Abstract

The temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by liquid water (H 2O) and heavy water (D 2O) were determined using a hyperspectral absorption and attenuation meter (WET Labs, AC-S). Sodium chloride (NaCl) was used as a proxy for seawater salts. There was no significant temperature (ΨT) or salt (ΨS) dependency of absorption at wavelengths <550  nm. At wavelengths >550   nm, ΨT exhibited peaks at 604, 662, and 740  nm. A small negative trough in ΨS occurred at 590  nm, followed by a small positive peak 620  nm, a larger negative trough at 720  nm, and a strong positive peak at 755  nm. The salt dependency of absorption by heavy water, ΨsH, exhibited a negative power-law shape with very low ΨsH, at wavelengths >550  nm. Our experiments with NaCl, clean open ocean seawater, and artificial seawater support the hypothesis that salts modify the absorption spectra of seawater by modifying the molecular matrix and vibrations of pure water.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2004 (1)

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling spectral absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM)," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

V. S. Langford, A. J. McKinley, and T. I. Quickenden, "Temperature dependence of the visible-near-infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water," J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8916-8921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J.-J. Max, M. Trudel, and C. Chapados, "Subtraction of the water spectra from the infrared spectrum of saline solutions," Appl. Spectrosc . 52, 234-239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, "The optical properties of pure water," in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 174-183 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "The Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters," in Ocean Optics XII, S. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. L. Braun and S. N. Smirnov, "Why is water blue," J. Chem. Educ. 70, 612-615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

E. L. Lewis, "The Practical Salinity Scale 1978 and its antecedents," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. OE-5, 3-8 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1971 (1)

F. K. Lepple and F. J. Millero, "The isothermal compressibility of seawater near one atmosphere," Deep-Sea Res. 18, 1233-1254 (1971).

1963 (1)

Baker, K. S.

Barnard, A. H.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. Moore, A. H. Barnard, I. Walsh, M. S. Twardowski, and G. C. Chang, "Correction and analysis of spectral absorption data taken with the WET Labs AC-S," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

Boivan, L. P.

Boss, E.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling spectral absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM)," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Braun, C. L.

C. L. Braun and S. N. Smirnov, "Why is water blue," J. Chem. Educ. 70, 612-615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, Marine Optics and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France (personal communication, 2006).

Buiteveld, H.

H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, "The optical properties of pure water," in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 174-183 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. Moore, A. H. Barnard, I. Walsh, M. S. Twardowski, and G. C. Chang, "Correction and analysis of spectral absorption data taken with the WET Labs AC-S," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

Chapados, C.

J.-J. Max, M. Trudel, and C. Chapados, "Subtraction of the water spectra from the infrared spectrum of saline solutions," Appl. Spectrosc . 52, 234-239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Culkin, F.

F. Culkin, "The major constituents of sea water," in Chemical Oceanography, J.P.Riley and G.Skirrow, eds. (Academic, 1965), pp. 121-158.

Davidson, W. F.

Derr, A.

B. Rhoades, A. Derr, C. Moore, and J. R. Zaneveld, "The AC-Spectra, an instrument for hyperspectral characterization of inherent optical properties in natural waters," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

Donaghay, P. L.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling spectral absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM)," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Donze, M.

H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, "The optical properties of pure water," in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 174-183 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Earle, E. D.

Eisenberg, D.

D. Eisenberg and W. Kauzmann, The Structure and Properties of Water (Oxford U. Press, 1969).

Fry, E. S.

Grey, D.

Hakvoort, J. M. H.

H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, "The optical properties of pure water," in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 174-183 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Højerslev, N. K.

Kauzmann, W.

D. Eisenberg and W. Kauzmann, The Structure and Properties of Water (Oxford U. Press, 1969).

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "The Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters," in Ocean Optics XII, S. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Langford, V. S.

V. S. Langford, A. J. McKinley, and T. I. Quickenden, "Temperature dependence of the visible-near-infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water," J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8916-8921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lepple, F. K.

F. K. Lepple and F. J. Millero, "The isothermal compressibility of seawater near one atmosphere," Deep-Sea Res. 18, 1233-1254 (1971).

Lewis, E. L.

E. L. Lewis, "The Practical Salinity Scale 1978 and its antecedents," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. OE-5, 3-8 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Max, J.-J.

J.-J. Max, M. Trudel, and C. Chapados, "Subtraction of the water spectra from the infrared spectrum of saline solutions," Appl. Spectrosc . 52, 234-239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McKinley, A. J.

V. S. Langford, A. J. McKinley, and T. I. Quickenden, "Temperature dependence of the visible-near-infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water," J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8916-8921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, R. Zaneveld, C. Moore, B. Rhodes, and R. Miller, "The hyper-spectral temperature and salinity dependent absorption coefficients of pure water," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

Millero, F. J.

F. K. Lepple and F. J. Millero, "The isothermal compressibility of seawater near one atmosphere," Deep-Sea Res. 18, 1233-1254 (1971).

Moffat, B. A.

B. A. Moffat, "The optical calibration of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory," Ph.D. dissertation (Queen's University, Canada, 2001).

Moore, C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. Moore, A. H. Barnard, I. Walsh, M. S. Twardowski, and G. C. Chang, "Correction and analysis of spectral absorption data taken with the WET Labs AC-S," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, R. Zaneveld, C. Moore, B. Rhodes, and R. Miller, "The hyper-spectral temperature and salinity dependent absorption coefficients of pure water," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

B. Rhoades, A. Derr, C. Moore, and J. R. Zaneveld, "The AC-Spectra, an instrument for hyperspectral characterization of inherent optical properties in natural waters," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

Moore, C. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "The Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters," in Ocean Optics XII, S. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, "Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater," in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N.G.Jerlov and E.Steeman, eds. (Academic, 1974), pp. 1-24.

Nampoori, V. P. N.

Patel, C. K. N.

Pegau, W. S.

Pilson, M. E. Q.

M. E. Q. Pilson, An Introduction to the Chemistry of the Sea (Prentice-Hall, 1998).

Pope, R. M.

Quickenden, T. I.

V. S. Langford, A. J. McKinley, and T. I. Quickenden, "Temperature dependence of the visible-near-infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water," J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8916-8921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ravisankar, M.

Reghunath, A. T.

Rhoades, B.

B. Rhoades, A. Derr, C. Moore, and J. R. Zaneveld, "The AC-Spectra, an instrument for hyperspectral characterization of inherent optical properties in natural waters," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

Rhodes, B.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, R. Zaneveld, C. Moore, B. Rhodes, and R. Miller, "The hyper-spectral temperature and salinity dependent absorption coefficients of pure water," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

Sathianandan, K.

Sinclair, D.

Smirnov, S. N.

C. L. Braun and S. N. Smirnov, "Why is water blue," J. Chem. Educ. 70, 612-615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

Storey, R. S.

Sullivan, J. M.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling spectral absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM)," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, R. Zaneveld, C. Moore, B. Rhodes, and R. Miller, "The hyper-spectral temperature and salinity dependent absorption coefficients of pure water," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

Sullivan, S. A.

Tam, C.

Trabjerg, I.

Trudel, M.

J.-J. Max, M. Trudel, and C. Chapados, "Subtraction of the water spectra from the infrared spectrum of saline solutions," Appl. Spectrosc . 52, 234-239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling spectral absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM)," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, R. Zaneveld, C. Moore, B. Rhodes, and R. Miller, "The hyper-spectral temperature and salinity dependent absorption coefficients of pure water," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. Moore, A. H. Barnard, I. Walsh, M. S. Twardowski, and G. C. Chang, "Correction and analysis of spectral absorption data taken with the WET Labs AC-S," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

Walsh, I.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. Moore, A. H. Barnard, I. Walsh, M. S. Twardowski, and G. C. Chang, "Correction and analysis of spectral absorption data taken with the WET Labs AC-S," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

Zaneveld, J. R.

W. S. Pegau, D. Grey, and J. R. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rhoades, A. Derr, C. Moore, and J. R. Zaneveld, "The AC-Spectra, an instrument for hyperspectral characterization of inherent optical properties in natural waters," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "The Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters," in Ocean Optics XII, S. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. Moore, A. H. Barnard, I. Walsh, M. S. Twardowski, and G. C. Chang, "Correction and analysis of spectral absorption data taken with the WET Labs AC-S," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

Zaneveld, R.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, R. Zaneveld, C. Moore, B. Rhodes, and R. Miller, "The hyper-spectral temperature and salinity dependent absorption coefficients of pure water," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Spectrosc (1)

J.-J. Max, M. Trudel, and C. Chapados, "Subtraction of the water spectra from the infrared spectrum of saline solutions," Appl. Spectrosc . 52, 234-239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. (1)

F. K. Lepple and F. J. Millero, "The isothermal compressibility of seawater near one atmosphere," Deep-Sea Res. 18, 1233-1254 (1971).

IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. (1)

E. L. Lewis, "The Practical Salinity Scale 1978 and its antecedents," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. OE-5, 3-8 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Educ. (1)

C. L. Braun and S. N. Smirnov, "Why is water blue," J. Chem. Educ. 70, 612-615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

V. S. Langford, A. J. McKinley, and T. I. Quickenden, "Temperature dependence of the visible-near-infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water," J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8916-8921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Chem. (1)

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling spectral absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM)," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "The Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters," in Ocean Optics XII, S. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, "The optical properties of pure water," in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 174-183 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

D. Eisenberg and W. Kauzmann, The Structure and Properties of Water (Oxford U. Press, 1969).

J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. Moore, A. H. Barnard, I. Walsh, M. S. Twardowski, and G. C. Chang, "Correction and analysis of spectral absorption data taken with the WET Labs AC-S," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

A. Morel, "Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater," in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N.G.Jerlov and E.Steeman, eds. (Academic, 1974), pp. 1-24.

B. Rhoades, A. Derr, C. Moore, and J. R. Zaneveld, "The AC-Spectra, an instrument for hyperspectral characterization of inherent optical properties in natural waters," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, R. Zaneveld, C. Moore, B. Rhodes, and R. Miller, "The hyper-spectral temperature and salinity dependent absorption coefficients of pure water," presented at Ocean Optics XVII, Fremantle, Australia, October 25-29, 2004.

M. E. Q. Pilson, An Introduction to the Chemistry of the Sea (Prentice-Hall, 1998).

B. A. Moffat, "The optical calibration of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory," Ph.D. dissertation (Queen's University, Canada, 2001).

F. Culkin, "The major constituents of sea water," in Chemical Oceanography, J.P.Riley and G.Skirrow, eds. (Academic, 1965), pp. 121-158.

A. Bricaud, Marine Optics and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France (personal communication, 2006).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Least-squares linear regression between temperature (°C) and absorption (m−1) at 740 nm (slope represents Ψ T ). (b) Least-squares linear regression of NaCl concentration and absorption (m−1) at 755 nm (slope represents an approximation of Ψ S , uncorrected for added molecular scattering from salts). The blank was Barnstead de-ionized water. The most pronounced effects on pure water absorption for temperature and salinity in the visible and NIR are exhibited at these wavelengths, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the AC-S bench-top setup used in salinity experiments.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature dependency of absorption by pure water, Ψ T (m−1 °C−1), using the AC-S (uncorrected for spectral smearing) and the pure water absorption values of Pope and Fry.[3] Arrows indicate the relationship between the locations of Ψ T and the absorption shoulders of pure water. For estimated uncertainties in Ψ T see Table 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Estimates of the salinity dependency of absorption by pure water ( Ψ ̂ s , m −1 S 1 ) for the absorption a and attenuation c channels of the AC-S. Estimates were derived from measurements with a 100 g kg−1 NaCl solution. Included are the Ψ S values of Pegau et al.[8] and Twardowski et al.,[9] measured using the AC-9 and solutions of artificial seawater. The increase in absorption with decreasing wavelength ≲500 nm in this study was found to be attributable to the molecular scattering of salt (see text). For estimated uncertainties see Table 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Salt dependency of absorption by liquid heavy water (D2O), Ψ s H (m−1 g−1 kg), for the absorption a and attenuation c channels of the AC-S using a NaCl solution. Estimated uncertainties averaged ∼±0.000 02 m−1 g−1 kg.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Salt dependency of absorption for NaCl solution ( Ψ ̂ s , m −1 S −1 ) , and NASW and ASW (Ψ S+CDOM, m−1 S−1). (b) Salt dependency of absorption for seawater samples after subtracting CDOM absorption spectra modeled with a power-law relationship (Ψ s ′, m−1 S−1). The parameter Ψ ̂ s is also plotted.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Final values of the hyperspectral temperature (Ψ T , m−1 °C−1) and salt (Ψ S , m−1 S−1) dependency of absorption by pure liquid water after corrections for spectral smearing and the molecular scattering by salts. The open circles represent the Ψ T values of Langford et al.[11] (b) Comparison of the salt dependency of absorption by pure liquid water (Ψ S , m−1 S−1) and the first derivative of the temperature dependency of absorption by pure liquid water [−(dΨ T ∕dλ), m−1 °C−1 λ−1].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Difference (delta absorption, m−1) between the clear ocean water values of Smith and Baker[26] (SBsw) and the Pope and Fry[3] pure water values with the addition of the Ψ S values of this study for salinity of 36 (PFsw ).

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Hyperspectral Temperature Dependences (Ψ T , m−1 °C−1) for the Absorption of Pure Water and Salinity Dependencies ( Ψ ^ s , m −1 S 1 ) for the Attenuation (Subscript c) and Absorption (Subscript a) of Pure Water Measured with the AC-S

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Table 2 Table 1. (Continued)

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Table 3 Table 1. (Continued)

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Table 4 Hyperspectral Temperature (Ψ T , m−1 °C−1) and Salinity (Ψ s , m−1 S−1) Dependencies for the Absorption of Pure Water at 2 nm Wavelength Steps (λ, nm) a

Equations (3)

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a tcorr ( λ ) = a meas ( λ ) ( T i T norm ) * Ψ T ( λ ) ,
a scorr ( λ ) = a meas ( λ ) S i * Ψ ̂ s , a ( λ ) ,
c scorr ( λ ) = c meas ( λ ) S i * Ψ ̂ s , c ( λ ) ,

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