Abstract

A novel optical edge projection method for surface contouring of an object with low reflectivity is presented. A structured light edge is projected onto a dark surface, and the image is captured by a CCD camera. The surface profile of the object is then evaluated by an active triangular projection technique, and a whole-field three-dimensional contour of the object is obtained by scanning the optical edge over the entire object surface. An edge detection method based on a continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is employed to determine the location of the optical edge. The method of optical edge detection is described, and characteristic details of gray-level distribution along the edge are analyzed. It is shown that the proposed wavelet edge detection method is not dependent on any threshold values; hence the true edge position can be determined without subjective selection. A black low-reflectivity object surface made from woven carbon fiber is measured, and the experimental results show that the profile of a woven carbon fiber can be obtained by the proposed method.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. Miao, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, Y. Fu, and X. P. Wu, "Optical edge projection for surface contouring," Opt. Commun. 256, 16-23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Miao, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and X. P. Wu, "Profilometry using optical edge projection," in Acousto-Optics and Applications V, T. Klinkosz, B. B. J. Linde, A. Sikorska, and A. Sliwinski, eds., Proc. SPIE 5828, 169-174 (2004).

2002 (1)

C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and X. Y. He, "Microscopic surface contouring by fringe projection method," Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 547-552 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. Quan, X. Y. He, and C. J. Tay, "Shape measurement of small objects using LCD fringe projection with phase shifting," Opt. Commun. 189, 21-29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kaspersen, T. Lango, and F. Lindseth, "Wavelet-based edge detection in ultrasound images," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 89-99 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

H. M. Shang and Y. Y. Hung, "Surface profiling using shearography," Opt. Eng. 39, 23-31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and H. M. Shang, "Fringe projection technique for the 3-D shape measurement of a hydroformed shell," J. Mater. Process Technol. 89-90, 88-91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. K. Rastogi, "Determination of surface strains by speckle shear photography," Opt. Laser Eng. 29, 103-116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

X. Y. Su and W. S. Zhou, "Automated phase-measuring profilometry using defocused projection of a Ronchi grating," Opt. Commun. 94, 561-573 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. Quan and P. J. Bryanston-Cross, "Double-source holographic contouring using fibre optics," Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 255-259 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. F. Canny, "A computational approach to edge detection," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 679-698 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1977 (1)

1971 (1)

Bryanston-Cross, P. J.

C. Quan and P. J. Bryanston-Cross, "Double-source holographic contouring using fibre optics," Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 255-259 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burton, D. R.

Canny, J. F.

J. F. Canny, "A computational approach to edge detection," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 679-698 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daubechies, I.

I. Daubechies, Ten Lectures on Wavelets (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1992).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

H. Miao, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, Y. Fu, and X. P. Wu, "Optical edge projection for surface contouring," Opt. Commun. 256, 16-23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, X. Y.

C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and X. Y. He, "Microscopic surface contouring by fringe projection method," Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 547-552 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, X. Y. He, and C. J. Tay, "Shape measurement of small objects using LCD fringe projection with phase shifting," Opt. Commun. 189, 21-29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hovanesian, J. D.

Hung, Y. Y.

Idesawa, M.

Kaspersen, J. H.

J. H. Kaspersen, T. Lango, and F. Lindseth, "Wavelet-based edge detection in ultrasound images," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 89-99 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalor, M. J.

Lango, T.

J. H. Kaspersen, T. Lango, and F. Lindseth, "Wavelet-based edge detection in ultrasound images," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 89-99 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindseth, F.

J. H. Kaspersen, T. Lango, and F. Lindseth, "Wavelet-based edge detection in ultrasound images," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 89-99 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H. C.

Miao, H.

H. Miao, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, Y. Fu, and X. P. Wu, "Optical edge projection for surface contouring," Opt. Commun. 256, 16-23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Miao, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and X. P. Wu, "Profilometry using optical edge projection," in Acousto-Optics and Applications V, T. Klinkosz, B. B. J. Linde, A. Sikorska, and A. Sliwinski, eds., Proc. SPIE 5828, 169-174 (2004).

Quan, C.

H. Miao, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, Y. Fu, and X. P. Wu, "Optical edge projection for surface contouring," Opt. Commun. 256, 16-23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Miao, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and X. P. Wu, "Profilometry using optical edge projection," in Acousto-Optics and Applications V, T. Klinkosz, B. B. J. Linde, A. Sikorska, and A. Sliwinski, eds., Proc. SPIE 5828, 169-174 (2004).

C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and X. Y. He, "Microscopic surface contouring by fringe projection method," Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 547-552 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, X. Y. He, and C. J. Tay, "Shape measurement of small objects using LCD fringe projection with phase shifting," Opt. Commun. 189, 21-29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and H. M. Shang, "Fringe projection technique for the 3-D shape measurement of a hydroformed shell," J. Mater. Process Technol. 89-90, 88-91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan and P. J. Bryanston-Cross, "Double-source holographic contouring using fibre optics," Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 255-259 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rastogi, P. K.

P. K. Rastogi, "Determination of surface strains by speckle shear photography," Opt. Laser Eng. 29, 103-116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shang, H. M.

H. M. Shang and Y. Y. Hung, "Surface profiling using shearography," Opt. Eng. 39, 23-31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and H. M. Shang, "Fringe projection technique for the 3-D shape measurement of a hydroformed shell," J. Mater. Process Technol. 89-90, 88-91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V.

Su, X. Y.

X. Y. Su and W. S. Zhou, "Automated phase-measuring profilometry using defocused projection of a Ronchi grating," Opt. Commun. 94, 561-573 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tay, C. J.

H. Miao, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, Y. Fu, and X. P. Wu, "Optical edge projection for surface contouring," Opt. Commun. 256, 16-23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Miao, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and X. P. Wu, "Profilometry using optical edge projection," in Acousto-Optics and Applications V, T. Klinkosz, B. B. J. Linde, A. Sikorska, and A. Sliwinski, eds., Proc. SPIE 5828, 169-174 (2004).

C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and X. Y. He, "Microscopic surface contouring by fringe projection method," Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 547-552 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, X. Y. He, and C. J. Tay, "Shape measurement of small objects using LCD fringe projection with phase shifting," Opt. Commun. 189, 21-29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and H. M. Shang, "Fringe projection technique for the 3-D shape measurement of a hydroformed shell," J. Mater. Process Technol. 89-90, 88-91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. P.

H. Miao, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, Y. Fu, and X. P. Wu, "Optical edge projection for surface contouring," Opt. Commun. 256, 16-23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Miao, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and X. P. Wu, "Profilometry using optical edge projection," in Acousto-Optics and Applications V, T. Klinkosz, B. B. J. Linde, A. Sikorska, and A. Sliwinski, eds., Proc. SPIE 5828, 169-174 (2004).

Yatagai, T.

Zhou, W. S.

X. Y. Su and W. S. Zhou, "Automated phase-measuring profilometry using defocused projection of a Ronchi grating," Opt. Commun. 94, 561-573 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

J. F. Canny, "A computational approach to edge detection," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 679-698 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Process Technol. (1)

C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and H. M. Shang, "Fringe projection technique for the 3-D shape measurement of a hydroformed shell," J. Mater. Process Technol. 89-90, 88-91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

X. Y. Su and W. S. Zhou, "Automated phase-measuring profilometry using defocused projection of a Ronchi grating," Opt. Commun. 94, 561-573 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, X. Y. He, and C. J. Tay, "Shape measurement of small objects using LCD fringe projection with phase shifting," Opt. Commun. 189, 21-29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Miao, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, Y. Fu, and X. P. Wu, "Optical edge projection for surface contouring," Opt. Commun. 256, 16-23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. M. Shang and Y. Y. Hung, "Surface profiling using shearography," Opt. Eng. 39, 23-31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

P. K. Rastogi, "Determination of surface strains by speckle shear photography," Opt. Laser Eng. 29, 103-116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (2)

C. Quan and P. J. Bryanston-Cross, "Double-source holographic contouring using fibre optics," Opt. Laser Technol. 22, 255-259 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and X. Y. He, "Microscopic surface contouring by fringe projection method," Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 547-552 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Miao, C. Quan, C. J. Tay, and X. P. Wu, "Profilometry using optical edge projection," in Acousto-Optics and Applications V, T. Klinkosz, B. B. J. Linde, A. Sikorska, and A. Sliwinski, eds., Proc. SPIE 5828, 169-174 (2004).

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

J. H. Kaspersen, T. Lango, and F. Lindseth, "Wavelet-based edge detection in ultrasound images," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 89-99 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

I. Daubechies, Ten Lectures on Wavelets (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Woven carbon fiber, (b) optical edge with three test areas marked, (c) distorted edge and reference line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gray-level distributions and histograms of three test areas on the optical edge marked in Fig. 2(b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gray-level distribution of the cross section of an optical edge.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gaussian wavelet of order 1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) 3D map of the CWT coefficients, (b) position of the detected edge.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of the experimental arrangement of the optical edge projection method.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Flow chart showing experimental procedures and the image processing algorithm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

3D profile of the woven carbon fiber specimen.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

h ( x , y ) = A C / sin θ ,
W s ( a , b ) = + s ( t ) ψ a , b * ( t ) d t ,
ψ a , b ( t ) = 1 a ψ ( t b a ) , b R , a > 0 ,
s ( t ) = 1 C ψ + 0 + W s ( a , b ) ψ ( t b a ) d a a 2  d b ,
C ψ = + | ψ ^ ( ω ) | 2 ω < +
W s ( a , b ) = 1 a + s ( t ) ψ a , b * ( t b a ) d t .

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