Abstract

Characterization of fluorescence emissions from cells often leads to conclusive results in the early detection of cellular abnormalities. Cellular abnormalities can be characterized by their difference in the fluorescence lifetime, which may be less than nanoseconds. A sensitive frequency domain technique, also called a phase-resolved fluorescence imaging technique, is proposed in which fluorescence emissions at the same wavelengths can more effectively be separated with subnanosecond resolution in their lifetime difference. The system configuration is optimized by incorporating even-step phase shifting in the homodyne-assisted signal-processing concept along with the phase-resolved fluorescence technique to eliminate the dc offsets of emission. Experiments are carried out with simulated samples composed of two fluorescence emissions of the same wavelength but with different lifetime values. Suppression of either of the fluorescence emissions by selective imaging of the other validates the superiority of the proposed technique. Hence, this technique can potentially be applied in the early detection of cellular abnormalities.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, 1999).
  2. G. G. Guilbault, Fluorescence: Theory, Instrumentation and Practice (Edward Arnold, 1967).
  3. J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Leriche, N. Ikeda, and B. Palcic, "Fluorescence imaging of early lung cancer," in Optical Biopsy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging,Proc. SPIE 2324, 2-8 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Erimberger, D. Zaak, H. Stepp, R. Knuchel, R. Baumgartner, P. Schneede, N. Schmeller, and A. Hofstetter, "Auto fluorescence imaging to optimise 5-ALA-induced fluorescence endoscopy of bladder carcinoma," Urology 58, 372-375 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Sipior, G. M. Carter, J. R. Lakowicz, and G. Rao, "Blue light-emitting diode demonstrated as an ultraviolet excitation source for nanosecond phase-modulation fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2666-2670 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Arakia and H. Misawa, "Light emitting diode-based nanosecond ultraviolet light source for fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5469-5472 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. G. Morgan, Y. Hua, A. C. Mitchell, J. G. Murray, and A. D. Boardman, "A compact frequency domain fluorometer with a directly modulated deuterium light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 41-47 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  10. Z. Zhang, K. T. V. Grattan, and A. W. Palmer, "Phase-locked detection of fluorescence lifetime," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2531-2540 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  11. V. Venkatesh and V. Srinivas, "A closed loop scheme for phase-sensitive fluorometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3750-3754 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. V. Krishnan, H. Saitoh, H. Terada, V. E. Centonze, and B. Hermana, "Development of a multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2714-2721 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. R. Lakowicz and K. W. Berndt, "Lifetime-selective fluorescence imaging using an rf phase-sensitive camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1727-1734 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  14. U. S. Dinish, Z. X. Chao, A. Singh, L. K. Seah, and V. M. Murukeshan, "Formulation and implementation of phase-resolved optical technique for latent fingerprint imaging: theoretical and experimental analysis," Appl. Opt. 44, 297-304 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. L. B. Mcgown and D. W. Millican, "Multifrequency phase-resolution for total luminescence spectroscopy," in Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy in Biochemistry,Proc. SPIE 909, 360-365 (1988).
  16. Z. X. Chao, U. S. Dinish, L. K. Seah, and V. M. Murukeshan, "Homodyne and heterodyne signal processing assisted phase resolved optical technique for latent fingerprint imaging: a theoretical study," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 119-129 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  17. B. C. MacDonald, S. J. Lvin, and H. Patterson, "Correction of fluorescence inner filter effects and the partitioning of pyrene to dissolved organic carbon," Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 155-162 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, J. M. D. Cleary, R. M. D. Prudente, and E. M. D. Celmer, "Time-resolved fluorescence of benign and malignant breast tissues," Proc. SPIE 1599, 81-84 (1991).
    [Crossref]

2005 (2)

Z. X. Chao, U. S. Dinish, L. K. Seah, and V. M. Murukeshan, "Homodyne and heterodyne signal processing assisted phase resolved optical technique for latent fingerprint imaging: a theoretical study," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 119-129 (2005).
[Crossref]

U. S. Dinish, Z. X. Chao, A. Singh, L. K. Seah, and V. M. Murukeshan, "Formulation and implementation of phase-resolved optical technique for latent fingerprint imaging: theoretical and experimental analysis," Appl. Opt. 44, 297-304 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. V. Krishnan, H. Saitoh, H. Terada, V. E. Centonze, and B. Hermana, "Development of a multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2714-2721 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. Erimberger, D. Zaak, H. Stepp, R. Knuchel, R. Baumgartner, P. Schneede, N. Schmeller, and A. Hofstetter, "Auto fluorescence imaging to optimise 5-ALA-induced fluorescence endoscopy of bladder carcinoma," Urology 58, 372-375 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

J. Sipior, G. M. Carter, J. R. Lakowicz, and G. Rao, "Blue light-emitting diode demonstrated as an ultraviolet excitation source for nanosecond phase-modulation fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2666-2670 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. C. MacDonald, S. J. Lvin, and H. Patterson, "Correction of fluorescence inner filter effects and the partitioning of pyrene to dissolved organic carbon," Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 155-162 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

C. G. Morgan, Y. Hua, A. C. Mitchell, J. G. Murray, and A. D. Boardman, "A compact frequency domain fluorometer with a directly modulated deuterium light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 41-47 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

T. Arakia and H. Misawa, "Light emitting diode-based nanosecond ultraviolet light source for fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5469-5472 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Leriche, N. Ikeda, and B. Palcic, "Fluorescence imaging of early lung cancer," in Optical Biopsy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging,Proc. SPIE 2324, 2-8 (1995).
[Crossref]

V. Venkatesh and V. Srinivas, "A closed loop scheme for phase-sensitive fluorometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3750-3754 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

Z. Zhang, K. T. V. Grattan, and A. W. Palmer, "Phase-locked detection of fluorescence lifetime," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2531-2540 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

J. R. Lakowicz and K. W. Berndt, "Lifetime-selective fluorescence imaging using an rf phase-sensitive camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1727-1734 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, J. M. D. Cleary, R. M. D. Prudente, and E. M. D. Celmer, "Time-resolved fluorescence of benign and malignant breast tissues," Proc. SPIE 1599, 81-84 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

L. B. Mcgown and D. W. Millican, "Multifrequency phase-resolution for total luminescence spectroscopy," in Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy in Biochemistry,Proc. SPIE 909, 360-365 (1988).

Alfano, R. R.

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, J. M. D. Cleary, R. M. D. Prudente, and E. M. D. Celmer, "Time-resolved fluorescence of benign and malignant breast tissues," Proc. SPIE 1599, 81-84 (1991).
[Crossref]

Arakia, T.

T. Arakia and H. Misawa, "Light emitting diode-based nanosecond ultraviolet light source for fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5469-5472 (1995).
[Crossref]

Baumgartner, R.

D. Erimberger, D. Zaak, H. Stepp, R. Knuchel, R. Baumgartner, P. Schneede, N. Schmeller, and A. Hofstetter, "Auto fluorescence imaging to optimise 5-ALA-induced fluorescence endoscopy of bladder carcinoma," Urology 58, 372-375 (2001).
[Crossref]

Berndt, K. W.

J. R. Lakowicz and K. W. Berndt, "Lifetime-selective fluorescence imaging using an rf phase-sensitive camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1727-1734 (1991).
[Crossref]

Boardman, A. D.

C. G. Morgan, Y. Hua, A. C. Mitchell, J. G. Murray, and A. D. Boardman, "A compact frequency domain fluorometer with a directly modulated deuterium light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 41-47 (1996).
[Crossref]

Carter, G. M.

J. Sipior, G. M. Carter, J. R. Lakowicz, and G. Rao, "Blue light-emitting diode demonstrated as an ultraviolet excitation source for nanosecond phase-modulation fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2666-2670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Celmer, E. M. D.

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, J. M. D. Cleary, R. M. D. Prudente, and E. M. D. Celmer, "Time-resolved fluorescence of benign and malignant breast tissues," Proc. SPIE 1599, 81-84 (1991).
[Crossref]

Centonze, V. E.

R. V. Krishnan, H. Saitoh, H. Terada, V. E. Centonze, and B. Hermana, "Development of a multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2714-2721 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chao, Z. X.

Z. X. Chao, U. S. Dinish, L. K. Seah, and V. M. Murukeshan, "Homodyne and heterodyne signal processing assisted phase resolved optical technique for latent fingerprint imaging: a theoretical study," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 119-129 (2005).
[Crossref]

U. S. Dinish, Z. X. Chao, A. Singh, L. K. Seah, and V. M. Murukeshan, "Formulation and implementation of phase-resolved optical technique for latent fingerprint imaging: theoretical and experimental analysis," Appl. Opt. 44, 297-304 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cleary, J. M. D.

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, J. M. D. Cleary, R. M. D. Prudente, and E. M. D. Celmer, "Time-resolved fluorescence of benign and malignant breast tissues," Proc. SPIE 1599, 81-84 (1991).
[Crossref]

Das, B. B.

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, J. M. D. Cleary, R. M. D. Prudente, and E. M. D. Celmer, "Time-resolved fluorescence of benign and malignant breast tissues," Proc. SPIE 1599, 81-84 (1991).
[Crossref]

Dinish, U. S.

U. S. Dinish, Z. X. Chao, A. Singh, L. K. Seah, and V. M. Murukeshan, "Formulation and implementation of phase-resolved optical technique for latent fingerprint imaging: theoretical and experimental analysis," Appl. Opt. 44, 297-304 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. X. Chao, U. S. Dinish, L. K. Seah, and V. M. Murukeshan, "Homodyne and heterodyne signal processing assisted phase resolved optical technique for latent fingerprint imaging: a theoretical study," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 119-129 (2005).
[Crossref]

Eppstein, M. J.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erimberger, D.

D. Erimberger, D. Zaak, H. Stepp, R. Knuchel, R. Baumgartner, P. Schneede, N. Schmeller, and A. Hofstetter, "Auto fluorescence imaging to optimise 5-ALA-induced fluorescence endoscopy of bladder carcinoma," Urology 58, 372-375 (2001).
[Crossref]

Godavarty, A.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grattan, K. T. V.

Z. Zhang, K. T. V. Grattan, and A. W. Palmer, "Phase-locked detection of fluorescence lifetime," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2531-2540 (1993).
[Crossref]

Guilbault, G. G.

G. G. Guilbault, Fluorescence: Theory, Instrumentation and Practice (Edward Arnold, 1967).

Gurfinkel, M.

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermana, B.

R. V. Krishnan, H. Saitoh, H. Terada, V. E. Centonze, and B. Hermana, "Development of a multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2714-2721 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hofstetter, A.

D. Erimberger, D. Zaak, H. Stepp, R. Knuchel, R. Baumgartner, P. Schneede, N. Schmeller, and A. Hofstetter, "Auto fluorescence imaging to optimise 5-ALA-induced fluorescence endoscopy of bladder carcinoma," Urology 58, 372-375 (2001).
[Crossref]

Houston, J. P.

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, Y.

C. G. Morgan, Y. Hua, A. C. Mitchell, J. G. Murray, and A. D. Boardman, "A compact frequency domain fluorometer with a directly modulated deuterium light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 41-47 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, N.

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Leriche, N. Ikeda, and B. Palcic, "Fluorescence imaging of early lung cancer," in Optical Biopsy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging,Proc. SPIE 2324, 2-8 (1995).
[Crossref]

Knuchel, R.

D. Erimberger, D. Zaak, H. Stepp, R. Knuchel, R. Baumgartner, P. Schneede, N. Schmeller, and A. Hofstetter, "Auto fluorescence imaging to optimise 5-ALA-induced fluorescence endoscopy of bladder carcinoma," Urology 58, 372-375 (2001).
[Crossref]

Krishnan, R. V.

R. V. Krishnan, H. Saitoh, H. Terada, V. E. Centonze, and B. Hermana, "Development of a multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2714-2721 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. Sipior, G. M. Carter, J. R. Lakowicz, and G. Rao, "Blue light-emitting diode demonstrated as an ultraviolet excitation source for nanosecond phase-modulation fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2666-2670 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lakowicz and K. W. Berndt, "Lifetime-selective fluorescence imaging using an rf phase-sensitive camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1727-1734 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, 1999).

Lam, S.

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Leriche, N. Ikeda, and B. Palcic, "Fluorescence imaging of early lung cancer," in Optical Biopsy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging,Proc. SPIE 2324, 2-8 (1995).
[Crossref]

Leriche, J.

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Leriche, N. Ikeda, and B. Palcic, "Fluorescence imaging of early lung cancer," in Optical Biopsy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging,Proc. SPIE 2324, 2-8 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lvin, S. J.

B. C. MacDonald, S. J. Lvin, and H. Patterson, "Correction of fluorescence inner filter effects and the partitioning of pyrene to dissolved organic carbon," Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 155-162 (1997).
[Crossref]

MacAulay, C.

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Leriche, N. Ikeda, and B. Palcic, "Fluorescence imaging of early lung cancer," in Optical Biopsy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging,Proc. SPIE 2324, 2-8 (1995).
[Crossref]

MacDonald, B. C.

B. C. MacDonald, S. J. Lvin, and H. Patterson, "Correction of fluorescence inner filter effects and the partitioning of pyrene to dissolved organic carbon," Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 155-162 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mcgown, L. B.

L. B. Mcgown and D. W. Millican, "Multifrequency phase-resolution for total luminescence spectroscopy," in Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy in Biochemistry,Proc. SPIE 909, 360-365 (1988).

Millican, D. W.

L. B. Mcgown and D. W. Millican, "Multifrequency phase-resolution for total luminescence spectroscopy," in Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy in Biochemistry,Proc. SPIE 909, 360-365 (1988).

Misawa, H.

T. Arakia and H. Misawa, "Light emitting diode-based nanosecond ultraviolet light source for fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5469-5472 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, A. C.

C. G. Morgan, Y. Hua, A. C. Mitchell, J. G. Murray, and A. D. Boardman, "A compact frequency domain fluorometer with a directly modulated deuterium light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 41-47 (1996).
[Crossref]

Morgan, C. G.

C. G. Morgan, Y. Hua, A. C. Mitchell, J. G. Murray, and A. D. Boardman, "A compact frequency domain fluorometer with a directly modulated deuterium light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 41-47 (1996).
[Crossref]

Murray, J. G.

C. G. Morgan, Y. Hua, A. C. Mitchell, J. G. Murray, and A. D. Boardman, "A compact frequency domain fluorometer with a directly modulated deuterium light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 41-47 (1996).
[Crossref]

Murukeshan, V. M.

Z. X. Chao, U. S. Dinish, L. K. Seah, and V. M. Murukeshan, "Homodyne and heterodyne signal processing assisted phase resolved optical technique for latent fingerprint imaging: a theoretical study," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 119-129 (2005).
[Crossref]

U. S. Dinish, Z. X. Chao, A. Singh, L. K. Seah, and V. M. Murukeshan, "Formulation and implementation of phase-resolved optical technique for latent fingerprint imaging: theoretical and experimental analysis," Appl. Opt. 44, 297-304 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palcic, B.

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Leriche, N. Ikeda, and B. Palcic, "Fluorescence imaging of early lung cancer," in Optical Biopsy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging,Proc. SPIE 2324, 2-8 (1995).
[Crossref]

Palmer, A. W.

Z. Zhang, K. T. V. Grattan, and A. W. Palmer, "Phase-locked detection of fluorescence lifetime," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2531-2540 (1993).
[Crossref]

Patterson, H.

B. C. MacDonald, S. J. Lvin, and H. Patterson, "Correction of fluorescence inner filter effects and the partitioning of pyrene to dissolved organic carbon," Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 155-162 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pradhan, A.

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, J. M. D. Cleary, R. M. D. Prudente, and E. M. D. Celmer, "Time-resolved fluorescence of benign and malignant breast tissues," Proc. SPIE 1599, 81-84 (1991).
[Crossref]

Prudente, R. M. D.

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, J. M. D. Cleary, R. M. D. Prudente, and E. M. D. Celmer, "Time-resolved fluorescence of benign and malignant breast tissues," Proc. SPIE 1599, 81-84 (1991).
[Crossref]

Rao, G.

J. Sipior, G. M. Carter, J. R. Lakowicz, and G. Rao, "Blue light-emitting diode demonstrated as an ultraviolet excitation source for nanosecond phase-modulation fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2666-2670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, H.

R. V. Krishnan, H. Saitoh, H. Terada, V. E. Centonze, and B. Hermana, "Development of a multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2714-2721 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schmeller, N.

D. Erimberger, D. Zaak, H. Stepp, R. Knuchel, R. Baumgartner, P. Schneede, N. Schmeller, and A. Hofstetter, "Auto fluorescence imaging to optimise 5-ALA-induced fluorescence endoscopy of bladder carcinoma," Urology 58, 372-375 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schneede, P.

D. Erimberger, D. Zaak, H. Stepp, R. Knuchel, R. Baumgartner, P. Schneede, N. Schmeller, and A. Hofstetter, "Auto fluorescence imaging to optimise 5-ALA-induced fluorescence endoscopy of bladder carcinoma," Urology 58, 372-375 (2001).
[Crossref]

Seah, L. K.

Z. X. Chao, U. S. Dinish, L. K. Seah, and V. M. Murukeshan, "Homodyne and heterodyne signal processing assisted phase resolved optical technique for latent fingerprint imaging: a theoretical study," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 119-129 (2005).
[Crossref]

U. S. Dinish, Z. X. Chao, A. Singh, L. K. Seah, and V. M. Murukeshan, "Formulation and implementation of phase-resolved optical technique for latent fingerprint imaging: theoretical and experimental analysis," Appl. Opt. 44, 297-304 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, A.

Sipior, J.

J. Sipior, G. M. Carter, J. R. Lakowicz, and G. Rao, "Blue light-emitting diode demonstrated as an ultraviolet excitation source for nanosecond phase-modulation fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2666-2670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Srinivas, V.

V. Venkatesh and V. Srinivas, "A closed loop scheme for phase-sensitive fluorometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3750-3754 (1995).
[Crossref]

Stepp, H.

D. Erimberger, D. Zaak, H. Stepp, R. Knuchel, R. Baumgartner, P. Schneede, N. Schmeller, and A. Hofstetter, "Auto fluorescence imaging to optimise 5-ALA-induced fluorescence endoscopy of bladder carcinoma," Urology 58, 372-375 (2001).
[Crossref]

Terada, H.

R. V. Krishnan, H. Saitoh, H. Terada, V. E. Centonze, and B. Hermana, "Development of a multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system using a streak camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2714-2721 (2003).
[Crossref]

Theru, S.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, A. B.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venkatesh, V.

V. Venkatesh and V. Srinivas, "A closed loop scheme for phase-sensitive fluorometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3750-3754 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yoo, K. M.

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, J. M. D. Cleary, R. M. D. Prudente, and E. M. D. Celmer, "Time-resolved fluorescence of benign and malignant breast tissues," Proc. SPIE 1599, 81-84 (1991).
[Crossref]

Zaak, D.

D. Erimberger, D. Zaak, H. Stepp, R. Knuchel, R. Baumgartner, P. Schneede, N. Schmeller, and A. Hofstetter, "Auto fluorescence imaging to optimise 5-ALA-induced fluorescence endoscopy of bladder carcinoma," Urology 58, 372-375 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

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D. Erimberger, D. Zaak, H. Stepp, R. Knuchel, R. Baumgartner, P. Schneede, N. Schmeller, and A. Hofstetter, "Auto fluorescence imaging to optimise 5-ALA-induced fluorescence endoscopy of bladder carcinoma," Urology 58, 372-375 (2001).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the fluorescence lifetime measurement setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Schematic diagram of the homodyne-assisted PR imaging setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Homodyne-assisted PR image of the fluorescein sample: (a) suppression of the emission with a lifetime of 5.80 ns by selectively imaging 5.39 ns emission. (b) Suppression of the emission with a lifetime of 5.39 ns by selectively imaging 5.80 ns emission.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Homodyne-assisted PR image of the fluorescein sample: (a) suppression of the emission with a lifetime of 5.80 ns by selectively imaging 5.59 ns emission. (b) Suppression of the emission with a lifetime of 5.59 ns by selectively imaging 5.80 ns emission.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fluorescence Lifetime of a Fluorescein Sample at Different Concentrations

Equations (10)

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I ( t ) = A [ 1 + m ex sin ( ω t ) ] ,
{ ω τ i = tan ϕ i m i = [ 1 + ( ω τ i ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
F ( t ) = A i [ 1 + m ex m i sin ( ω t ϕ i ) ] ,
G ( t ) = B [ 1 + m g sin ( ω t ϕ g ) ] .
H ( ϕ i , ϕ g ) = A i B [ 1 + 1 2 m g m ex m i cos ( ϕ i ϕ g ) ] .
H ( ϕ i , ϕ g ) avg = A i B .
H 0 ( ϕ i , ϕ g ) = 1 2 B m g m ex A i m i cos ( ϕ i ϕ g ) .
H 0 ( ϕ i , ϕ g ) = { 1 2 B m g m ex A 1 m 1 cos ( ϕ 1 ϕ g ) 1 2 B m g m ex A 2 m 2 cos ( ϕ 2 ϕ g ) .
H 0 ( ϕ 1 , ϕ g ) = 1 2 B m g m ex A 1 m 1 sin ( ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ) ,
H 0 ( ϕ 2 , ϕ g ) = 1 2 B m g m ex A 2 m 2 sin ( ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ) ,

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