Abstract

A refractometric sensor based on a phase-shifted long-period fiber grating written by electric-arc discharges is presented. Transmission and reflective configurations for refractive index measurements are studied. It is observed that the reflective topology permits better performance compared with the transmission one, which is the approach normally utilized in the context of long-period fiber sensing. The resolution achieved in the measurement of refractive index enables the application of this sensing head structure in demanding situations, such as the measurement of the level of salinity of water.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors:characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-61 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, and V. Sulimov, "High-temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings produced using an electric arc," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1574-1579 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Savin, M. J. K. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and H. J. Shaw, "Tunable mechanically induced long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 25, 710-712 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Commun. 164, 27-31 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. H. Lee, Y. Liu, S. B. Lee, S. S. Choi, and J. N. Jang, "Displacements of the resonant peaks of a long-period fiber grating induced by a change of ambient refractive index," Opt. Lett. 22, 1769-1771 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fibre gratings to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, "Study of in fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on two spaced 3-dB long period gratings surrounded by refractive index higher than that of silica," Opt. Commun. 180, 255-262 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. L. Swart, "Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576-1580 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, "Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1596-1598 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Humbert and A. Malki, "High performance bandpass filters based on electric arc-induced π-shifted long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 1506-1507 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, "Fibre Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature," Opt. Eng. 43, 299-304 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. O. Esteban, M. Cruz-Navarrete, A. González-Cano, and E. Bernabeu, "Measurement of the degree of salinity of water with a fiber-optic sensor," Appl. Opt. 38, 5267-5271 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Quan and E. S. Fry, "Empirical equation for the index of refraction of seawater," Appl. Opt. 34, 3477-3480 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Rego, R. Falate, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, P. V. S. Marques, H. M. Salgado, and J. L. Santos, "Simultaneous temperature and strain measurements based on arc-induced long-period fiber gratings," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 679-682 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Rego, R. Falate, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, P. V. S. Marques, H. M. Salgado, and J. L. Santos, "Simultaneous temperature and strain measurements based on arc-induced long-period fiber gratings," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 679-682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, "Fibre Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature," Opt. Eng. 43, 299-304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Swart, "Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576-1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors:characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Humbert and A. Malki, "High performance bandpass filters based on electric arc-induced π-shifted long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 1506-1507 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, "Study of in fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on two spaced 3-dB long period gratings surrounded by refractive index higher than that of silica," Opt. Commun. 180, 255-262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Savin, M. J. K. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and H. J. Shaw, "Tunable mechanically induced long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 25, 710-712 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fibre gratings to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Commun. 164, 27-31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Esteban, M. Cruz-Navarrete, A. González-Cano, and E. Bernabeu, "Measurement of the degree of salinity of water with a fiber-optic sensor," Appl. Opt. 38, 5267-5271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, "Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1596-1598 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T. D. P.

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Commun. 164, 27-31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernabeu, E.

Bhatia, V.

Bucholtz, F.

Chiang, K. S.

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, "Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1596-1598 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. S.

Cruz-Navarrete, M.

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E.

Digonnet, M. J. K.

Douay, M.

O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, "Study of in fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on two spaced 3-dB long period gratings surrounded by refractive index higher than that of silica," Opt. Commun. 180, 255-262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Duhem, O.

O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, "Study of in fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on two spaced 3-dB long period gratings surrounded by refractive index higher than that of silica," Opt. Commun. 180, 255-262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Esteban, O.

Fabris, J. L.

G. Rego, R. Falate, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, P. V. S. Marques, H. M. Salgado, and J. L. Santos, "Simultaneous temperature and strain measurements based on arc-induced long-period fiber gratings," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 679-682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Falate, R.

G. Rego, R. Falate, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, P. V. S. Marques, H. M. Salgado, and J. L. Santos, "Simultaneous temperature and strain measurements based on arc-induced long-period fiber gratings," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 679-682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frazão, O.

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, "Fibre Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature," Opt. Eng. 43, 299-304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Gaylord, T. K.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

González-Cano, A.

Gwandu, B. A. L.

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henninot, J. F.

O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, "Study of in fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on two spaced 3-dB long period gratings surrounded by refractive index higher than that of silica," Opt. Commun. 180, 255-262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fibre gratings to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Humbert, G.

G. Humbert and A. Malki, "High performance bandpass filters based on electric arc-induced π-shifted long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 1506-1507 (2003).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors:characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. N.

Jiang, S.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fibre gratings to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kalinowski, H. J.

G. Rego, R. Falate, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, P. V. S. Marques, H. M. Salgado, and J. L. Santos, "Simultaneous temperature and strain measurements based on arc-induced long-period fiber gratings," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 679-682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ke, H.

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, "Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1596-1598 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

Kino, G. S.

Kosinski, S. G.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krug, P. A.

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, S. B.

Liu, Y.

Malki, A.

G. Humbert and A. Malki, "High performance bandpass filters based on electric arc-induced π-shifted long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 1506-1507 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marques, P. V. S.

G. Rego, R. Falate, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, P. V. S. Marques, H. M. Salgado, and J. L. Santos, "Simultaneous temperature and strain measurements based on arc-induced long-period fiber gratings," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 679-682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O.

Ouellette, F.

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

Peng, J. H.

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, "Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1596-1598 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, D. A.

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, "Fibre Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature," Opt. Eng. 43, 299-304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poladian, L.

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Quan, X.

Rego, G.

G. Rego, R. Falate, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, P. V. S. Marques, H. M. Salgado, and J. L. Santos, "Simultaneous temperature and strain measurements based on arc-induced long-period fiber gratings," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 679-682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, and V. Sulimov, "High-temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings produced using an electric arc," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1574-1579 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salgado, H. M.

G. Rego, R. Falate, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, P. V. S. Marques, H. M. Salgado, and J. L. Santos, "Simultaneous temperature and strain measurements based on arc-induced long-period fiber gratings," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 679-682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

G. Rego, R. Falate, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, P. V. S. Marques, H. M. Salgado, and J. L. Santos, "Simultaneous temperature and strain measurements based on arc-induced long-period fiber gratings," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 679-682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, "Fibre Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature," Opt. Eng. 43, 299-304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Savin, S.

Shaw, H. J.

Shi, W.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fibre gratings to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X.

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fibre gratings to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sulimov, V.

Swart, P. L.

P. L. Swart, "Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576-1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors:characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, J. A. R.

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Commun. 164, 27-31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Commun. 164, 27-31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fibre gratings to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (5)

G. Humbert and A. Malki, "High performance bandpass filters based on electric arc-induced π-shifted long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 1506-1507 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fibre gratings to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fibre," Electron. Lett. 38, 695-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang, and J. H. Peng, "Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1596-1598 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors:characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Swart, "Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576-1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Commun. 164, 27-31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, "Study of in fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on two spaced 3-dB long period gratings surrounded by refractive index higher than that of silica," Opt. Commun. 180, 255-262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, "Fibre Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature," Opt. Eng. 43, 299-304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Rego, R. Falate, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, P. V. S. Marques, H. M. Salgado, and J. L. Santos, "Simultaneous temperature and strain measurements based on arc-induced long-period fiber gratings," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 679-682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectrum of the LPFG structure before the phase shift to be applied (dotted curve) and at the final of the writing process (solid curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup used to test sensing heads based on a phase-shifted LPFG in (a) transmission and (b) reflective configurations (the parameter under measurement is the refractive index of a liquid).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index wavelength response of the PS-LPFG based sensing head operating in the transmission configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison between the transmission spectrum (dotted curve) and the reflective spectrum (solid curve) of the phase-shifted LPFG structure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of the returned optical power at the wavelength 1552.8 nm, as a function of the refractive index of the external liquid, for the transmission and reflective topologies.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wavelength stability obtained during the refractive index measurements when the transmission and reflective configurations are used.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Wavelength sensitivities of the three PS-LPFG resonances, in the reflective configuration, when measuring refractive index in a range corresponding to a salinity level from zero to that present in seawater.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Experimental setup to measure the water salinity level through detection of measurand induced optical power variations (also shown is the relative position of the PS-LPFG spectral transfer function and of the laser line in one of the measurement situations).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Variation of the detected optical power with the laser line at 1550 nm when the refractive index of water changes.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Normalized optical power variation [(P 1 − P 2)∕ (P 1 + P 2)] versus refractive index of water (P 1 → detected optical power at λ1 = 1537.8 nm; P 2 → detected optical power at λ2 = 1552.8 nm).

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