Abstract

A replication process for the fabrication of refractive microlenses from a purely inorganic solgel material based on tetraethoxysilane is presented. The geometrical dimensions and optical properties of the inorganic microlenses are characterized and compared with those of microlenses replicated in a hybrid xerogel containing organic additives. By a reduced solvent content in the sol composition, together with modifications in the replication process, it was possible to obtain inorganic xerogel lenses with exceptionally high sagittal height values of as much as 28  μm. Compared with the hybrid xerogel, the inorganic xerogel has the advantage of an absorption coefficient that is five times lower in the visible spectral range and exhibits optical transparency in the near-ultraviolet range for wavelengths down to 200   nm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. X. Yuan and W. Yu, "Cost-effective fabrication of micro-lenses on hybrid sol-gel glass with a high-energy beam-sensitive gray-scale mask," Opt. Express 10, 303-308 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  2. M. T. Gale, S. Obi, and N. de Rooij, "Replicated Optical MEMS in sol-gel materials," in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2003), pp. 20-21.
  3. M. He and X. Yuan, "Low-cost and efficient coupling technique using reflowed sol-gel microlens," Opt. Express 11, 1621-1627 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Kärkkäinen, J. Tamkin, and J. Rantala, "Direct photolithographic deforming of organomodified siloxane films for micro-optics fabrication," Appl. Opt. 41, 3988-3998 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Biehl, R. Danzebrink, P. Oliveira, and M. Aegerter, "Refractive microlens fabrication by ink-jet process," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 177-182 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Yu and X. Yuan, "Single-step fabrication of continuous surface relief micro-optical elements in hybrid sol-gel glass by laser direct writing," Opt. Express 10, 443-448 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  7. W. Yu and X. Yuan, "UV induced controllable volume growth in hybrid sol-gel glass for fabrication of a refractive microlens by use of a grayscale mask," Opt. Express 11, 2253-2258 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Yoshida and P. Prasad, "Fabrication of channel waveguides from sol-gel-processed polyvinylpirrolidine/SiO2 composite materials," Appl. Opt. 35, 1500-1506 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Brinker and G. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science (Academic, 1990).
  10. D. Daly, Microlens Arrays (Taylor & Francis, 2001).
  11. M. Kunnavakam, F. Houlihan, and J. Liddle, "Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft lithography replication process," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152-1154 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Sayah, V. Parashar, and M. Gijs, "Micro-replication of optical lenses in glass using a novel sol gel technology," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002), pp. 516-519.
  13. Cleveland Crystals, Inc., http://clevelandcrystals.com/solgel.htm.
  14. E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison-Wesley, Francisco, 2002).
  15. W. Moench and H. Zappe, "Fabrication and testing of microlens arrays by all-liquid techniques," J. Opt. A Pure Appl Opt. 6, 330-337 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. For example, SUSS MicroOptics SA, Neuchâtel, Switzerland; www.suss-microoptics.com.

2004 (1)

W. Moench and H. Zappe, "Fabrication and testing of microlens arrays by all-liquid techniques," J. Opt. A Pure Appl Opt. 6, 330-337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

2002 (3)

1998 (1)

S. Biehl, R. Danzebrink, P. Oliveira, and M. Aegerter, "Refractive microlens fabrication by ink-jet process," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 177-182 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Aegerter, M.

S. Biehl, R. Danzebrink, P. Oliveira, and M. Aegerter, "Refractive microlens fabrication by ink-jet process," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 177-182 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biehl, S.

S. Biehl, R. Danzebrink, P. Oliveira, and M. Aegerter, "Refractive microlens fabrication by ink-jet process," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 177-182 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brinker, C.

C. Brinker and G. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science (Academic, 1990).

Daly, D.

D. Daly, Microlens Arrays (Taylor & Francis, 2001).

Danzebrink, R.

S. Biehl, R. Danzebrink, P. Oliveira, and M. Aegerter, "Refractive microlens fabrication by ink-jet process," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 177-182 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Rooij, N.

M. T. Gale, S. Obi, and N. de Rooij, "Replicated Optical MEMS in sol-gel materials," in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2003), pp. 20-21.

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, S. Obi, and N. de Rooij, "Replicated Optical MEMS in sol-gel materials," in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2003), pp. 20-21.

Gijs, M.

A. Sayah, V. Parashar, and M. Gijs, "Micro-replication of optical lenses in glass using a novel sol gel technology," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002), pp. 516-519.

He, M.

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison-Wesley, Francisco, 2002).

Houlihan, F.

M. Kunnavakam, F. Houlihan, and J. Liddle, "Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft lithography replication process," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152-1154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kärkkäinen, A.

Kunnavakam, M.

M. Kunnavakam, F. Houlihan, and J. Liddle, "Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft lithography replication process," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152-1154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J.

M. Kunnavakam, F. Houlihan, and J. Liddle, "Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft lithography replication process," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152-1154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moench, W.

W. Moench and H. Zappe, "Fabrication and testing of microlens arrays by all-liquid techniques," J. Opt. A Pure Appl Opt. 6, 330-337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Obi, S.

M. T. Gale, S. Obi, and N. de Rooij, "Replicated Optical MEMS in sol-gel materials," in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2003), pp. 20-21.

Oliveira, P.

S. Biehl, R. Danzebrink, P. Oliveira, and M. Aegerter, "Refractive microlens fabrication by ink-jet process," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 177-182 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parashar, V.

A. Sayah, V. Parashar, and M. Gijs, "Micro-replication of optical lenses in glass using a novel sol gel technology," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002), pp. 516-519.

Prasad, P.

Rantala, J.

Sayah, A.

A. Sayah, V. Parashar, and M. Gijs, "Micro-replication of optical lenses in glass using a novel sol gel technology," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002), pp. 516-519.

Scherer, G.

C. Brinker and G. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science (Academic, 1990).

Tamkin, J.

Yoshida, M.

Yu, W.

Yuan, X.

Zappe, H.

W. Moench and H. Zappe, "Fabrication and testing of microlens arrays by all-liquid techniques," J. Opt. A Pure Appl Opt. 6, 330-337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Kunnavakam, F. Houlihan, and J. Liddle, "Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft lithography replication process," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152-1154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl Opt. (1)

W. Moench and H. Zappe, "Fabrication and testing of microlens arrays by all-liquid techniques," J. Opt. A Pure Appl Opt. 6, 330-337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Biehl, R. Danzebrink, P. Oliveira, and M. Aegerter, "Refractive microlens fabrication by ink-jet process," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 13, 177-182 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Other (7)

For example, SUSS MicroOptics SA, Neuchâtel, Switzerland; www.suss-microoptics.com.

M. T. Gale, S. Obi, and N. de Rooij, "Replicated Optical MEMS in sol-gel materials," in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2003), pp. 20-21.

C. Brinker and G. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science (Academic, 1990).

D. Daly, Microlens Arrays (Taylor & Francis, 2001).

A. Sayah, V. Parashar, and M. Gijs, "Micro-replication of optical lenses in glass using a novel sol gel technology," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002), pp. 516-519.

Cleveland Crystals, Inc., http://clevelandcrystals.com/solgel.htm.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison-Wesley, Francisco, 2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spherical cavities in the mold and interstitial thin film. For a high yield of crack-free replicated inorganic microlenses from the PDMS mold, the interstitial film should be as thin as possible.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Array of inorganic microlenses (200 μm diameter, 16 μm sagittal height, 740 μm focal length), showing freedom from any cracking after curing. The white spots in the image are reflections from the microscope illumination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittance spectra of the inorganic and hybrid xerogels compared with that of B270 soda lime crown glass, measured at 633 nm. The inorganic xerogels show little attenuation down to almost 200 nm in the UV.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of diameter and sagittal height ranges obtained with master lenses (filled circles∕darker shading), replicated lenses in inorganic xerogel (open triangles∕lighter shading) and hybrid xerogel (squares).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Geometrical Parameters of Master Microlenses and Replicated Microlenses

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical Parameters of the Replicated Xerogel Lenses

Metrics