Abstract

We have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substrate to provide focusing of soft x rays in grazing-incidence reflection. The critical issue of the quality of the steel surface, polished and coated with gold, is discussed in detail. A comparison is made to a polished, gold-coated, electroless nickel surface, which provides a smoother finish. We used the surface height distributions, measured with an interferometric microscope and complemented by atomic-force microscope measurements, to compute power spectral densities and then to evaluate the surface roughness. The effects of roughness in reducing the specular reflectivity were verified by soft-x-ray measurements.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2004

S. J. Chen, C. K. Kuan, S. Y. Perng, D. J. Wang, H. C. Ho, T. C. Tseng, Y. C. Lo, and C. T. Chen, "New focusing mirror system for synchrotron radiation infrared beamlines," Opt. Eng. 43, 3077-3082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Asadchikov, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Yu. S. Krivonosov, R. Mercier, T. H. Metzger, C. Morawe, and E. Ziegler, "Application of x-ray scattering technique to the study of supersmooth surfaces," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 530, 575-595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

I. K. Robinson, F. Pfeiffer, I. A. Vartanyants, S. Yugang, and X. Younan, "Enhancement of coherent x-ray diffraction from nanocrystals by introduction of x-ray optics," Opt. Express 11, 2329-2334 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Freund, "Recent progress in x-ray optics at the ESRF," J. Phys. IV 104, 165-170 (2003).

O. Hignette, P. Cloetens, W.-K. Lee, W. Ludwig, and G. Rostaing, "Hard x-ray microscopy with reflecting mirrors status and perspectives of the ESRF technology," J. Phys. IV 104, 231-234 (2003).

N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, "On the feasibility of performing nonlinear autocorrelation with attosecond pulse trains," Appl. Phys. B 76, 721-727 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, "Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard x-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4549-4553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. P. Naulleau, P. Batson, P. Denham, D. Richardson, and J. Underwood, "An in situ scanning-slit alignment system for Kirkpatrick-Baez optics," Opt. Commun. 212, 225-233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995

1992

E. Morikawa, J. D. Scott, and V. Saile, "Adaptive optics for resolution/throughput optimization; variable-radius-mirror application for a PGM," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 319, 116-120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

P. Z. Takacs and E. L. Church, "Figure and finish of grazing-incidence mirrors," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 291, 253-264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

E. L. Church, "Fractal surface finish," Appl. Opt. 27, 1518-1526 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Underwood and E. H. Gullikson, "High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region," J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 92, 265-272 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1977

L. H. Underwood, "Generation of a parallel x-ray beam and its use for testing collimators," Space Sci. Instrum. 3, 259-270 (1977).

Andresen, N.

T. Warwick, N. Andresen, J. Comins, A. Franck, M. Gilles, T. Tonnessen, and T. Tyliszczak, "Large aperture micro-focus KB mirrors for spectroscopy experiments at the Advanced Light Source," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 772-775 (2004).

Asadchikov, V. E.

V. E. Asadchikov, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Yu. S. Krivonosov, R. Mercier, T. H. Metzger, C. Morawe, and E. Ziegler, "Application of x-ray scattering technique to the study of supersmooth surfaces," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 530, 575-595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Assoufid, L.

G. E. Ice, E. D. Specht, J. Z. Tischler, A. M. Khounsary, L. Assoufid, and C. Liu, "At the limit of nondispersive micro- and nanofocusing mirror optics," in Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics II, E.G.Johnson and G.P.Nordin, eds., Proc. SPIE 5347, 1-8 (2004).

Bac, S.

M. Janousch, A.-M. Flank, P. Lagarde, G. Cauchon, S. Bac, J. M. Dubuisson, Th. Schmidt, R. Wetter, G. Grolimund, and A. M. Scheidegger, "LUCIA--a new 1-7 keV μ-XAS beamline," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 312-315 (2004).

Batson, P.

P. P. Naulleau, P. Batson, P. Denham, D. Richardson, and J. Underwood, "An in situ scanning-slit alignment system for Kirkpatrick-Baez optics," Opt. Commun. 212, 225-233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Batterman, B. W.

R. Spolenak, N. Tamura, B. C. Valek, A. A. MacDowel, R. S. Celestre, H. A. Padmore, W. L. Brown, T. Marieb, B. W. Batterman, and J. R. Patel, "High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation," in Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization. Sixth International Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization, S.P.Baker, M.A.Korhonen, E.Arzt, and P.S.Ho, eds., AIP Proc. 612,217-228 (2002).

Bianco, A.

A. Bianco, G. Sostero, and D. Cocco, "Kirkpatrick-Baez elliptical bendable mirrors at the nanospectroscopy beamline: metrological results and x-rays performance," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782,74-85 (2002).

Bigault, T.

E. Ziegler, J. Hoszowska, T. Bigault, L. Peverini, J. Y. Massonnat, and R. Hustache, "The ESRF BM05 metrology beamline: instrumentation and performance upgrade," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705,436-439 (2004).

E. Ziegler, T. Bigault, and J. Hoszowska, "An x-ray focusing system combining a sagittally bent crystal and a Kirkpatrick-Baez system," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705,768-771 (2004).

Bixler, J. V.

Boreman, G. D.

G. D. Boreman, Modulation Transfer Function in Optical and Electro-Optical Systems (SPIE Press, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Bracewell, R. N.

R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, 1986), pp. 108-112.

Brown, W. L.

R. Spolenak, N. Tamura, B. C. Valek, A. A. MacDowel, R. S. Celestre, H. A. Padmore, W. L. Brown, T. Marieb, B. W. Batterman, and J. R. Patel, "High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation," in Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization. Sixth International Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization, S.P.Baker, M.A.Korhonen, E.Arzt, and P.S.Ho, eds., AIP Proc. 612,217-228 (2002).

Cauchon, G.

M. Janousch, A.-M. Flank, P. Lagarde, G. Cauchon, S. Bac, J. M. Dubuisson, Th. Schmidt, R. Wetter, G. Grolimund, and A. M. Scheidegger, "LUCIA--a new 1-7 keV μ-XAS beamline," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 312-315 (2004).

Celestre, R. S.

R. Spolenak, N. Tamura, B. C. Valek, A. A. MacDowel, R. S. Celestre, H. A. Padmore, W. L. Brown, T. Marieb, B. W. Batterman, and J. R. Patel, "High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation," in Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization. Sixth International Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization, S.P.Baker, M.A.Korhonen, E.Arzt, and P.S.Ho, eds., AIP Proc. 612,217-228 (2002).

Charalambidis, D.

N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, "On the feasibility of performing nonlinear autocorrelation with attosecond pulse trains," Appl. Phys. B 76, 721-727 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. T.

S. J. Chen, C. K. Kuan, S. Y. Perng, D. J. Wang, H. C. Ho, T. C. Tseng, Y. C. Lo, and C. T. Chen, "New focusing mirror system for synchrotron radiation infrared beamlines," Opt. Eng. 43, 3077-3082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. J.

S. J. Chen, C. K. Kuan, S. Y. Perng, D. J. Wang, H. C. Ho, T. C. Tseng, Y. C. Lo, and C. T. Chen, "New focusing mirror system for synchrotron radiation infrared beamlines," Opt. Eng. 43, 3077-3082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Church, E. L.

P. Z. Takacs and E. L. Church, "Figure and finish of grazing-incidence mirrors," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 291, 253-264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, "Fractal surface finish," Appl. Opt. 27, 1518-1526 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Church and P. Z. Takacs, "Surface scattering," in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M.Bass, J.M.Enoch, E.W.Van Stryland, and W.L.Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 2000), Vol. 1, Chap. 7.

Cloetens, P.

O. Hignette, P. Cloetens, W.-K. Lee, W. Ludwig, and G. Rostaing, "Hard x-ray microscopy with reflecting mirrors status and perspectives of the ESRF technology," J. Phys. IV 104, 231-234 (2003).

O. Hignette, G. Rostaing, P. Cloetens, A. Rommeveaux, W. Ludwig, and A. Freund, "Submicron focusing of hard x-rays with reflecting surfaces at the ESRF," in X-Ray Micro- and Nano-Focusing: Applications and Techniques II, I.McNulty, ed., Proc. SPIE 4499,105-116 (2001).

Cocco, D.

A. Bianco, G. Sostero, and D. Cocco, "Kirkpatrick-Baez elliptical bendable mirrors at the nanospectroscopy beamline: metrological results and x-rays performance," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782,74-85 (2002).

Comins, J.

T. Warwick, N. Andresen, J. Comins, A. Franck, M. Gilles, T. Tonnessen, and T. Tyliszczak, "Large aperture micro-focus KB mirrors for spectroscopy experiments at the Advanced Light Source," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 772-775 (2004).

Dabin, Y.

Y. Dabin, G. Rostaing, O. Hignette, A. Rommeveaux, and A. K. Freund, "The present state of Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror systems at the ESRF," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782,235-245 (2002).

Denham, P.

P. P. Naulleau, P. Batson, P. Denham, D. Richardson, and J. Underwood, "An in situ scanning-slit alignment system for Kirkpatrick-Baez optics," Opt. Commun. 212, 225-233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dubuisson, J. M.

M. Janousch, A.-M. Flank, P. Lagarde, G. Cauchon, S. Bac, J. M. Dubuisson, Th. Schmidt, R. Wetter, G. Grolimund, and A. M. Scheidegger, "LUCIA--a new 1-7 keV μ-XAS beamline," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 312-315 (2004).

Endo, K.

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, "Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard x-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4549-4553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, K. Yamauchi, Y. Sano, A. Saito, T. Kinoshita, K. Endo, Y. Mori, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, "Aspheric surface fabrication in nm-level accuracy by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM)," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782, 265-270 (2002).

Eng, P. J.

A. M. Khounsary, G. E. Ice, and P. J. Eng, "Mirrors for nanofocusing x-ray beams," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782, 65-73 (2002).

Ferme, J. J.

J. J. Ferme, "New improvements in bendable mirrors," in Materials, Manufacturing, and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P.Z.Takacs and T.W.Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3152,103-111 (1997).

Flank, A.-M.

M. Janousch, A.-M. Flank, P. Lagarde, G. Cauchon, S. Bac, J. M. Dubuisson, Th. Schmidt, R. Wetter, G. Grolimund, and A. M. Scheidegger, "LUCIA--a new 1-7 keV μ-XAS beamline," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 312-315 (2004).

Franck, A.

T. Warwick, N. Andresen, J. Comins, A. Franck, M. Gilles, T. Tonnessen, and T. Tyliszczak, "Large aperture micro-focus KB mirrors for spectroscopy experiments at the Advanced Light Source," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 772-775 (2004).

Franck, A. D.

V. V. Yashchuk, A. D. Franck, S. C. Irick, M. R. Howells, A. A. MacDowell, and W. R. McKinney, "Two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics with the Micromap interferometric microscope," in Nano- and Micro-Metrology, H.Ottevaere, P.DeWolf, and D.S.Wiersma, eds., Proc. SPIE 5858, 85-96 (2005).

Franck, K. D.

N. D. Hartman, P. A. Heimann, A. A. MacDowell, K. D. Franck, A. P. Grieshop, S. C. Irick, and H. A. Padmore, "Design, analysis, and performance of an epoxy-bonded bendable mirror," in Advances in Mirror Technology for Synchrotron X-Ray and Laser Applications, A.M.Khounsary, eds., Proc. SPIE 3447,40-51 (1998).

Freund, A.

A. Freund, "Challenges for synchrotron x-ray optics," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782,1-11 (2002).

O. Hignette, G. Rostaing, P. Cloetens, A. Rommeveaux, W. Ludwig, and A. Freund, "Submicron focusing of hard x-rays with reflecting surfaces at the ESRF," in X-Ray Micro- and Nano-Focusing: Applications and Techniques II, I.McNulty, ed., Proc. SPIE 4499,105-116 (2001).

Freund, A. K.

A. K. Freund, "Recent progress in x-ray optics at the ESRF," J. Phys. IV 104, 165-170 (2003).

Y. Dabin, G. Rostaing, O. Hignette, A. Rommeveaux, and A. K. Freund, "The present state of Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror systems at the ESRF," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782,235-245 (2002).

Gilles, M.

T. Warwick, N. Andresen, J. Comins, A. Franck, M. Gilles, T. Tonnessen, and T. Tyliszczak, "Large aperture micro-focus KB mirrors for spectroscopy experiments at the Advanced Light Source," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 772-775 (2004).

Grieshop, A. P.

N. D. Hartman, P. A. Heimann, A. A. MacDowell, K. D. Franck, A. P. Grieshop, S. C. Irick, and H. A. Padmore, "Design, analysis, and performance of an epoxy-bonded bendable mirror," in Advances in Mirror Technology for Synchrotron X-Ray and Laser Applications, A.M.Khounsary, eds., Proc. SPIE 3447,40-51 (1998).

Grolimund, G.

M. Janousch, A.-M. Flank, P. Lagarde, G. Cauchon, S. Bac, J. M. Dubuisson, Th. Schmidt, R. Wetter, G. Grolimund, and A. M. Scheidegger, "LUCIA--a new 1-7 keV μ-XAS beamline," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 312-315 (2004).

Gullikson, E.

E. Gullikson, Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (personal communication, 2005), http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/mirror2.html.

Gullikson, E. H.

J. H. Underwood and E. H. Gullikson, "High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region," J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 92, 265-272 (1988).
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Gullikson, E. M.

V. V. Yashchuk, S. C. Irick, E. M. Gullikson, M. R. Howells, A. A. MacDowell, W. R. McKinney, F. Salmassi, and T. Warwick, "Cross-check of different techniques for two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics," in Advances in Metrology for X-Ray and EUV Optics, L.Assoufid, P.Z.Takacs, and J.S.Taylor, eds., Proc. SPIE 5921,105-116 (2005).

Hailey, C. J.

Hartman, N. D.

N. D. Hartman, P. A. Heimann, A. A. MacDowell, K. D. Franck, A. P. Grieshop, S. C. Irick, and H. A. Padmore, "Design, analysis, and performance of an epoxy-bonded bendable mirror," in Advances in Mirror Technology for Synchrotron X-Ray and Laser Applications, A.M.Khounsary, eds., Proc. SPIE 3447,40-51 (1998).

Heimann, P. A.

N. D. Hartman, P. A. Heimann, A. A. MacDowell, K. D. Franck, A. P. Grieshop, S. C. Irick, and H. A. Padmore, "Design, analysis, and performance of an epoxy-bonded bendable mirror," in Advances in Mirror Technology for Synchrotron X-Ray and Laser Applications, A.M.Khounsary, eds., Proc. SPIE 3447,40-51 (1998).

P. A. Heimann, H. A. Padmore, and A. A. Zholents, "X-ray optical designs for the Linac-based Ultrafast X-ray source (LUX)," in Fourth-Generation X-Ray Sources and Ultrafast X-Ray Detectors, R.O.Tatchyn, Z.Chang, J.-C.Kieffer, and J.B.Hastings, eds., Proc. SPIE 5194,39-45 (2004).

Hignette, O.

O. Hignette, P. Cloetens, W.-K. Lee, W. Ludwig, and G. Rostaing, "Hard x-ray microscopy with reflecting mirrors status and perspectives of the ESRF technology," J. Phys. IV 104, 231-234 (2003).

O. Hignette, G. Rostaing, P. Cloetens, A. Rommeveaux, W. Ludwig, and A. Freund, "Submicron focusing of hard x-rays with reflecting surfaces at the ESRF," in X-Ray Micro- and Nano-Focusing: Applications and Techniques II, I.McNulty, ed., Proc. SPIE 4499,105-116 (2001).

Y. Dabin, G. Rostaing, O. Hignette, A. Rommeveaux, and A. K. Freund, "The present state of Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror systems at the ESRF," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782,235-245 (2002).

Ho, H. C.

S. J. Chen, C. K. Kuan, S. Y. Perng, D. J. Wang, H. C. Ho, T. C. Tseng, Y. C. Lo, and C. T. Chen, "New focusing mirror system for synchrotron radiation infrared beamlines," Opt. Eng. 43, 3077-3082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoszowska, J.

E. Ziegler, J. Hoszowska, T. Bigault, L. Peverini, J. Y. Massonnat, and R. Hustache, "The ESRF BM05 metrology beamline: instrumentation and performance upgrade," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705,436-439 (2004).

E. Ziegler, T. Bigault, and J. Hoszowska, "An x-ray focusing system combining a sagittally bent crystal and a Kirkpatrick-Baez system," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705,768-771 (2004).

Howells, M.

R. Seungyn, S. Locklin, S. Irick, and M. Howells, "New schemes in the adjustment of bendable elliptical mirrors using a long trace profiler," in Materials, Manufacturing, and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P.Z.Takacs and T.W.Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3152,112-119 (1997).

Howells, M. R.

M. R. Howells, "Design strategies for monolithic adjustable-radius metal mirrors," Opt. Eng. 34, 410-417 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Yashchuk, S. C. Irick, E. M. Gullikson, M. R. Howells, A. A. MacDowell, W. R. McKinney, F. Salmassi, and T. Warwick, "Cross-check of different techniques for two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics," in Advances in Metrology for X-Ray and EUV Optics, L.Assoufid, P.Z.Takacs, and J.S.Taylor, eds., Proc. SPIE 5921,105-116 (2005).

V. V. Yashchuk, A. D. Franck, S. C. Irick, M. R. Howells, A. A. MacDowell, and W. R. McKinney, "Two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics with the Micromap interferometric microscope," in Nano- and Micro-Metrology, H.Ottevaere, P.DeWolf, and D.S.Wiersma, eds., Proc. SPIE 5858, 85-96 (2005).

Hu, Zh.

X. Yu, Zh. Hu, H. Pan, Q. Wang, and P. Xu, "The re-design of a soft x-ray beamline for photoemission spectroscopy at NSRL," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 396-399 (2004).

Hustache, R.

E. Ziegler, J. Hoszowska, T. Bigault, L. Peverini, J. Y. Massonnat, and R. Hustache, "The ESRF BM05 metrology beamline: instrumentation and performance upgrade," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705,436-439 (2004).

Ice, G. E.

A. M. Khounsary, G. E. Ice, and P. J. Eng, "Mirrors for nanofocusing x-ray beams," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782, 65-73 (2002).

G. E. Ice, E. D. Specht, J. Z. Tischler, A. M. Khounsary, L. Assoufid, and C. Liu, "At the limit of nondispersive micro- and nanofocusing mirror optics," in Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics II, E.G.Johnson and G.P.Nordin, eds., Proc. SPIE 5347, 1-8 (2004).

Irick, S.

R. Seungyn, S. Locklin, S. Irick, and M. Howells, "New schemes in the adjustment of bendable elliptical mirrors using a long trace profiler," in Materials, Manufacturing, and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P.Z.Takacs and T.W.Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3152,112-119 (1997).

Irick, S. C.

N. D. Hartman, P. A. Heimann, A. A. MacDowell, K. D. Franck, A. P. Grieshop, S. C. Irick, and H. A. Padmore, "Design, analysis, and performance of an epoxy-bonded bendable mirror," in Advances in Mirror Technology for Synchrotron X-Ray and Laser Applications, A.M.Khounsary, eds., Proc. SPIE 3447,40-51 (1998).

V. V. Yashchuk, S. C. Irick, E. M. Gullikson, M. R. Howells, A. A. MacDowell, W. R. McKinney, F. Salmassi, and T. Warwick, "Cross-check of different techniques for two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics," in Advances in Metrology for X-Ray and EUV Optics, L.Assoufid, P.Z.Takacs, and J.S.Taylor, eds., Proc. SPIE 5921,105-116 (2005).

V. V. Yashchuk, A. D. Franck, S. C. Irick, M. R. Howells, A. A. MacDowell, and W. R. McKinney, "Two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics with the Micromap interferometric microscope," in Nano- and Micro-Metrology, H.Ottevaere, P.DeWolf, and D.S.Wiersma, eds., Proc. SPIE 5858, 85-96 (2005).

Ishikawa, T.

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, "Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard x-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4549-4553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, K. Yamauchi, Y. Sano, A. Saito, T. Kinoshita, K. Endo, Y. Mori, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, "Aspheric surface fabrication in nm-level accuracy by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM)," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782, 265-270 (2002).

Janousch, M.

M. Janousch, A.-M. Flank, P. Lagarde, G. Cauchon, S. Bac, J. M. Dubuisson, Th. Schmidt, R. Wetter, G. Grolimund, and A. M. Scheidegger, "LUCIA--a new 1-7 keV μ-XAS beamline," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 312-315 (2004).

Jinbang, C.

G. Zhishan and C. Jinbang, "Calibration of frequency response function for a phase-shifted interferometer," in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing Technology 2000, L.Yang, H.M.Pollicove, Q.Xin, and J.C.Wyant, eds., Proc. SPIE 4231,397-401 (2000).

Khounsary, A. M.

G. E. Ice, E. D. Specht, J. Z. Tischler, A. M. Khounsary, L. Assoufid, and C. Liu, "At the limit of nondispersive micro- and nanofocusing mirror optics," in Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics II, E.G.Johnson and G.P.Nordin, eds., Proc. SPIE 5347, 1-8 (2004).

A. M. Khounsary, G. E. Ice, and P. J. Eng, "Mirrors for nanofocusing x-ray beams," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782, 65-73 (2002).

Kinoshita, T.

K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, K. Yamauchi, Y. Sano, A. Saito, T. Kinoshita, K. Endo, Y. Mori, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, "Aspheric surface fabrication in nm-level accuracy by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM)," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782, 265-270 (2002).

Kozhevnikov, I. V.

V. E. Asadchikov, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Yu. S. Krivonosov, R. Mercier, T. H. Metzger, C. Morawe, and E. Ziegler, "Application of x-ray scattering technique to the study of supersmooth surfaces," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 530, 575-595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krivonosov, Yu. S.

V. E. Asadchikov, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Yu. S. Krivonosov, R. Mercier, T. H. Metzger, C. Morawe, and E. Ziegler, "Application of x-ray scattering technique to the study of supersmooth surfaces," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 530, 575-595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, C. K.

S. J. Chen, C. K. Kuan, S. Y. Perng, D. J. Wang, H. C. Ho, T. C. Tseng, Y. C. Lo, and C. T. Chen, "New focusing mirror system for synchrotron radiation infrared beamlines," Opt. Eng. 43, 3077-3082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lagarde, P.

M. Janousch, A.-M. Flank, P. Lagarde, G. Cauchon, S. Bac, J. M. Dubuisson, Th. Schmidt, R. Wetter, G. Grolimund, and A. M. Scheidegger, "LUCIA--a new 1-7 keV μ-XAS beamline," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 312-315 (2004).

Lee, W.-K.

O. Hignette, P. Cloetens, W.-K. Lee, W. Ludwig, and G. Rostaing, "Hard x-ray microscopy with reflecting mirrors status and perspectives of the ESRF technology," J. Phys. IV 104, 231-234 (2003).

Liu, C.

G. E. Ice, E. D. Specht, J. Z. Tischler, A. M. Khounsary, L. Assoufid, and C. Liu, "At the limit of nondispersive micro- and nanofocusing mirror optics," in Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics II, E.G.Johnson and G.P.Nordin, eds., Proc. SPIE 5347, 1-8 (2004).

Lo, Y. C.

S. J. Chen, C. K. Kuan, S. Y. Perng, D. J. Wang, H. C. Ho, T. C. Tseng, Y. C. Lo, and C. T. Chen, "New focusing mirror system for synchrotron radiation infrared beamlines," Opt. Eng. 43, 3077-3082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Locklin, S.

R. Seungyn, S. Locklin, S. Irick, and M. Howells, "New schemes in the adjustment of bendable elliptical mirrors using a long trace profiler," in Materials, Manufacturing, and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P.Z.Takacs and T.W.Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3152,112-119 (1997).

Ludwig, W.

O. Hignette, P. Cloetens, W.-K. Lee, W. Ludwig, and G. Rostaing, "Hard x-ray microscopy with reflecting mirrors status and perspectives of the ESRF technology," J. Phys. IV 104, 231-234 (2003).

O. Hignette, G. Rostaing, P. Cloetens, A. Rommeveaux, W. Ludwig, and A. Freund, "Submicron focusing of hard x-rays with reflecting surfaces at the ESRF," in X-Ray Micro- and Nano-Focusing: Applications and Techniques II, I.McNulty, ed., Proc. SPIE 4499,105-116 (2001).

MacDowel, A. A.

R. Spolenak, N. Tamura, B. C. Valek, A. A. MacDowel, R. S. Celestre, H. A. Padmore, W. L. Brown, T. Marieb, B. W. Batterman, and J. R. Patel, "High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation," in Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization. Sixth International Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization, S.P.Baker, M.A.Korhonen, E.Arzt, and P.S.Ho, eds., AIP Proc. 612,217-228 (2002).

MacDowell, A. A.

V. V. Yashchuk, A. D. Franck, S. C. Irick, M. R. Howells, A. A. MacDowell, and W. R. McKinney, "Two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics with the Micromap interferometric microscope," in Nano- and Micro-Metrology, H.Ottevaere, P.DeWolf, and D.S.Wiersma, eds., Proc. SPIE 5858, 85-96 (2005).

V. V. Yashchuk, S. C. Irick, E. M. Gullikson, M. R. Howells, A. A. MacDowell, W. R. McKinney, F. Salmassi, and T. Warwick, "Cross-check of different techniques for two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics," in Advances in Metrology for X-Ray and EUV Optics, L.Assoufid, P.Z.Takacs, and J.S.Taylor, eds., Proc. SPIE 5921,105-116 (2005).

N. D. Hartman, P. A. Heimann, A. A. MacDowell, K. D. Franck, A. P. Grieshop, S. C. Irick, and H. A. Padmore, "Design, analysis, and performance of an epoxy-bonded bendable mirror," in Advances in Mirror Technology for Synchrotron X-Ray and Laser Applications, A.M.Khounsary, eds., Proc. SPIE 3447,40-51 (1998).

Marieb, T.

R. Spolenak, N. Tamura, B. C. Valek, A. A. MacDowel, R. S. Celestre, H. A. Padmore, W. L. Brown, T. Marieb, B. W. Batterman, and J. R. Patel, "High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation," in Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization. Sixth International Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization, S.P.Baker, M.A.Korhonen, E.Arzt, and P.S.Ho, eds., AIP Proc. 612,217-228 (2002).

Massonnat, J. Y.

E. Ziegler, J. Hoszowska, T. Bigault, L. Peverini, J. Y. Massonnat, and R. Hustache, "The ESRF BM05 metrology beamline: instrumentation and performance upgrade," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705,436-439 (2004).

Mauche, C. W.

McKinney, W. R.

V. V. Yashchuk, S. C. Irick, E. M. Gullikson, M. R. Howells, A. A. MacDowell, W. R. McKinney, F. Salmassi, and T. Warwick, "Cross-check of different techniques for two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics," in Advances in Metrology for X-Ray and EUV Optics, L.Assoufid, P.Z.Takacs, and J.S.Taylor, eds., Proc. SPIE 5921,105-116 (2005).

V. V. Yashchuk, A. D. Franck, S. C. Irick, M. R. Howells, A. A. MacDowell, and W. R. McKinney, "Two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics with the Micromap interferometric microscope," in Nano- and Micro-Metrology, H.Ottevaere, P.DeWolf, and D.S.Wiersma, eds., Proc. SPIE 5858, 85-96 (2005).

Medison, L.

Mercier, R.

V. E. Asadchikov, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Yu. S. Krivonosov, R. Mercier, T. H. Metzger, C. Morawe, and E. Ziegler, "Application of x-ray scattering technique to the study of supersmooth surfaces," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 530, 575-595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, T. H.

V. E. Asadchikov, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Yu. S. Krivonosov, R. Mercier, T. H. Metzger, C. Morawe, and E. Ziegler, "Application of x-ray scattering technique to the study of supersmooth surfaces," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 530, 575-595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mimura, H.

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, "Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard x-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4549-4553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, K. Yamauchi, Y. Sano, A. Saito, T. Kinoshita, K. Endo, Y. Mori, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, "Aspheric surface fabrication in nm-level accuracy by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM)," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782, 265-270 (2002).

Morawe, C.

V. E. Asadchikov, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Yu. S. Krivonosov, R. Mercier, T. H. Metzger, C. Morawe, and E. Ziegler, "Application of x-ray scattering technique to the study of supersmooth surfaces," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 530, 575-595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, "Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard x-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4549-4553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, K. Yamauchi, Y. Sano, A. Saito, T. Kinoshita, K. Endo, Y. Mori, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, "Aspheric surface fabrication in nm-level accuracy by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM)," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782, 265-270 (2002).

Morikawa, E.

E. Morikawa, J. D. Scott, and V. Saile, "Adaptive optics for resolution/throughput optimization; variable-radius-mirror application for a PGM," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 319, 116-120 (1992).
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Naulleau, P. P.

P. P. Naulleau, P. Batson, P. Denham, D. Richardson, and J. Underwood, "An in situ scanning-slit alignment system for Kirkpatrick-Baez optics," Opt. Commun. 212, 225-233 (2002).
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Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.

N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, "On the feasibility of performing nonlinear autocorrelation with attosecond pulse trains," Appl. Phys. B 76, 721-727 (2003).
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Padmore, H. A.

R. Spolenak, N. Tamura, B. C. Valek, A. A. MacDowel, R. S. Celestre, H. A. Padmore, W. L. Brown, T. Marieb, B. W. Batterman, and J. R. Patel, "High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation," in Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization. Sixth International Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization, S.P.Baker, M.A.Korhonen, E.Arzt, and P.S.Ho, eds., AIP Proc. 612,217-228 (2002).

N. D. Hartman, P. A. Heimann, A. A. MacDowell, K. D. Franck, A. P. Grieshop, S. C. Irick, and H. A. Padmore, "Design, analysis, and performance of an epoxy-bonded bendable mirror," in Advances in Mirror Technology for Synchrotron X-Ray and Laser Applications, A.M.Khounsary, eds., Proc. SPIE 3447,40-51 (1998).

P. A. Heimann, H. A. Padmore, and A. A. Zholents, "X-ray optical designs for the Linac-based Ultrafast X-ray source (LUX)," in Fourth-Generation X-Ray Sources and Ultrafast X-Ray Detectors, R.O.Tatchyn, Z.Chang, J.-C.Kieffer, and J.B.Hastings, eds., Proc. SPIE 5194,39-45 (2004).

Pan, H.

X. Yu, Zh. Hu, H. Pan, Q. Wang, and P. Xu, "The re-design of a soft x-ray beamline for photoemission spectroscopy at NSRL," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 396-399 (2004).

Papadogiannis, N. A.

N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, "On the feasibility of performing nonlinear autocorrelation with attosecond pulse trains," Appl. Phys. B 76, 721-727 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patel, J. R.

R. Spolenak, N. Tamura, B. C. Valek, A. A. MacDowel, R. S. Celestre, H. A. Padmore, W. L. Brown, T. Marieb, B. W. Batterman, and J. R. Patel, "High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation," in Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization. Sixth International Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization, S.P.Baker, M.A.Korhonen, E.Arzt, and P.S.Ho, eds., AIP Proc. 612,217-228 (2002).

Perng, S. Y.

S. J. Chen, C. K. Kuan, S. Y. Perng, D. J. Wang, H. C. Ho, T. C. Tseng, Y. C. Lo, and C. T. Chen, "New focusing mirror system for synchrotron radiation infrared beamlines," Opt. Eng. 43, 3077-3082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peverini, L.

E. Ziegler, J. Hoszowska, T. Bigault, L. Peverini, J. Y. Massonnat, and R. Hustache, "The ESRF BM05 metrology beamline: instrumentation and performance upgrade," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705,436-439 (2004).

Pfeiffer, F.

Richardson, D.

P. P. Naulleau, P. Batson, P. Denham, D. Richardson, and J. Underwood, "An in situ scanning-slit alignment system for Kirkpatrick-Baez optics," Opt. Commun. 212, 225-233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, I. K.

Rommeveaux, A.

O. Hignette, G. Rostaing, P. Cloetens, A. Rommeveaux, W. Ludwig, and A. Freund, "Submicron focusing of hard x-rays with reflecting surfaces at the ESRF," in X-Ray Micro- and Nano-Focusing: Applications and Techniques II, I.McNulty, ed., Proc. SPIE 4499,105-116 (2001).

Y. Dabin, G. Rostaing, O. Hignette, A. Rommeveaux, and A. K. Freund, "The present state of Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror systems at the ESRF," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782,235-245 (2002).

Rostaing, G.

O. Hignette, P. Cloetens, W.-K. Lee, W. Ludwig, and G. Rostaing, "Hard x-ray microscopy with reflecting mirrors status and perspectives of the ESRF technology," J. Phys. IV 104, 231-234 (2003).

O. Hignette, G. Rostaing, P. Cloetens, A. Rommeveaux, W. Ludwig, and A. Freund, "Submicron focusing of hard x-rays with reflecting surfaces at the ESRF," in X-Ray Micro- and Nano-Focusing: Applications and Techniques II, I.McNulty, ed., Proc. SPIE 4499,105-116 (2001).

Y. Dabin, G. Rostaing, O. Hignette, A. Rommeveaux, and A. K. Freund, "The present state of Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror systems at the ESRF," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782,235-245 (2002).

Saile, V.

E. Morikawa, J. D. Scott, and V. Saile, "Adaptive optics for resolution/throughput optimization; variable-radius-mirror application for a PGM," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 319, 116-120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Saito, A.

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, "Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard x-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4549-4553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, K. Yamauchi, Y. Sano, A. Saito, T. Kinoshita, K. Endo, Y. Mori, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, "Aspheric surface fabrication in nm-level accuracy by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM)," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782, 265-270 (2002).

Salmassi, F.

V. V. Yashchuk, S. C. Irick, E. M. Gullikson, M. R. Howells, A. A. MacDowell, W. R. McKinney, F. Salmassi, and T. Warwick, "Cross-check of different techniques for two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics," in Advances in Metrology for X-Ray and EUV Optics, L.Assoufid, P.Z.Takacs, and J.S.Taylor, eds., Proc. SPIE 5921,105-116 (2005).

Sano, Y.

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, "Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard x-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4549-4553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, K. Yamauchi, Y. Sano, A. Saito, T. Kinoshita, K. Endo, Y. Mori, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, "Aspheric surface fabrication in nm-level accuracy by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM)," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782, 265-270 (2002).

Scheidegger, A. M.

M. Janousch, A.-M. Flank, P. Lagarde, G. Cauchon, S. Bac, J. M. Dubuisson, Th. Schmidt, R. Wetter, G. Grolimund, and A. M. Scheidegger, "LUCIA--a new 1-7 keV μ-XAS beamline," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 312-315 (2004).

Schmidt, Th.

M. Janousch, A.-M. Flank, P. Lagarde, G. Cauchon, S. Bac, J. M. Dubuisson, Th. Schmidt, R. Wetter, G. Grolimund, and A. M. Scheidegger, "LUCIA--a new 1-7 keV μ-XAS beamline," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 312-315 (2004).

Scott, J. D.

E. Morikawa, J. D. Scott, and V. Saile, "Adaptive optics for resolution/throughput optimization; variable-radius-mirror application for a PGM," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 319, 116-120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seungyn, R.

R. Seungyn, S. Locklin, S. Irick, and M. Howells, "New schemes in the adjustment of bendable elliptical mirrors using a long trace profiler," in Materials, Manufacturing, and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P.Z.Takacs and T.W.Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE 3152,112-119 (1997).

Sostero, G.

A. Bianco, G. Sostero, and D. Cocco, "Kirkpatrick-Baez elliptical bendable mirrors at the nanospectroscopy beamline: metrological results and x-rays performance," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers II, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782,74-85 (2002).

Souvorov, A.

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, "Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard x-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4549-4553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, K. Yamauchi, Y. Sano, A. Saito, T. Kinoshita, K. Endo, Y. Mori, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, "Aspheric surface fabrication in nm-level accuracy by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM)," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782, 265-270 (2002).

Specht, E. D.

G. E. Ice, E. D. Specht, J. Z. Tischler, A. M. Khounsary, L. Assoufid, and C. Liu, "At the limit of nondispersive micro- and nanofocusing mirror optics," in Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics II, E.G.Johnson and G.P.Nordin, eds., Proc. SPIE 5347, 1-8 (2004).

Spolenak, R.

R. Spolenak, N. Tamura, B. C. Valek, A. A. MacDowel, R. S. Celestre, H. A. Padmore, W. L. Brown, T. Marieb, B. W. Batterman, and J. R. Patel, "High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation," in Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization. Sixth International Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization, S.P.Baker, M.A.Korhonen, E.Arzt, and P.S.Ho, eds., AIP Proc. 612,217-228 (2002).

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J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Takacs, P. Z.

P. Z. Takacs and E. L. Church, "Figure and finish of grazing-incidence mirrors," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 291, 253-264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church and P. Z. Takacs, "Surface scattering," in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M.Bass, J.M.Enoch, E.W.Van Stryland, and W.L.Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 2000), Vol. 1, Chap. 7.

Tamasaku, K.

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, "Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard x-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4549-4553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, K. Yamauchi, Y. Sano, A. Saito, T. Kinoshita, K. Endo, Y. Mori, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, "Aspheric surface fabrication in nm-level accuracy by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM)," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782, 265-270 (2002).

Tamura, N.

R. Spolenak, N. Tamura, B. C. Valek, A. A. MacDowel, R. S. Celestre, H. A. Padmore, W. L. Brown, T. Marieb, B. W. Batterman, and J. R. Patel, "High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation," in Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization. Sixth International Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization, S.P.Baker, M.A.Korhonen, E.Arzt, and P.S.Ho, eds., AIP Proc. 612,217-228 (2002).

Tischler, J. Z.

G. E. Ice, E. D. Specht, J. Z. Tischler, A. M. Khounsary, L. Assoufid, and C. Liu, "At the limit of nondispersive micro- and nanofocusing mirror optics," in Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics II, E.G.Johnson and G.P.Nordin, eds., Proc. SPIE 5347, 1-8 (2004).

Tonnessen, T.

T. Warwick, N. Andresen, J. Comins, A. Franck, M. Gilles, T. Tonnessen, and T. Tyliszczak, "Large aperture micro-focus KB mirrors for spectroscopy experiments at the Advanced Light Source," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 772-775 (2004).

Tsakiris, G. D.

N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, "On the feasibility of performing nonlinear autocorrelation with attosecond pulse trains," Appl. Phys. B 76, 721-727 (2003).
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Tseng, T. C.

S. J. Chen, C. K. Kuan, S. Y. Perng, D. J. Wang, H. C. Ho, T. C. Tseng, Y. C. Lo, and C. T. Chen, "New focusing mirror system for synchrotron radiation infrared beamlines," Opt. Eng. 43, 3077-3082 (2004).
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Tyliszczak, T.

T. Warwick, N. Andresen, J. Comins, A. Franck, M. Gilles, T. Tonnessen, and T. Tyliszczak, "Large aperture micro-focus KB mirrors for spectroscopy experiments at the Advanced Light Source," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 772-775 (2004).

Tzallas, P.

N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, "On the feasibility of performing nonlinear autocorrelation with attosecond pulse trains," Appl. Phys. B 76, 721-727 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J.

P. P. Naulleau, P. Batson, P. Denham, D. Richardson, and J. Underwood, "An in situ scanning-slit alignment system for Kirkpatrick-Baez optics," Opt. Commun. 212, 225-233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood and E. H. Gullikson, "High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region," J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 92, 265-272 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, L. H.

L. H. Underwood, "Generation of a parallel x-ray beam and its use for testing collimators," Space Sci. Instrum. 3, 259-270 (1977).

L. H. Underwood and D. Turner, "Bend glass optics," in X-Ray Imaging, R.C.Chase and G.W.Kuswa, eds., Proc. SPIE 106, 125-135 (1977).

Valek, B. C.

R. Spolenak, N. Tamura, B. C. Valek, A. A. MacDowel, R. S. Celestre, H. A. Padmore, W. L. Brown, T. Marieb, B. W. Batterman, and J. R. Patel, "High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation," in Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization. Sixth International Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization, S.P.Baker, M.A.Korhonen, E.Arzt, and P.S.Ho, eds., AIP Proc. 612,217-228 (2002).

Vartanyants, I. A.

Wang, D. J.

S. J. Chen, C. K. Kuan, S. Y. Perng, D. J. Wang, H. C. Ho, T. C. Tseng, Y. C. Lo, and C. T. Chen, "New focusing mirror system for synchrotron radiation infrared beamlines," Opt. Eng. 43, 3077-3082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

X. Yu, Zh. Hu, H. Pan, Q. Wang, and P. Xu, "The re-design of a soft x-ray beamline for photoemission spectroscopy at NSRL," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 396-399 (2004).

Warwick, T.

V. V. Yashchuk, S. C. Irick, E. M. Gullikson, M. R. Howells, A. A. MacDowell, W. R. McKinney, F. Salmassi, and T. Warwick, "Cross-check of different techniques for two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics," in Advances in Metrology for X-Ray and EUV Optics, L.Assoufid, P.Z.Takacs, and J.S.Taylor, eds., Proc. SPIE 5921,105-116 (2005).

T. Warwick, N. Andresen, J. Comins, A. Franck, M. Gilles, T. Tonnessen, and T. Tyliszczak, "Large aperture micro-focus KB mirrors for spectroscopy experiments at the Advanced Light Source," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 772-775 (2004).

Wetter, R.

M. Janousch, A.-M. Flank, P. Lagarde, G. Cauchon, S. Bac, J. M. Dubuisson, Th. Schmidt, R. Wetter, G. Grolimund, and A. M. Scheidegger, "LUCIA--a new 1-7 keV μ-XAS beamline," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 312-315 (2004).

Witte, K.

N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, "On the feasibility of performing nonlinear autocorrelation with attosecond pulse trains," Appl. Phys. B 76, 721-727 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, P.

X. Yu, Zh. Hu, H. Pan, Q. Wang, and P. Xu, "The re-design of a soft x-ray beamline for photoemission spectroscopy at NSRL," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 396-399 (2004).

Yabashi, M.

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, "Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard x-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4549-4553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, K. Yamauchi, Y. Sano, A. Saito, T. Kinoshita, K. Endo, Y. Mori, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, "Aspheric surface fabrication in nm-level accuracy by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM)," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782, 265-270 (2002).

Yamamura, K.

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, "Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard x-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4549-4553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, K. Yamauchi, Y. Sano, A. Saito, T. Kinoshita, K. Endo, Y. Mori, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, "Aspheric surface fabrication in nm-level accuracy by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM)," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782, 265-270 (2002).

Yamauchi, K.

K. Yamamura, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, A. Saito, K. Endo, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Mori, "Fabrication of elliptical mirror at nanometer-level accuracy for hard x-ray focusing by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4549-4553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamura, H. Mimura, K. Yamauchi, Y. Sano, A. Saito, T. Kinoshita, K. Endo, Y. Mori, A. Souvorov, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, "Aspheric surface fabrication in nm-level accuracy by numerically controlled plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM)," in X-Ray Mirrors, Crystals, and Multilayers I, A.K.Freund, A.T.Macrander, T.Ishikawa, and J.L.Wood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4782, 265-270 (2002).

Yashchuk, V. V.

V. V. Yashchuk, A. D. Franck, S. C. Irick, M. R. Howells, A. A. MacDowell, and W. R. McKinney, "Two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics with the Micromap interferometric microscope," in Nano- and Micro-Metrology, H.Ottevaere, P.DeWolf, and D.S.Wiersma, eds., Proc. SPIE 5858, 85-96 (2005).

V. V. Yashchuk, S. C. Irick, E. M. Gullikson, M. R. Howells, A. A. MacDowell, W. R. McKinney, F. Salmassi, and T. Warwick, "Cross-check of different techniques for two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics," in Advances in Metrology for X-Ray and EUV Optics, L.Assoufid, P.Z.Takacs, and J.S.Taylor, eds., Proc. SPIE 5921,105-116 (2005).

Younan, X.

Yu, X.

X. Yu, Zh. Hu, H. Pan, Q. Wang, and P. Xu, "The re-design of a soft x-ray beamline for photoemission spectroscopy at NSRL," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705, 396-399 (2004).

Yugang, S.

Zhishan, G.

G. Zhishan and C. Jinbang, "Calibration of frequency response function for a phase-shifted interferometer," in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing Technology 2000, L.Yang, H.M.Pollicove, Q.Xin, and J.C.Wyant, eds., Proc. SPIE 4231,397-401 (2000).

Zholents, A. A.

P. A. Heimann, H. A. Padmore, and A. A. Zholents, "X-ray optical designs for the Linac-based Ultrafast X-ray source (LUX)," in Fourth-Generation X-Ray Sources and Ultrafast X-Ray Detectors, R.O.Tatchyn, Z.Chang, J.-C.Kieffer, and J.B.Hastings, eds., Proc. SPIE 5194,39-45 (2004).

Ziegler, E.

V. E. Asadchikov, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Yu. S. Krivonosov, R. Mercier, T. H. Metzger, C. Morawe, and E. Ziegler, "Application of x-ray scattering technique to the study of supersmooth surfaces," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 530, 575-595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Ziegler, J. Hoszowska, T. Bigault, L. Peverini, J. Y. Massonnat, and R. Hustache, "The ESRF BM05 metrology beamline: instrumentation and performance upgrade," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705,436-439 (2004).

E. Ziegler, T. Bigault, and J. Hoszowska, "An x-ray focusing system combining a sagittally bent crystal and a Kirkpatrick-Baez system," in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., AIP Proc. 705,768-771 (2004).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, "On the feasibility of performing nonlinear autocorrelation with attosecond pulse trains," Appl. Phys. B 76, 721-727 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom.

J. H. Underwood and E. H. Gullikson, "High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region," J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 92, 265-272 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. IV

O. Hignette, P. Cloetens, W.-K. Lee, W. Ludwig, and G. Rostaing, "Hard x-ray microscopy with reflecting mirrors status and perspectives of the ESRF technology," J. Phys. IV 104, 231-234 (2003).

A. K. Freund, "Recent progress in x-ray optics at the ESRF," J. Phys. IV 104, 165-170 (2003).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A

P. Z. Takacs and E. L. Church, "Figure and finish of grazing-incidence mirrors," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 291, 253-264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Asadchikov, I. V. Kozhevnikov, Yu. S. Krivonosov, R. Mercier, T. H. Metzger, C. Morawe, and E. Ziegler, "Application of x-ray scattering technique to the study of supersmooth surfaces," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 530, 575-595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Morikawa, J. D. Scott, and V. Saile, "Adaptive optics for resolution/throughput optimization; variable-radius-mirror application for a PGM," Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 319, 116-120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. P. Naulleau, P. Batson, P. Denham, D. Richardson, and J. Underwood, "An in situ scanning-slit alignment system for Kirkpatrick-Baez optics," Opt. Commun. 212, 225-233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. R. Howells, "Design strategies for monolithic adjustable-radius metal mirrors," Opt. Eng. 34, 410-417 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chen, C. K. Kuan, S. Y. Perng, D. J. Wang, H. C. Ho, T. C. Tseng, Y. C. Lo, and C. T. Chen, "New focusing mirror system for synchrotron radiation infrared beamlines," Opt. Eng. 43, 3077-3082 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mirror shape required for perfect focusing, expressed as curvature versus length along the substrate. Dashed curve, best fit achievable with a uniform substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of a flange-mounted bending mechanism, showing motorized drives, spring–pivot components in ultrahigh vacuum, and the mirror substrate to be bent. Further details can be found in Ref. 15.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

1D PSD spectra extracted from the 2D PSD distribution of the M103 Au-coated Ni-plated SS mirror measured with the Micromap-570 microscope with the 20× objective. Solid curve, tangential spectrum; dashed curve, sagittal spectrum. The spectra are the result of averaging over measurements of five different areas of the mirror surface. The roll-off seen at higher spatial frequencies is due to the MTF of the microscope. The hooklike features at the highest frequencies are artifacts of the correction of the CCD camera readout asymmetry (see text).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

1D PSD spectra extracted from the 2D PSD distribution of the M103 Au-coated Ni-plated SS mirror measured with the Micromap-570 microscope with all available objectives. Each spectrum is the result of averaging over measurements of five different areas of the mirror surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

1D PSD spectra extracted from the 2D PSD distribution of the M104 Au-coated, polished SS mirror measured with the Micromap-570 microscope with all available objectives. Each spectrum is the result of averaging over measurements of five different areas of the mirror surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

1D PSD spectra extracted from the 2D PSD distribution of the M105 Au-coated, polished SS mirror measured with the Micromap-570 microscope with all available objectives.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

1D PSD spectra measured with the AFM instrument over different surface areas of the M103 Au-coated Ni-plated SS mirror. Each spectrum is a result of averaging over four measurements of different surface spots at the same AFM settings. The AFM measurements are rather consistent for measurements of areas of sizes from 5 μm × 5 μm to 100 μm × 100 μm. However, at lower spatial frequencies, 50 μm × 50 μm and 100 μm × 100 μm area measurements systematically yield larger 1D PSD values than the measurements over smaller areas.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

1D PSD spectra measured with the AFM instrument over different surface areas of the M104 Au-coated, polished SS mirror. The lowest spatial frequency artifacts are due to the detrending procedure with subtraction of a residual surface described with a third-power polynomial.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

X-ray reflectivity versus angle for the M104 Au-coated, polished SS mirror measured at 92 eV. Dashed curve, theoretical reflectivity of a perfectly smooth mirror; solid curve, fit to the measurements with a Nevot–Croce factor used to model the scattering loss and a rms roughness of 18 Å.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependence on x-ray energy of the surface reflectance measured with the M103 Au-coated Ni-plated SS mirror and the M104 Au-coated, polished SS mirror. The solid and dashed curves represent the theoretical spectra computed from tabulated optical properties of gold, with a Nevot–Croce treatment of the loss that is due to surface roughness, assuming a mirror surface roughnesses of 5 Å for Au-coated Ni-plated SS mirror M103 and of 20 Å for Au-coated, polished SS mirror M104. The steel reflectivity is reduced above 200 eV by surface roughness effects.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

1D PSD spectra extracted from the x-ray scattering measurements with the M104 Au-coated, polished SS mirror. Solid curve, x-ray beam grazing-incidence angle of 1.5°; dashed curve, beam grazing angle of 5°. The measurements were performed at photon energy of 92 eV.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Tangential 1D PSD spectra obtained with the M103 Ni-plated mirror. The spectra at lower spatial frequencies show measurements with different objectives of the interferometric microscope (cf. Fig. 4); the spectra at higher spatial frequencies represent the AFM data (cf. Fig. 7). Dashed curve, inverse power-law spectrum enveloping all the measured spectra. Note that the parameters of the inverse power-law spectrum (Table 3) are the same as for the sagittal 1D PSD spectra measured with the Micromap microscope and the AFM.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Tangential 1D PSD spectra obtained with the Au-coated, polished SS M104. The spectra at lower spatial frequencies show measurements with different objectives of the interferometric microscope (cf. Fig. 5); the spectra at the middle spatial frequencies represent the AFM data (cf. Fig. 8); the spectra extracted from the x-ray scattering measurements cover the highest frequencies available. Dashed curve, inverse power-law spectrum enveloping all the measured spectra. Note that the parameters of the inverse power-law spectrum (Table 3) are the same as for the sagittal 1D PSD spectra measured with the Micromap microscope and the AFM.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Micromap-570 Measurements of the rms Surface Roughness of the Three Mirrors Described in This Paper

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Table 2 AFM Measurements of the Surface Roughness (rms) of Two of the Mirrors

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Table 3 Measured Power-Law Parameters Obtained for the Frequency Range from Approximately 3 × 10−4 to 10 μm−1 and Corresponding Roughness Calculated over Frequency Range Characteristic for the 5× Objective

Equations (8)

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h m , n = ( h 1 m , n h 2 m , n ) / 2 .
S 2 ( u , v ) = lim A 1 A | L y / 2 L y / 2 d y L x / 2 L x / 2 h ( x , y ) × exp [ i 2 π ( s u x + s v y ) ] d x | 2 ,
S 2 ( l , k ) = M N Δ x Δ y | F l , k | 2 ,
F l , k = 1 M m = 0 M 1 [ exp ( 2 π i m l M ) × 1 N n = 0 N 1 h m , n exp ( 2 π i n k N ) ] .
S 1 ( l ) = 2 S 1 ( l ) g ( l ) , S 1 ( k ) = 2 S 1 ( k ) g ( k ) ,
S ( x , y ) = k 00 + k 10 x + k 20 x 2 + k 01 y + k 02 y 2 + k 11 x y + k 21 x 2 y + k 12 x y 2 + k 22 x 2 y 2 .
R x = [ l = 0 M / 2 S 1 ( l ) Δ f x ] 1 / 2 , R y = [ k = 0 N / 2 S 1 ( k ) Δ f y ] 1 / 2 .
S 1 ( f x ) = S 1 ( 1 ) / f x γ ,

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