Abstract

In a solid-state laser incident on a LiNdP4O12 crystal, pumped by a short light pulse, giant pulse oscillation without the use of resonator Q switching is realized. Tuning of the oscillation pulse duration from 2  up to 20 ns is achieved by changing the cavity length from 24 to 3   mm, respectively. Our analysis of this mode of laser radiation is made on the basis of the rate equations. The factors influencing oscillation pulse duration are investigated. It is shown that in a limiting case the minimal value of the pulse duration is limited by only the rate of excitation transfer from the pumping band to the metastable level.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Roess, "Giant pulse shortening by resonator transients," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2004-2006 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Lin and C. V. Shank, "Subnanosecond tunable dye laser pulse generation by controlled resonator transients," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 389-391 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Wilson, D. C. Brown, and W. K. Zwicker, "XeF excimer pumping of Nd:P5O14," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 614-616 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Aussenegg and A. Leitnez, "A short resonator dye laser pumped by a travelling wave N2-laser," Opt. Commun. 32, 121-122 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. R. Chinn, H.-Y. P. Hong, and J. W. Pierce, "Minilasers of neodymium compounds," Laser Focus 12, 64-69 (1976).
  6. I. F. Balashov, V. A. Berenberg, V. S. Terpugov, and A. V. Utochkin, "Research of the oscillation characteristics of solid-state microlasers on high-concentrated neodymium media," Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 45, 439-443 (1981).
  7. V. A. Berenberg and V. S. Terpugov, "Realization of nano and subnanosecond monopulses in solid-state neodymium microlasers," Elektronnaya Tekhnika , Ser. 11, Lazernaya Tekhnika i Optoelektronika 5, 59-61 (1985).
  8. K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, and T. Kimura, "Spectroscopy and laser oscillation properties of lithium neodymium tetraphosphate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 330-335 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. J. Zayhowski and C. Dill, "Diode-pumped passively Q-switched picosecond microchip lasers," Opt. Lett. 19, 1427-1429 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Wang, S.-H. Zhou, K. K. Lee, and Y. C. Chen, "Picosecond laser pulse generation in a monolithic self-Q-switched solid-state laser," Opt. Commun. 114, 439-441 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Braun, F. X. Kartner, U. Keller, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, "Passively Q-switched 180-ps Nd:LaSc3(BO3)4 microchip laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 405-407 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. F. Balashov, B. G. Berezin, B. A. Ermakov, and V. V. Konyshev, "Influence of switching speed of optical resonator on the characteristics of laser radiation," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 7, 354-359 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, 1976).
  14. C. Bibeau, S. A. Payne, and H. T. Powell, "Direct measurements of the terminal laser level lifetime in neodymium-doped crystals and glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1981-1992 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. M. Zverev, G. Ya. Kolodnyi, and A. M. Onishenko, "Non-radiative transitions between levels of three valence rare-earth ions in crystals of yttrium-aluminium garnet," Sov. Phys. JETP 60, 920-927 (1971).
  16. A. A. Zlenko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Sychugov, and G. P. Shipulo, "Excitation of crystals LaF3-Nd3+ by monochromatic light," Sov. Phys. JETP 59, 785-789 (1970).
  17. W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, "Evolution of the giant pulse in a laser," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040-2046 (1963).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

C. Bibeau, S. A. Payne, and H. T. Powell, "Direct measurements of the terminal laser level lifetime in neodymium-doped crystals and glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1981-1992 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, S.-H. Zhou, K. K. Lee, and Y. C. Chen, "Picosecond laser pulse generation in a monolithic self-Q-switched solid-state laser," Opt. Commun. 114, 439-441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1985 (1)

V. A. Berenberg and V. S. Terpugov, "Realization of nano and subnanosecond monopulses in solid-state neodymium microlasers," Elektronnaya Tekhnika , Ser. 11, Lazernaya Tekhnika i Optoelektronika 5, 59-61 (1985).

1981 (1)

I. F. Balashov, V. A. Berenberg, V. S. Terpugov, and A. V. Utochkin, "Research of the oscillation characteristics of solid-state microlasers on high-concentrated neodymium media," Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 45, 439-443 (1981).

1980 (1)

F. Aussenegg and A. Leitnez, "A short resonator dye laser pumped by a travelling wave N2-laser," Opt. Commun. 32, 121-122 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. Wilson, D. C. Brown, and W. K. Zwicker, "XeF excimer pumping of Nd:P5O14," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 614-616 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

S. R. Chinn, H.-Y. P. Hong, and J. W. Pierce, "Minilasers of neodymium compounds," Laser Focus 12, 64-69 (1976).

1975 (2)

C. Lin and C. V. Shank, "Subnanosecond tunable dye laser pulse generation by controlled resonator transients," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 389-391 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, and T. Kimura, "Spectroscopy and laser oscillation properties of lithium neodymium tetraphosphate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 330-335 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

G. M. Zverev, G. Ya. Kolodnyi, and A. M. Onishenko, "Non-radiative transitions between levels of three valence rare-earth ions in crystals of yttrium-aluminium garnet," Sov. Phys. JETP 60, 920-927 (1971).

1970 (1)

A. A. Zlenko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Sychugov, and G. P. Shipulo, "Excitation of crystals LaF3-Nd3+ by monochromatic light," Sov. Phys. JETP 59, 785-789 (1970).

1967 (1)

I. F. Balashov, B. G. Berezin, B. A. Ermakov, and V. V. Konyshev, "Influence of switching speed of optical resonator on the characteristics of laser radiation," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 7, 354-359 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. Roess, "Giant pulse shortening by resonator transients," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2004-2006 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, "Evolution of the giant pulse in a laser," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040-2046 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F.

F. Aussenegg and A. Leitnez, "A short resonator dye laser pumped by a travelling wave N2-laser," Opt. Commun. 32, 121-122 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Balashov, I. F.

I. F. Balashov, V. A. Berenberg, V. S. Terpugov, and A. V. Utochkin, "Research of the oscillation characteristics of solid-state microlasers on high-concentrated neodymium media," Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 45, 439-443 (1981).

I. F. Balashov, B. G. Berezin, B. A. Ermakov, and V. V. Konyshev, "Influence of switching speed of optical resonator on the characteristics of laser radiation," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 7, 354-359 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Berenberg, V. A.

V. A. Berenberg and V. S. Terpugov, "Realization of nano and subnanosecond monopulses in solid-state neodymium microlasers," Elektronnaya Tekhnika , Ser. 11, Lazernaya Tekhnika i Optoelektronika 5, 59-61 (1985).

I. F. Balashov, V. A. Berenberg, V. S. Terpugov, and A. V. Utochkin, "Research of the oscillation characteristics of solid-state microlasers on high-concentrated neodymium media," Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 45, 439-443 (1981).

Berezin, B. G.

I. F. Balashov, B. G. Berezin, B. A. Ermakov, and V. V. Konyshev, "Influence of switching speed of optical resonator on the characteristics of laser radiation," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 7, 354-359 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bibeau, C.

Braun, B.

Brown, D. C.

J. Wilson, D. C. Brown, and W. K. Zwicker, "XeF excimer pumping of Nd:P5O14," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 614-616 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

P. Wang, S.-H. Zhou, K. K. Lee, and Y. C. Chen, "Picosecond laser pulse generation in a monolithic self-Q-switched solid-state laser," Opt. Commun. 114, 439-441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chinn, S. R.

S. R. Chinn, H.-Y. P. Hong, and J. W. Pierce, "Minilasers of neodymium compounds," Laser Focus 12, 64-69 (1976).

Dill, C.

Ermakov, B. A.

I. F. Balashov, B. G. Berezin, B. A. Ermakov, and V. V. Konyshev, "Influence of switching speed of optical resonator on the characteristics of laser radiation," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 7, 354-359 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Hong, H.-Y. P.

S. R. Chinn, H.-Y. P. Hong, and J. W. Pierce, "Minilasers of neodymium compounds," Laser Focus 12, 64-69 (1976).

Huber, G.

Kartner, F. X.

Keller, U.

Kimura, T.

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, and T. Kimura, "Spectroscopy and laser oscillation properties of lithium neodymium tetraphosphate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 330-335 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, 1976).

Kolodnyi, G. Ya.

G. M. Zverev, G. Ya. Kolodnyi, and A. M. Onishenko, "Non-radiative transitions between levels of three valence rare-earth ions in crystals of yttrium-aluminium garnet," Sov. Phys. JETP 60, 920-927 (1971).

Konyshev, V. V.

I. F. Balashov, B. G. Berezin, B. A. Ermakov, and V. V. Konyshev, "Influence of switching speed of optical resonator on the characteristics of laser radiation," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 7, 354-359 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

P. Wang, S.-H. Zhou, K. K. Lee, and Y. C. Chen, "Picosecond laser pulse generation in a monolithic self-Q-switched solid-state laser," Opt. Commun. 114, 439-441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leitnez, A.

F. Aussenegg and A. Leitnez, "A short resonator dye laser pumped by a travelling wave N2-laser," Opt. Commun. 32, 121-122 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lengyel, B. A.

W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, "Evolution of the giant pulse in a laser," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040-2046 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

C. Lin and C. V. Shank, "Subnanosecond tunable dye laser pulse generation by controlled resonator transients," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 389-391 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Meyn, J.-P.

Onishenko, A. M.

G. M. Zverev, G. Ya. Kolodnyi, and A. M. Onishenko, "Non-radiative transitions between levels of three valence rare-earth ions in crystals of yttrium-aluminium garnet," Sov. Phys. JETP 60, 920-927 (1971).

Otsuka, K.

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, and T. Kimura, "Spectroscopy and laser oscillation properties of lithium neodymium tetraphosphate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 330-335 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

Pierce, J. W.

S. R. Chinn, H.-Y. P. Hong, and J. W. Pierce, "Minilasers of neodymium compounds," Laser Focus 12, 64-69 (1976).

Powell, H. T.

Prokhorov, A. M.

A. A. Zlenko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Sychugov, and G. P. Shipulo, "Excitation of crystals LaF3-Nd3+ by monochromatic light," Sov. Phys. JETP 59, 785-789 (1970).

Roess, D.

D. Roess, "Giant pulse shortening by resonator transients," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2004-2006 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Saruwatari, M.

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, and T. Kimura, "Spectroscopy and laser oscillation properties of lithium neodymium tetraphosphate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 330-335 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

C. Lin and C. V. Shank, "Subnanosecond tunable dye laser pulse generation by controlled resonator transients," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 389-391 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shipulo, G. P.

A. A. Zlenko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Sychugov, and G. P. Shipulo, "Excitation of crystals LaF3-Nd3+ by monochromatic light," Sov. Phys. JETP 59, 785-789 (1970).

Sychugov, V. A.

A. A. Zlenko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Sychugov, and G. P. Shipulo, "Excitation of crystals LaF3-Nd3+ by monochromatic light," Sov. Phys. JETP 59, 785-789 (1970).

Terpugov, V. S.

V. A. Berenberg and V. S. Terpugov, "Realization of nano and subnanosecond monopulses in solid-state neodymium microlasers," Elektronnaya Tekhnika , Ser. 11, Lazernaya Tekhnika i Optoelektronika 5, 59-61 (1985).

I. F. Balashov, V. A. Berenberg, V. S. Terpugov, and A. V. Utochkin, "Research of the oscillation characteristics of solid-state microlasers on high-concentrated neodymium media," Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 45, 439-443 (1981).

Utochkin, A. V.

I. F. Balashov, V. A. Berenberg, V. S. Terpugov, and A. V. Utochkin, "Research of the oscillation characteristics of solid-state microlasers on high-concentrated neodymium media," Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 45, 439-443 (1981).

Wagner, W. G.

W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, "Evolution of the giant pulse in a laser," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040-2046 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, S.-H. Zhou, K. K. Lee, and Y. C. Chen, "Picosecond laser pulse generation in a monolithic self-Q-switched solid-state laser," Opt. Commun. 114, 439-441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J.

J. Wilson, D. C. Brown, and W. K. Zwicker, "XeF excimer pumping of Nd:P5O14," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 614-616 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, and T. Kimura, "Spectroscopy and laser oscillation properties of lithium neodymium tetraphosphate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 330-335 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Zayhowski, J. J.

Zhou, S.-H.

P. Wang, S.-H. Zhou, K. K. Lee, and Y. C. Chen, "Picosecond laser pulse generation in a monolithic self-Q-switched solid-state laser," Opt. Commun. 114, 439-441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zlenko, A. A.

A. A. Zlenko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Sychugov, and G. P. Shipulo, "Excitation of crystals LaF3-Nd3+ by monochromatic light," Sov. Phys. JETP 59, 785-789 (1970).

Zverev, G. M.

G. M. Zverev, G. Ya. Kolodnyi, and A. M. Onishenko, "Non-radiative transitions between levels of three valence rare-earth ions in crystals of yttrium-aluminium garnet," Sov. Phys. JETP 60, 920-927 (1971).

Zwicker, W. K.

J. Wilson, D. C. Brown, and W. K. Zwicker, "XeF excimer pumping of Nd:P5O14," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 614-616 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Lin and C. V. Shank, "Subnanosecond tunable dye laser pulse generation by controlled resonator transients," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 389-391 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Wilson, D. C. Brown, and W. K. Zwicker, "XeF excimer pumping of Nd:P5O14," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 614-616 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. (1)

I. F. Balashov, V. A. Berenberg, V. S. Terpugov, and A. V. Utochkin, "Research of the oscillation characteristics of solid-state microlasers on high-concentrated neodymium media," Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 45, 439-443 (1981).

Elektronnaya Tekhnika (1)

V. A. Berenberg and V. S. Terpugov, "Realization of nano and subnanosecond monopulses in solid-state neodymium microlasers," Elektronnaya Tekhnika , Ser. 11, Lazernaya Tekhnika i Optoelektronika 5, 59-61 (1985).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, and T. Kimura, "Spectroscopy and laser oscillation properties of lithium neodymium tetraphosphate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 330-335 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. Roess, "Giant pulse shortening by resonator transients," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2004-2006 (1966).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, "Evolution of the giant pulse in a laser," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040-2046 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

I. F. Balashov, B. G. Berezin, B. A. Ermakov, and V. V. Konyshev, "Influence of switching speed of optical resonator on the characteristics of laser radiation," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 7, 354-359 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Focus (1)

S. R. Chinn, H.-Y. P. Hong, and J. W. Pierce, "Minilasers of neodymium compounds," Laser Focus 12, 64-69 (1976).

Opt. Commun. (2)

F. Aussenegg and A. Leitnez, "A short resonator dye laser pumped by a travelling wave N2-laser," Opt. Commun. 32, 121-122 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, S.-H. Zhou, K. K. Lee, and Y. C. Chen, "Picosecond laser pulse generation in a monolithic self-Q-switched solid-state laser," Opt. Commun. 114, 439-441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sov. Phys. JETP (2)

G. M. Zverev, G. Ya. Kolodnyi, and A. M. Onishenko, "Non-radiative transitions between levels of three valence rare-earth ions in crystals of yttrium-aluminium garnet," Sov. Phys. JETP 60, 920-927 (1971).

A. A. Zlenko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. A. Sychugov, and G. P. Shipulo, "Excitation of crystals LaF3-Nd3+ by monochromatic light," Sov. Phys. JETP 59, 785-789 (1970).

Other (1)

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, 1976).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a, Pumping pulse of 1.1 mJ and oscillation pulses for ML cavity lengths of b, 3; c, 12; and d, 26 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental dependence of the ML generation pulse versus cavity length for a fixed value of excess over the generation threshold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simplified scheme of the neodymium ion states used during calculations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of τ g min on the generation threshold ratio for (1) 1∕τ21 = 0, d 43 = 0.03 ns−1, (2) 0.1 ns−1, and (3) τ21 = 1 ns, d 43 = 0.1 ns−1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of T lp b on the generation threshold ratio for (1) 1∕τ21 = 0, d 43 = 0.1 ns−1, (2) 0.03 ns−1, and (3) τ21 = 1 ns, d 43 = 0.1 ns−1.

Equations (19)

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    d N 4 d t = σ p N 0 J p d 43 N 4 + q d 43 N 3 ,
d N 3 d t = d 43 N 4 q d 43 N 3 K J ,
d N 2 d t = K J N 2 τ 21 ,
d J d t = l Δ t [ ( K K th ) J + σ 3 N 3 J sp ] ,
d Y 4 d τ = n F ( τ ) d Y 4 ,                         
d Y 3 d τ = d Y 4 ( Y 3 Y 2 ) I ,
d Y 2 d τ = 1 S 32 ( Y 3 Y 2 ) I Y 2 T ,
d I d τ = ( Y 3 Y 2 1 ) I + Y 3 I sp ,
τ g = [ 0 J ( t ) d t ] 2 / 0 J 2 ( t ) d t ,
Φ ( t ) = 2 1 / 2 m exp [ ( 2 a t / τ p τ 0 ) 2 m ] / τ p ,
d N 4 d t = d 43 N 4 ,                         
d K d t = d 43 σ 3 N 4 σ ef K J ,
d J d t = l Δ t ( K K th ) J .
K ( t ) = K 0 ( K 0 K th ) exp ( d 43 t ) .
τ s = 1 d 43 ln [ n 1 n ( 1 γ ) ] .
Δ t / l K th = { 1 γn + ( n 1 ) ln [ ( n 1 ) / n ( 1 γ ) ] } / μ d 43 .
K 0 ( K s K f ) = K th .
τ g min = 1.5 { ( n 1 ) / [ γ n 1 ln ( γ n ) ] }   ×   { 1 γ n + ( n 1 ) ln [ ( n 1 ) / n ( 1 γ ) ] } / μ d 43 .
τ g lim 2.3 / μ d 43 .

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