7143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszcznski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, "SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12 509-12 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumathaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, and W. M. F. Wauben, "From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915-4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard and G. Seckmeyer, "Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321-14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer and G. Bernhard, "Cosine error correction of spectral UV irradiances," in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 2049, 140-151 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, K. Dehne, U. Feister, B. Mayer, P. Taalas, E. Weatherhead, and A. Webb, "Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. Part 1: Spectral instruments," Global Atmospheric Watch Report No. 125, TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organisation, 2001).

Shanklin, J. D.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, and J. D. Shanklin, "Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal C10x/NOx interaction," Nature 315, 207-210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, "Models of aerosols, clouds and precipitation for atmospheric propagation studies," paper presented at Conference on Atmospheric Propagation in the UV, Visible, IR and MM-Wave Region and Related System Aspects, NATO Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Copenhagen, 1989.

Shreffler, J.

E. Weatherhead, D. Theisen, A. Stevermer, J. Enagonio, B. Rabinovitch, P. Disterhoft, K. Lantz, R. Meltzer, J. Sabburg, J. DeLuisi, J. Rives, and J. Shreffler, "Temperature dependence of the Brewer ultraviolet data," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 34 121-34 129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simic, S.

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, D. Bolsée, C. Brogniez, H. De Backer, A. G. di Sarra, U. Feister, P. Görts, D. Henriques, J. Jaroslawski, S. Simic, M. Stanec, M. Steinmetz, R. Tax, and J. M. Vilaplana, "Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit, report of site visits, round 2004," EUR 21398/EN (European Communities, 2004).

Slaper, H.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszcznski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, "SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12 509-12 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Slaper, H. A. J. M. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, and F. Kuik, "Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721-2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S.

S. Solomon, "Stratospheric ozone depletion: a review of concepts and history," Rev. Geophys. 37, 275-316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stanec, M.

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, D. Bolsée, C. Brogniez, H. De Backer, A. G. di Sarra, U. Feister, P. Görts, D. Henriques, J. Jaroslawski, S. Simic, M. Stanec, M. Steinmetz, R. Tax, and J. M. Vilaplana, "Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit, report of site visits, round 2004," EUR 21398/EN (European Communities, 2004).

Steinmetz, M.

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, D. Bolsée, C. Brogniez, H. De Backer, A. G. di Sarra, U. Feister, P. Görts, D. Henriques, J. Jaroslawski, S. Simic, M. Stanec, M. Steinmetz, R. Tax, and J. M. Vilaplana, "Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit, report of site visits, round 2004," EUR 21398/EN (European Communities, 2004).

Stevermer, A.

E. Weatherhead, D. Theisen, A. Stevermer, J. Enagonio, B. Rabinovitch, P. Disterhoft, K. Lantz, R. Meltzer, J. Sabburg, J. DeLuisi, J. Rives, and J. Shreffler, "Temperature dependence of the Brewer ultraviolet data," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 34 121-34 129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Svenoe, T.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszcznski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, "SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12 509-12 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taalas, P.

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, "Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, K. Dehne, U. Feister, B. Mayer, P. Taalas, E. Weatherhead, and A. Webb, "Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. Part 1: Spectral instruments," Global Atmospheric Watch Report No. 125, TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organisation, 2001).

Tax, R.

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Gorts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, and A. R. Webb, "A traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 5321-5331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, D. Bolsée, C. Brogniez, H. De Backer, A. G. di Sarra, U. Feister, P. Görts, D. Henriques, J. Jaroslawski, S. Simic, M. Stanec, M. Steinmetz, R. Tax, and J. M. Vilaplana, "Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit, report of site visits, round 2004," EUR 21398/EN (European Communities, 2004).

Theisen, D.

E. Weatherhead, D. Theisen, A. Stevermer, J. Enagonio, B. Rabinovitch, P. Disterhoft, K. Lantz, R. Meltzer, J. Sabburg, J. DeLuisi, J. Rives, and J. Shreffler, "Temperature dependence of the Brewer ultraviolet data," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 34 121-34 129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, C. D.

C. D. Thomas, A. Cameron, R. E. Green, M. Bakkenes, L. J. Beaumont, Y. C. Collingham, B. F. N. Erasmus, M. Ferreira de Siqueira, A. Grainger, L. Hannah, L. Hughes, B. Huntley, A. S. van Jaarsveld, G. F. Midgley, L. Miles, M. A. Ortega-Huerta, A. T. Peterson, O. L. Phillips, and S. E. Williams, "Extinction risk from climate change," Nature 427, 145-148 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, C.

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, "Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Jaarsveld, A. S.

C. D. Thomas, A. Cameron, R. E. Green, M. Bakkenes, L. J. Beaumont, Y. C. Collingham, B. F. N. Erasmus, M. Ferreira de Siqueira, A. Grainger, L. Hannah, L. Hughes, B. Huntley, A. S. van Jaarsveld, G. F. Midgley, L. Miles, M. A. Ortega-Huerta, A. T. Peterson, O. L. Phillips, and S. E. Williams, "Extinction risk from climate change," Nature 427, 145-148 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Weele, M.

M. van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumathaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, and W. M. F. Wauben, "From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915-4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vilaplana, J. M.

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, D. Bolsée, C. Brogniez, H. De Backer, A. G. di Sarra, U. Feister, P. Görts, D. Henriques, J. Jaroslawski, S. Simic, M. Stanec, M. Steinmetz, R. Tax, and J. M. Vilaplana, "Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit, report of site visits, round 2004," EUR 21398/EN (European Communities, 2004).

Visuri, R.

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, and M. Blumthaler, "Erythemally weighted radiometers in solar UV monitoring: results from the WMO/STUK intercomparison," Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 212-221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walravens, B.

M. van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumathaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, and W. M. F. Wauben, "From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915-4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wardle, D.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszcznski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, "SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12 509-12 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wardle, D. I.

E. W. Hare, D. I. Wardle, E. J. Carty, and V. E. Fioletov, Guide to the WMO/GAW World Ultraviolet Radiation Data Center, Version 5.1 (Atmospheric Environment Service, Environment Canada, 1998).

Wauben, W. M. F.

M. van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumathaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, and W. M. F. Wauben, "From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915-4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weatherhead, E.

E. Weatherhead, D. Theisen, A. Stevermer, J. Enagonio, B. Rabinovitch, P. Disterhoft, K. Lantz, R. Meltzer, J. Sabburg, J. DeLuisi, J. Rives, and J. Shreffler, "Temperature dependence of the Brewer ultraviolet data," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 34 121-34 129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, K. Dehne, U. Feister, B. Mayer, P. Taalas, E. Weatherhead, and A. Webb, "Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. Part 1: Spectral instruments," Global Atmospheric Watch Report No. 125, TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organisation, 2001).

Webb, A.

P. Weihs and A. Webb, "Accuracy of spectral UV model calculations. Part 2: Comparison of UV calculations with measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1551-1560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, K. Dehne, U. Feister, B. Mayer, P. Taalas, E. Weatherhead, and A. Webb, "Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. Part 1: Spectral instruments," Global Atmospheric Watch Report No. 125, TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organisation, 2001).

Webb, A. R.

A. Bais, S. Kazadzis, K. Garane, N. Kouremeti, J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, T. Koskela, P. Görts, and J. Schreder, "Portable device for characterizing the angular response of UV spectroradiometers," Appl. Opt. 44, 7136-7143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Gorts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, and A. R. Webb, "A traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 5321-5331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszcznski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, "SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12 509-12 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, P.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszcznski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, "SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12 509-12 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumathaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, and W. M. F. Wauben, "From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915-4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Weihs and A. Webb, "Accuracy of spectral UV model calculations. Part 2: Comparison of UV calculations with measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1551-1560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Williams, S. E.

C. D. Thomas, A. Cameron, R. E. Green, M. Bakkenes, L. J. Beaumont, Y. C. Collingham, B. F. N. Erasmus, M. Ferreira de Siqueira, A. Grainger, L. Hannah, L. Hughes, B. Huntley, A. S. van Jaarsveld, G. F. Midgley, L. Miles, M. A. Ortega-Huerta, A. T. Peterson, O. L. Phillips, and S. E. Williams, "Extinction risk from climate change," Nature 427, 145-148 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ylianttila, L.

L. Ylianttila and J. Schreder, "Temperature effects on PTFE diffusers," Opt. Mater. 32, 1811-1814 (2005).
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K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, and M. Blumthaler, "Erythemally weighted radiometers in solar UV monitoring: results from the WMO/STUK intercomparison," Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 212-221 (1998).
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L. Ylianttila, "The calibration and characterization of solar UV radiometers," Master's thesis (Helsinki University of Technology, 1999).

Zerefos, C. S.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (1)

B. Mayer and A. Kylling, "Technical note: the libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations--description and examples of use," Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 1319-1381 (2005).
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Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, and W. Ambach, "Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a non ideal cosine response," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493-2496 (1996).
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H. Slaper, H. A. J. M. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, and F. Kuik, "Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721-2724 (1995).
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J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

A. Kazantzidis, D. S. Balis, A. Bais, S. Kazadzis, E. Galani, and E. Kosmidis, "Comparison of model calculations with spectral UV measurements during the SUSPEN campaign: the effect of aerosols," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 1529-1539 (2001).
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J. Geophys. Res. (8)

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. J. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszcznski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, and A. Redondas, "SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12 509-12 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Weihs and A. Webb, "Accuracy of spectral UV model calculations. Part 2: Comparison of UV calculations with measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1551-1560 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard and G. Seckmeyer, "Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321-14345 (1999).
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T. Landelius and W. Josefsson, "Methods for cosine correction of broadband UV data and their effect on the relation between UV irradiance and cloudiness," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4795-4802 (2000).
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F. Cappellani and C. Kochler, "Temperature effects correction in a Brewer MKIV spectrophotometer for solar UV measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4829-4831 (2000).
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E. Weatherhead, D. Theisen, A. Stevermer, J. Enagonio, B. Rabinovitch, P. Disterhoft, K. Lantz, R. Meltzer, J. Sabburg, J. DeLuisi, J. Rives, and J. Shreffler, "Temperature dependence of the Brewer ultraviolet data," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 34 121-34 129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, O. Meinander, C. Torres, T. Koskela, E. Cuevas, P. Taalas, A. Dahlback, G. Deferrari, K. Edvardsen, and H. Ochoa, "Quality assurance of the solar UV network in the Antarctic," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. van Weele, T. J. Martin, M. Blumathaler, C. Brogniez, P. N. den Outer, O. Engelsen, J. Lenoble, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, A. Ruggaber, B. Walravens, P. Weihs, B. G. Gardiner, D. Gillotay, D. Haferl, A. Kylling, G. Seckmeyer, and W. M. F. Wauben, "From model intercomparison toward benchmark UV spectra for six real atmospheric cases," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4915-4925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

C. D. Thomas, A. Cameron, R. E. Green, M. Bakkenes, L. J. Beaumont, Y. C. Collingham, B. F. N. Erasmus, M. Ferreira de Siqueira, A. Grainger, L. Hannah, L. Hughes, B. Huntley, A. S. van Jaarsveld, G. F. Midgley, L. Miles, M. A. Ortega-Huerta, A. T. Peterson, O. L. Phillips, and S. E. Williams, "Extinction risk from climate change," Nature 427, 145-148 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, and J. D. Shanklin, "Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal C10x/NOx interaction," Nature 315, 207-210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

O. Meinander, W. Josefsson, J. Kaurola, T. Koskela, and K. Lakkala, "Spike detection and correction in Brewer spectroradiometer ultraviolet spectra," Opt. Eng. 42, 1812-1819 (2003).
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Opt. Mater. (1)

L. Ylianttila and J. Schreder, "Temperature effects on PTFE diffusers," Opt. Mater. 32, 1811-1814 (2005).
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Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri, and M. Blumthaler, "Erythemally weighted radiometers in solar UV monitoring: results from the WMO/STUK intercomparison," Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 212-221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Seckmeyer and G. Bernhard, "Cosine error correction of spectral UV irradiances," in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 2049, 140-151 (1993).
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S. Solomon, "Stratospheric ozone depletion: a review of concepts and history," Rev. Geophys. 37, 275-316 (1999).
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Science (1)

N. Oreskes, "The Scientific consensus on climate change," Science 306, 1686-1687 (2004), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/306/5702/1686.pdf.
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Sol. Energy (1)

U. Feister, R. Grewe, and K. Gericke, "A method for correction of cosine errors in measurements of spectral UV irradiance," Sol. Energy 60, 313-332 (1997).
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B. G. Gardiner, "Spectroradiometer calibration methods and techniques," in Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Modeling, Measurements and Effects, C.S.Zerefos and A.F.Bais, eds., NATO ASI Series, Series I: Global Environmental Change (Springer-Verlag, 1997), Vol. 52, pp. 119-132.

A. F. Bais, "Spectrometers: operational errors and uncertainties," in Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Modeling, Measurements and Effects, C.S.Zerefos and A.F.Bais, eds., NATO ASI Series, Series I: Global Environmental Change (Springer-Verlag, 1997), Vol. 52, pp. 165-174.

International Organization for Standardization,Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (International Organisation for Standardization, 1995).

E. P. Shettle, "Models of aerosols, clouds and precipitation for atmospheric propagation studies," paper presented at Conference on Atmospheric Propagation in the UV, Visible, IR and MM-Wave Region and Related System Aspects, NATO Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Copenhagen, 1989.

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, D. Bolsée, C. Brogniez, H. De Backer, A. G. di Sarra, U. Feister, P. Görts, D. Henriques, J. Jaroslawski, S. Simic, M. Stanec, M. Steinmetz, R. Tax, and J. M. Vilaplana, "Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit, report of site visits, round 2004," EUR 21398/EN (European Communities, 2004).

L. Ylianttila, "The calibration and characterization of solar UV radiometers," Master's thesis (Helsinki University of Technology, 1999).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ratio ST∕NST declining from the morning toward the evening at 310 nm (circles), 325 nm (squares), and 340 nm (triangles). NOGIC-2000 data during mostly clear skies, Julian day 162 in 2000 at Tylösand.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Erythemal irradiance (W∕m2) during measurement days 162 (mostly clear skies) and 166 (variable cloudiness), according to the FMI SL-501 filter radiometer. The values are presented as 1 min averages.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratios ST∕ST at 310 (circles) and 325 (squares) nm with almost no azimuthal differences in the morning and afternoon levels during the mostly clear-skies Julian day 162 at Tylösand in 2000. ST1∕ST2 is shown by open symbols and ST1∕ST3 by closed symbols.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Data of one of the ST instruments divided by the data of the NST instruments. ST1∕NST1 is shown by circles, ST1∕NST2 by squares, and ST1∕NST3 by triangles. Day 162; open symbols used for 310 nm and closed symbols for 325 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Data of ST∕NST for day 166 at 310 nm (circles) and 325 (squares) nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretically calculated diurnal ratio of an instrument with ±3% azimuthal error between morning (negative SZA values) and evening (positive SZA values) to an instrument with no azimuth error calculated for 310 nm (circles), 350 nm (squares), and 400 nm (triangles).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cosine characterization results for the Bentham B5503. The graph on the left shows the azimuth problem, and that on the right shows the corrected results. Solid curves represent the mean of the four planes measured and the dashed curves represent the two measured planes with the maximum deviation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cosine characterization results for the Brewer 107 from two cosine characterizations, 1996 and 2003.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectral ratios of measured (ST∕NST) and modeled-to-measured UV on day 162 at the corresponding SZAs near 60°, including morning and afternoon spectral ratios. 6.30 UTC corresponds to SZA of 59.9°, 7 UTC to 55.8°, 15.30 UTC to 57.2°, and 16 UTC to 61.3°.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Instrumentation of the NOGIC-2000 Used in this Study

Tables Icon

Table 2 Uncertainty Budgets for Diurnal Discrepancies under Clear Skies and with Realistic Aerosols at 310 and 350 nm at a SZA of 60° with Uncertainty Ranges for the ST Brewer and NST Bentham Instruments Used in this Study a

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Table 3 Example of the Theoretical Azimuth Error for an Instrument with ±2% and ±5% Azimuth Response Differences between Planes Using the UVSPEC Model at a SZA of 59.9° under Clear Skies for Four Cases a

Equations (3)

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E ( λ ) = E ET ( λ ) T ( λ , θ , τ O 3 , τ r , τ a , τ c , ω , g , A ) .
E M ( λ ) = S M ( λ ) r ( λ ) ,
u c ( y ) = Σ u i 2 .

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