Abstract

An analysis of different polyvinyl alcohol films dyed with Malachite Green is presented. Absorbance and diffraction efficiency of holographic gratings are compared, taking as a parameter the molecular weight and hydrolysis degree of the polymer. It is observed that, using the same dye concentration, the absorption coefficient of the films increases as the molecular weight increases. The absorbance of these plates can be modified when exposed to UV light. In addition, it is found that for holographic recording there is an optimal dye–polymer system film.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Nassau, The Physics and Chemistry of Color (Wiley, 1983).
  2. M. Klessinger and J. Michl, Excited States and Photochemistry of Organic Molecules (VCH, 1995).
  3. R. A. Lessard, A. Tork, C. Lafond, M. Bolte, and A. Ritcey, "Characterization of dye-doped PMMA, CA, and PS films as recording materials," in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices II, D.D.Bradley and B.Kippelen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3939,94-104 (2000).
  4. M. Mazakova and M. Pantcheva, "Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol for holographic recording," J. Inf. Rec. Mater. 18, 191-196 (1990).
  5. R. Grzymala and T. Keinonen, "Self-enhancement of holographic gratings in dichromated gelatin and polyvinyl alcohol films," Appl. Opt. 37, 6623-6626 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Lelievre and J. J. A. Couture, "Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol films used as a novel polarization real-time holographic recording material," Appl. Opt. 29, 4384-4391 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Barikani, E. Simova, and M. Kavehrad, "Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol as a real-time hologram recording material: some observations and discussions," Appl. Opt. 34, 2172-2179 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Calixto, "Dry polymer for holographic recording," Appl. Opt. 26, 3904-3910 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Garcia, I. Pascual, and A. Fimia, "Diffraction efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio of diffuse-object holograms in real time in polyvinyl alcohol photopolymers," Appl. Opt. 38, 5548-5551 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Ortuño, S. Gallego, C. García, C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, and I. Pascual, "Optimization of a 1 mm thick PVA/acrylamide recording material to obtain holographic memories: method of preparation and holographic properties," Appl. Phys. B 76, 851-857 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Weiss, E. Millul, and A. A. Friesem, "Photopolymeric holographic recording media: in-situ and real-time characterization," in Holographic Materials II, T.J.Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 2688,11-21 (1996).
  12. M. Ushamani, K. Sreekumar, C. S. Kartha, and R. Joseph, "Fabrication and characterization of methylene-blue-doped polyvinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid blend for holographic recording," Appl. Opt. 43, 3697-3703 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Tanaka, A. Horikoshi, H. Fujimara, and K. Nakagawa, "Phase conjugation in saturable absorbing dye films by degenerate four-wave mixing and holographic processes using nanosecond pulse and CW lasers," Opt. Rev. 9, 106-111 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. M. Hassan and N. A. Peppas, "Structure and applications of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels produced by conventional crosslinking or by freezing/thawing methods," Adv. Polym. Sci. 153, 37-65 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. M. Abedin, J. Y. Ye, H. Inouye, T. Hattori, H. Sumi, and H. Nakatsuka, "Diffusive torsional dynamics of malachite green molecules in solid matrices probed by fluorescence decay," J. Chem. Phys. 103, 6414-6425 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Zollinger, Color Chemistry (VCH, 1991).
  17. M. Irie, "Properties and applications of photoresponsive polymers," Pure Appl. Chem. 62, 1495-1502 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z.-Z. Gu, A. Fujishima, and O. Sato, "Photochemically tunable colloidal crystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12387-12388 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Umeda, M. Harada-Shiba, K. Uchida, and Y. Nakayama, "Photo-control of the polyplexes formation between DNA and photo-cation generatable water-soluble polymers," Curr. Drug Delivery 2, 207-214 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. V. Jarikov and D. C. Neckers, "Photochemistry of triarylmethane dye leuconitriles," in Advances in Photochemistry, D.C.Neckers, G.von Bunau, and W.S.Jenks, eds. (Wiley, 2001), pp. 1-39.
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Umeda, M. Harada-Shiba, K. Uchida, and Y. Nakayama, "Photo-control of the polyplexes formation between DNA and photo-cation generatable water-soluble polymers," Curr. Drug Delivery 2, 207-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Ortuño, S. Gallego, C. García, C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, and I. Pascual, "Optimization of a 1 mm thick PVA/acrylamide recording material to obtain holographic memories: method of preparation and holographic properties," Appl. Phys. B 76, 851-857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Tanaka, A. Horikoshi, H. Fujimara, and K. Nakagawa, "Phase conjugation in saturable absorbing dye films by degenerate four-wave mixing and holographic processes using nanosecond pulse and CW lasers," Opt. Rev. 9, 106-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. M. Hassan and N. A. Peppas, "Structure and applications of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels produced by conventional crosslinking or by freezing/thawing methods," Adv. Polym. Sci. 153, 37-65 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Z. Gu, A. Fujishima, and O. Sato, "Photochemically tunable colloidal crystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12387-12388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1995 (2)

M. Barikani, E. Simova, and M. Kavehrad, "Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol as a real-time hologram recording material: some observations and discussions," Appl. Opt. 34, 2172-2179 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Abedin, J. Y. Ye, H. Inouye, T. Hattori, H. Sumi, and H. Nakatsuka, "Diffusive torsional dynamics of malachite green molecules in solid matrices probed by fluorescence decay," J. Chem. Phys. 103, 6414-6425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

M. Irie, "Properties and applications of photoresponsive polymers," Pure Appl. Chem. 62, 1495-1502 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazakova and M. Pantcheva, "Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol for holographic recording," J. Inf. Rec. Mater. 18, 191-196 (1990).

S. Lelievre and J. J. A. Couture, "Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol films used as a novel polarization real-time holographic recording material," Appl. Opt. 29, 4384-4391 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

Abedin, K. M.

K. M. Abedin, J. Y. Ye, H. Inouye, T. Hattori, H. Sumi, and H. Nakatsuka, "Diffusive torsional dynamics of malachite green molecules in solid matrices probed by fluorescence decay," J. Chem. Phys. 103, 6414-6425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barikani, M.

Beléndez, A.

M. Ortuño, S. Gallego, C. García, C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, and I. Pascual, "Optimization of a 1 mm thick PVA/acrylamide recording material to obtain holographic memories: method of preparation and holographic properties," Appl. Phys. B 76, 851-857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bolte, M.

R. A. Lessard, A. Tork, C. Lafond, M. Bolte, and A. Ritcey, "Characterization of dye-doped PMMA, CA, and PS films as recording materials," in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices II, D.D.Bradley and B.Kippelen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3939,94-104 (2000).

Calixto, S.

Couture, J. J. A.

Fimia, A.

Friesem, A. A.

V. Weiss, E. Millul, and A. A. Friesem, "Photopolymeric holographic recording media: in-situ and real-time characterization," in Holographic Materials II, T.J.Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 2688,11-21 (1996).

Fujimara, H.

H. Tanaka, A. Horikoshi, H. Fujimara, and K. Nakagawa, "Phase conjugation in saturable absorbing dye films by degenerate four-wave mixing and holographic processes using nanosecond pulse and CW lasers," Opt. Rev. 9, 106-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujishima, A.

Z.-Z. Gu, A. Fujishima, and O. Sato, "Photochemically tunable colloidal crystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12387-12388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gallego, S.

M. Ortuño, S. Gallego, C. García, C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, and I. Pascual, "Optimization of a 1 mm thick PVA/acrylamide recording material to obtain holographic memories: method of preparation and holographic properties," Appl. Phys. B 76, 851-857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, C.

García, C.

M. Ortuño, S. Gallego, C. García, C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, and I. Pascual, "Optimization of a 1 mm thick PVA/acrylamide recording material to obtain holographic memories: method of preparation and holographic properties," Appl. Phys. B 76, 851-857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grzymala, R.

Gu, Z.-Z.

Z.-Z. Gu, A. Fujishima, and O. Sato, "Photochemically tunable colloidal crystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12387-12388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harada-Shiba, M.

M. Umeda, M. Harada-Shiba, K. Uchida, and Y. Nakayama, "Photo-control of the polyplexes formation between DNA and photo-cation generatable water-soluble polymers," Curr. Drug Delivery 2, 207-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hassan, C. M.

C. M. Hassan and N. A. Peppas, "Structure and applications of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels produced by conventional crosslinking or by freezing/thawing methods," Adv. Polym. Sci. 153, 37-65 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, T.

K. M. Abedin, J. Y. Ye, H. Inouye, T. Hattori, H. Sumi, and H. Nakatsuka, "Diffusive torsional dynamics of malachite green molecules in solid matrices probed by fluorescence decay," J. Chem. Phys. 103, 6414-6425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Horikoshi, A.

H. Tanaka, A. Horikoshi, H. Fujimara, and K. Nakagawa, "Phase conjugation in saturable absorbing dye films by degenerate four-wave mixing and holographic processes using nanosecond pulse and CW lasers," Opt. Rev. 9, 106-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, H.

K. M. Abedin, J. Y. Ye, H. Inouye, T. Hattori, H. Sumi, and H. Nakatsuka, "Diffusive torsional dynamics of malachite green molecules in solid matrices probed by fluorescence decay," J. Chem. Phys. 103, 6414-6425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Irie, M.

M. Irie, "Properties and applications of photoresponsive polymers," Pure Appl. Chem. 62, 1495-1502 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jarikov, V. V.

V. V. Jarikov and D. C. Neckers, "Photochemistry of triarylmethane dye leuconitriles," in Advances in Photochemistry, D.C.Neckers, G.von Bunau, and W.S.Jenks, eds. (Wiley, 2001), pp. 1-39.
[CrossRef]

Joseph, R.

Kartha, C. S.

Kavehrad, M.

Keinonen, T.

Klessinger, M.

M. Klessinger and J. Michl, Excited States and Photochemistry of Organic Molecules (VCH, 1995).

Lafond, C.

R. A. Lessard, A. Tork, C. Lafond, M. Bolte, and A. Ritcey, "Characterization of dye-doped PMMA, CA, and PS films as recording materials," in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices II, D.D.Bradley and B.Kippelen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3939,94-104 (2000).

Lelievre, S.

Lessard, R. A.

R. A. Lessard, A. Tork, C. Lafond, M. Bolte, and A. Ritcey, "Characterization of dye-doped PMMA, CA, and PS films as recording materials," in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices II, D.D.Bradley and B.Kippelen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3939,94-104 (2000).

Mazakova, M.

M. Mazakova and M. Pantcheva, "Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol for holographic recording," J. Inf. Rec. Mater. 18, 191-196 (1990).

Michl, J.

M. Klessinger and J. Michl, Excited States and Photochemistry of Organic Molecules (VCH, 1995).

Millul, E.

V. Weiss, E. Millul, and A. A. Friesem, "Photopolymeric holographic recording media: in-situ and real-time characterization," in Holographic Materials II, T.J.Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 2688,11-21 (1996).

Nakagawa, K.

H. Tanaka, A. Horikoshi, H. Fujimara, and K. Nakagawa, "Phase conjugation in saturable absorbing dye films by degenerate four-wave mixing and holographic processes using nanosecond pulse and CW lasers," Opt. Rev. 9, 106-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, H.

K. M. Abedin, J. Y. Ye, H. Inouye, T. Hattori, H. Sumi, and H. Nakatsuka, "Diffusive torsional dynamics of malachite green molecules in solid matrices probed by fluorescence decay," J. Chem. Phys. 103, 6414-6425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, Y.

M. Umeda, M. Harada-Shiba, K. Uchida, and Y. Nakayama, "Photo-control of the polyplexes formation between DNA and photo-cation generatable water-soluble polymers," Curr. Drug Delivery 2, 207-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nassau, K.

K. Nassau, The Physics and Chemistry of Color (Wiley, 1983).

Neckers, D. C.

V. V. Jarikov and D. C. Neckers, "Photochemistry of triarylmethane dye leuconitriles," in Advances in Photochemistry, D.C.Neckers, G.von Bunau, and W.S.Jenks, eds. (Wiley, 2001), pp. 1-39.
[CrossRef]

Neipp, C.

M. Ortuño, S. Gallego, C. García, C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, and I. Pascual, "Optimization of a 1 mm thick PVA/acrylamide recording material to obtain holographic memories: method of preparation and holographic properties," Appl. Phys. B 76, 851-857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ortuño, M.

M. Ortuño, S. Gallego, C. García, C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, and I. Pascual, "Optimization of a 1 mm thick PVA/acrylamide recording material to obtain holographic memories: method of preparation and holographic properties," Appl. Phys. B 76, 851-857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pantcheva, M.

M. Mazakova and M. Pantcheva, "Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol for holographic recording," J. Inf. Rec. Mater. 18, 191-196 (1990).

Pascual, I.

M. Ortuño, S. Gallego, C. García, C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, and I. Pascual, "Optimization of a 1 mm thick PVA/acrylamide recording material to obtain holographic memories: method of preparation and holographic properties," Appl. Phys. B 76, 851-857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Garcia, I. Pascual, and A. Fimia, "Diffraction efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio of diffuse-object holograms in real time in polyvinyl alcohol photopolymers," Appl. Opt. 38, 5548-5551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peppas, N. A.

C. M. Hassan and N. A. Peppas, "Structure and applications of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels produced by conventional crosslinking or by freezing/thawing methods," Adv. Polym. Sci. 153, 37-65 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ritcey, A.

R. A. Lessard, A. Tork, C. Lafond, M. Bolte, and A. Ritcey, "Characterization of dye-doped PMMA, CA, and PS films as recording materials," in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices II, D.D.Bradley and B.Kippelen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3939,94-104 (2000).

Sato, O.

Z.-Z. Gu, A. Fujishima, and O. Sato, "Photochemically tunable colloidal crystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12387-12388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

Sreekumar, K.

Sumi, H.

K. M. Abedin, J. Y. Ye, H. Inouye, T. Hattori, H. Sumi, and H. Nakatsuka, "Diffusive torsional dynamics of malachite green molecules in solid matrices probed by fluorescence decay," J. Chem. Phys. 103, 6414-6425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

H. Tanaka, A. Horikoshi, H. Fujimara, and K. Nakagawa, "Phase conjugation in saturable absorbing dye films by degenerate four-wave mixing and holographic processes using nanosecond pulse and CW lasers," Opt. Rev. 9, 106-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tork, A.

R. A. Lessard, A. Tork, C. Lafond, M. Bolte, and A. Ritcey, "Characterization of dye-doped PMMA, CA, and PS films as recording materials," in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices II, D.D.Bradley and B.Kippelen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3939,94-104 (2000).

Uchida, K.

M. Umeda, M. Harada-Shiba, K. Uchida, and Y. Nakayama, "Photo-control of the polyplexes formation between DNA and photo-cation generatable water-soluble polymers," Curr. Drug Delivery 2, 207-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Umeda, M.

M. Umeda, M. Harada-Shiba, K. Uchida, and Y. Nakayama, "Photo-control of the polyplexes formation between DNA and photo-cation generatable water-soluble polymers," Curr. Drug Delivery 2, 207-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ushamani, M.

Weiss, V.

V. Weiss, E. Millul, and A. A. Friesem, "Photopolymeric holographic recording media: in-situ and real-time characterization," in Holographic Materials II, T.J.Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 2688,11-21 (1996).

Ye, J. Y.

K. M. Abedin, J. Y. Ye, H. Inouye, T. Hattori, H. Sumi, and H. Nakatsuka, "Diffusive torsional dynamics of malachite green molecules in solid matrices probed by fluorescence decay," J. Chem. Phys. 103, 6414-6425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zollinger, H.

H. Zollinger, Color Chemistry (VCH, 1991).

Adv. Polym. Sci. (1)

C. M. Hassan and N. A. Peppas, "Structure and applications of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels produced by conventional crosslinking or by freezing/thawing methods," Adv. Polym. Sci. 153, 37-65 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Ortuño, S. Gallego, C. García, C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, and I. Pascual, "Optimization of a 1 mm thick PVA/acrylamide recording material to obtain holographic memories: method of preparation and holographic properties," Appl. Phys. B 76, 851-857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Drug Delivery (1)

M. Umeda, M. Harada-Shiba, K. Uchida, and Y. Nakayama, "Photo-control of the polyplexes formation between DNA and photo-cation generatable water-soluble polymers," Curr. Drug Delivery 2, 207-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

Z.-Z. Gu, A. Fujishima, and O. Sato, "Photochemically tunable colloidal crystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12387-12388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

K. M. Abedin, J. Y. Ye, H. Inouye, T. Hattori, H. Sumi, and H. Nakatsuka, "Diffusive torsional dynamics of malachite green molecules in solid matrices probed by fluorescence decay," J. Chem. Phys. 103, 6414-6425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Inf. Rec. Mater. (1)

M. Mazakova and M. Pantcheva, "Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol for holographic recording," J. Inf. Rec. Mater. 18, 191-196 (1990).

Opt. Rev. (1)

H. Tanaka, A. Horikoshi, H. Fujimara, and K. Nakagawa, "Phase conjugation in saturable absorbing dye films by degenerate four-wave mixing and holographic processes using nanosecond pulse and CW lasers," Opt. Rev. 9, 106-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Chem. (1)

M. Irie, "Properties and applications of photoresponsive polymers," Pure Appl. Chem. 62, 1495-1502 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. Zollinger, Color Chemistry (VCH, 1991).

K. Nassau, The Physics and Chemistry of Color (Wiley, 1983).

M. Klessinger and J. Michl, Excited States and Photochemistry of Organic Molecules (VCH, 1995).

R. A. Lessard, A. Tork, C. Lafond, M. Bolte, and A. Ritcey, "Characterization of dye-doped PMMA, CA, and PS films as recording materials," in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices II, D.D.Bradley and B.Kippelen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3939,94-104 (2000).

V. V. Jarikov and D. C. Neckers, "Photochemistry of triarylmethane dye leuconitriles," in Advances in Photochemistry, D.C.Neckers, G.von Bunau, and W.S.Jenks, eds. (Wiley, 2001), pp. 1-39.
[CrossRef]

V. Weiss, E. Millul, and A. A. Friesem, "Photopolymeric holographic recording media: in-situ and real-time characterization," in Holographic Materials II, T.J.Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE 2688,11-21 (1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption coefficient k as a function of wavelength λ for the different PVA films. MW and HD (PH, partially hydrolyzed; H, fully hydrolyzed) are shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Induced photobleaching by different wavelengths in a partially hydrolyzed PVA film with MW = 30,000–70,000 and dye concentration = 0.01% by weight. Power densities are P λ=366 nm =800 μW∕cm2, P λ=413 nm = 18 mW∕cm2, and P λ=633 nm = 30 mW∕cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Holographic setup to measure the diffraction efficiency evolution obtained while a holographic grating is recorded. BS, beam splitter; M, mirror; F, PVA sample; D, photodetector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency evolution for the different PVA films with constant dye concentration (0.02% by weight).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction efficiency evolution in a fully hydrolyzed PVA film (MW is 70,000–100,000 and dye concentration is 0.01% by weight) with different UV exposures (exp) (P λ=366 nm = 800 μW∕cm2).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Properties of PVA and Films under Investigation

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