Abstract

When a full-vectorial finite-difference method is used, rectangular Si waveguides can be characterized for planar light-wave circuits of high integration. The single-mode condition for a rectangular Si waveguide is obtained first. The birefringence, which can be adjusted by modifying the thickness of the cladding layer, is also studied. For a nano-Si rectangular waveguide the pure bending loss is very small even for an ultrasmall bending radius (e.g., a few micrometers), and the transition loss becomes dominant. The width and height are optimized to minimize the bending radius for the requirement that the bending loss is smaller than 0.1 dB. Finally the coupling between two parallel straight waveguides is analyzed, and it is shown that there is an optimal width for the maximal coupling length.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (6)

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index material," Opt. Lett. 29, 1626-1628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, "Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 1025-1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dai and S. He, "Analysis of the birefringence of a silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide," Appl. Opt. 43, 1156-1161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dai and S. He, "Analysis for characteristics of bent rib waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 113-121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouter, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, and I. Adesida, "Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4416-4418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, "Polarization-independent single-mode rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator for telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 210, 43-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1996 (2)

W. P. Huang, C. I. Xu, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, "The perfectly matched layer boundary condition for modal analysis of optical waveguides:leaky mode calculations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 652-654 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Smit and C. V. Dam, "Phasar-based WDM devices:principles, design, and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adesida, I.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, and I. Adesida, "Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4416-4418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Bae, J. W.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, and I. Adesida, "Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4416-4418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouter, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouter, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouter, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouter, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campenhout, J. V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouter, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, "Polarization-independent single-mode rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator for telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 210, 43-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

Dam, C. V.

M. K. Smit and C. V. Dam, "Phasar-based WDM devices:principles, design, and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Doan, M. T.

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouter, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, B.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, "Polarization-independent single-mode rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator for telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 210, 43-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grillot, F.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Hibino, Y.

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoepfner, C.

Huang, W. P.

W. P. Huang, C. I. Xu, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, "The perfectly matched layer boundary condition for modal analysis of optical waveguides:leaky mode calculations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 652-654 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. H.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, and I. Adesida, "Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4416-4418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Koster, A.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, "Polarization-independent single-mode rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator for telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 210, 43-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lardenois, S.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, "Polarization-independent single-mode rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator for telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 210, 43-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, "Polarization-independent single-mode rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator for telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 210, 43-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

Lim, D. R.

Lipson, M.

Lou, J.

Lui, W.

W. P. Huang, C. I. Xu, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, "The perfectly matched layer boundary condition for modal analysis of optical waveguides:leaky mode calculations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 652-654 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luyssaert, B.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouter, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Oh, W.-Y.

Pan, D.

Panepucci, R. R.

Pascal, D.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rommel, S. L.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, and I. Adesida, "Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4416-4418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Selvanathan, D.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, and I. Adesida, "Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4416-4418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit and C. V. Dam, "Phasar-based WDM devices:principles, design, and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouter, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouter, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L.

Vivien, L.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, "Polarization-independent single-mode rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator for telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 210, 43-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouter, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wouter, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouter, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. I.

W. P. Huang, C. I. Xu, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, "The perfectly matched layer boundary condition for modal analysis of optical waveguides:leaky mode calculations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 652-654 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yap, K. P.

Yokoyama, K.

W. P. Huang, C. I. Xu, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, "The perfectly matched layer boundary condition for modal analysis of optical waveguides:leaky mode calculations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 652-654 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, and I. Adesida, "Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4416-4418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanathan, S. L. Rommel, and I. Adesida, "Direct measurement of nanoscale sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4416-4418 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Smit and C. V. Dam, "Phasar-based WDM devices:principles, design, and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouter, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Huang, C. I. Xu, W. Lui, and K. Yokoyama, "The perfectly matched layer boundary condition for modal analysis of optical waveguides:leaky mode calculations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 652-654 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster, and E. Cassan, "Polarization-independent single-mode rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator for telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 210, 43-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of a nano-Si rectangular waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Single-mode conditions for the TE- and the TM-polarized modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Effective refractive indices of the TE- and the TM-polarized fundamental mode; (b) birefringence with h cl = ∞.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Birefringence as the thickness h cl of the cladding increases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) (a) Pure bending loss for a 90° bent Si nanowaveguide; (b) transition loss for the TE and the TM modes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) (a) Total bending loss; (b) PDL for a 90° bent nano-Si rectangular waveguide.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Parallel straight waveguides.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Coupling length as the core width w varies for different heights and separation distances.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Optimal width w 0 of nano-Si rectangular waveguides as the separation distance D between two parallel waveguides varies.

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