Abstract

We report the feasibility of monitoring both hemoglobin oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration in the superficial layer of tissue using polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy. We detail our analysis technique, the experimental validation of our analysis, and the detection of an early increase in blood supply to the superficial layer of colon tissue in human patients with colonic adenomas as well as in an animal model of colon carcinogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first evidence that polarization gating can be used as a spectroscopic tool to quantify hemoglobin concentration as well as oxygen saturation in the uppermost tissue layer.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Vaupel, O. Thews, and M. Hoeckel, "Treatment resistance of solid tumors: role of hypoxia and anemia," Med. Oncol. 18, 243-259 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. L. Hull and T. H. Foster, "Noninvasive near-infrared hemoglobin spectroscopy for in vivo monitoring of tumor-oxygenation and response to oxygen modifiers," in Proc. SPIE 2979, 355-364 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome," Cancer Res. 64, 7553-7651 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Vaupel and L. Harrison, "Tumor hypoxia: causative factors, compensatory mechanisms, and cellular response," Oncologist 9, (Suppl. 5)4-9 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, H. Bolay, M. L. Andermann, M. A. Moskowitz, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Simultaneous imaging of total cerebral hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and blood flow during functional activation," Opt. Lett. 28, 28-30 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Determination of optical properties of blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983-1993 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplac, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. J. Matcher and C. E. Cooper, "Absolute quantification of deoxyhaemoglobin concentration in tissue near infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1295-1312 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. J. Farrell and M. S. Patterson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. Venugopalan, J. S. You, and B. J. Tromberg, "Radiative transport in the diffusion approximation: an extension for highly absorbing media and small source-detector separations," Phys. Rev. E 58, 2395-2407 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, and E. Gratton, "Semi-infinite-geometry boundary problem for the light migration in highly scattering media: a frequency-domain study in the diffusion approximation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2128-2138 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, "Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 2304-2314 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, "Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 36, 949-957 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurements of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, "Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 116-123 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  16. G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. A. Strantonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, "Evaluation of blood oxygenation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 457-467 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L. A. Paunescu, J. S. Maier, and E. Gratton, "Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media," Appl. Opt. 37, 7447-7458 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 3048-3054 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Amelink, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. P. L. Bard, and S. A. Burgers, "In vivo measurement of the local optical properties of tissue by use of differential path-length spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 1087-1089 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alterations in early precancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-255 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, "Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization," Opt. Express 13, 601-611 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. F. Bonner, "Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium," Appl. Opt. 31, 6535-6546 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koestier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, "Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis," Gut 54, 654-660 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. V. P. Dick, "Applicability of Beer's law for dispersion media with a high concentration of particles," Appl. Opt. 37, 4998-5004 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1995).
  30. G. R. Kelman, "Digital computer subroutine for the conversion of oxygen tension into saturation," J. Appl. Physiol. 21, 1375-1376 (1966).
    [PubMed]
  31. R. Marchesini, A. Bertoni, S. Andreola, E. Melloni, and A. E. Sichirollo, "Extinction and absorption coefficients and scattering phase functions of human tissues in vitro," Appl. Opt. 28, 2318-2324 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. T. Collier, A. Dizem, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  33. W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255-2261 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, "Effect of pigment packaging on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of samples containing red blood cells," Opt. Lett. 29, 965-967 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. R. L. P. van Veen, W. Verkruysse, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy from 500 to 1060 nm by correction for inhomogeneously distributed absorbers," Opt. Lett. 27, 246-248 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, "Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization," Opt. Express 13, 601-611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koestier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, "Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis," Gut 54, 654-660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

2003 (4)

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, H. Bolay, M. L. Andermann, M. A. Moskowitz, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Simultaneous imaging of total cerebral hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and blood flow during functional activation," Opt. Lett. 28, 28-30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplac, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Collier, A. Dizem, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alterations in early precancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. P. van Veen, W. Verkruysse, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy from 500 to 1060 nm by correction for inhomogeneously distributed absorbers," Opt. Lett. 27, 246-248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

P. Vaupel, O. Thews, and M. Hoeckel, "Treatment resistance of solid tumors: role of hypoxia and anemia," Med. Oncol. 18, 243-259 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Strantonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, "Evaluation of blood oxygenation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 457-467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurements of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

1997 (3)

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, "Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 36, 949-957 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Hull and T. H. Foster, "Noninvasive near-infrared hemoglobin spectroscopy for in vivo monitoring of tumor-oxygenation and response to oxygen modifiers," in Proc. SPIE 2979, 355-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255-2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

1995 (2)

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Determination of optical properties of blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983-1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1995).

1994 (2)

1992 (2)

T. J. Farrell and M. S. Patterson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. F. Bonner, "Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium," Appl. Opt. 31, 6535-6546 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1966 (1)

G. R. Kelman, "Digital computer subroutine for the conversion of oxygen tension into saturation," J. Appl. Physiol. 21, 1375-1376 (1966).
[PubMed]

Aalders, M.

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255-2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

Andermann, M. L.

Andreola, S.

Backman, V.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koestier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, "Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis," Gut 54, 654-660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, "Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization," Opt. Express 13, 601-611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alterations in early precancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bard, M. P. L.

Beek, J. F.

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255-2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertoni, A.

Bigio, I. J.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurements of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, "Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 36, 949-957 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blokland, P.

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255-2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, H. Bolay, M. L. Andermann, M. A. Moskowitz, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Simultaneous imaging of total cerebral hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and blood flow during functional activation," Opt. Lett. 28, 28-30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Determination of optical properties of blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983-1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolay, H.

Bonner, R. F.

Boyer, J.

Burgers, S. A.

Busch, T. M.

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome," Cancer Res. 64, 7553-7651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Determination of optical properties of blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983-1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alterations in early precancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Collier, T.

T. Collier, A. Dizem, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, C. E.

S. J. Matcher and C. E. Cooper, "Absolute quantification of deoxyhaemoglobin concentration in tissue near infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1295-1312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dale, A. M.

Dasari, R. R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dehghani, H.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplac, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devor, A.

Dick, V. P.

Dizem, A.

T. Collier, A. Dizem, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, A. K.

Emanuele, M. J.

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome," Cancer Res. 64, 7553-7651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell and M. S. Patterson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, J. C.

Fitzmaurice, M.

Follen, M.

T. Collier, A. Dizem, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foster, T. H.

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, "Effect of pigment packaging on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of samples containing red blood cells," Opt. Lett. 29, 965-967 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Hull and T. H. Foster, "Noninvasive near-infrared hemoglobin spectroscopy for in vivo monitoring of tumor-oxygenation and response to oxygen modifiers," in Proc. SPIE 2979, 355-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Franceschini, M. A.

Fuselier, T.

Gandjbakhche, A. H.

Gibson, J. J.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplac, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glatstein, E.

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome," Cancer Res. 64, 7553-7651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, M. J.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koestier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, "Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis," Gut 54, 654-660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alterations in early precancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gratton, E.

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, L.

P. Vaupel and L. Harrison, "Tumor hypoxia: causative factors, compensatory mechanisms, and cellular response," Oncologist 9, (Suppl. 5)4-9 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibst, R.

Hoeckel, M.

P. Vaupel, O. Thews, and M. Hoeckel, "Treatment resistance of solid tumors: role of hypoxia and anemia," Med. Oncol. 18, 243-259 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hull, E. L.

E. L. Hull and T. H. Foster, "Noninvasive near-infrared hemoglobin spectroscopy for in vivo monitoring of tumor-oxygenation and response to oxygen modifiers," in Proc. SPIE 2979, 355-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, L.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplac, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurements of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, "Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 36, 949-957 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelman, G. R.

G. R. Kelman, "Digital computer subroutine for the conversion of oxygen tension into saturation," J. Appl. Physiol. 21, 1375-1376 (1966).
[PubMed]

Kienle, A.

Kim, Y. L.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koestier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, "Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis," Gut 54, 654-660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, "Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization," Opt. Express 13, 601-611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alterations in early precancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knoefel, W. T.

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, "Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 116-123 (1996).
[PubMed]

Koestier, J. L.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koestier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, "Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis," Gut 54, 654-660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kogel, C.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplac, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollias, N.

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, "Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 116-123 (1996).
[PubMed]

Kromin, A. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alterations in early precancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kunte, D. P.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koestier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, "Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis," Gut 54, 654-660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Lilge, L.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Determination of optical properties of blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983-1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, "Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization," Opt. Express 13, 601-611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koestier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, "Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis," Gut 54, 654-660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alterations in early precancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Los, G.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurements of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loschenov, V. B.

A. A. Strantonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, "Evaluation of blood oxygenation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 457-467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maier, J. S.

Malpica, A.

T. Collier, A. Dizem, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manoharan, R.

Marchesini, R.

Matcher, S. J.

S. J. Matcher and C. E. Cooper, "Absolute quantification of deoxyhaemoglobin concentration in tissue near infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1295-1312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melloni, E.

Moskowitz, M. A.

Mourant, J. R.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurements of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, "Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 36, 949-957 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myakov, A.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieman, L.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, "Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 116-123 (1996).
[PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, "Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 2304-2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell and M. S. Patterson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplac, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paunescu, L. A.

Perelman, L. T.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pickering, J. W.

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255-2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplac, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poplac, S. P.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplac, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Posthumus, P.

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255-2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Putt, M. E.

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome," Cancer Res. 64, 7553-7651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rattner, D. W.

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, "Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 116-123 (1996).
[PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

T. Collier, A. Dizem, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, H. K.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koestier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, "Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis," Gut 54, 654-660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alterations in early precancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

Shin, D. B.

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome," Cancer Res. 64, 7553-7651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sichirollo, A. E.

Soho, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplac, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplac, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, R.

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

Strantonnikov, A. A.

A. A. Strantonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, "Evaluation of blood oxygenation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 457-467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thews, O.

P. Vaupel, O. Thews, and M. Hoeckel, "Treatment resistance of solid tumors: role of hypoxia and anemia," Med. Oncol. 18, 243-259 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tosteson, T. D.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplac, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

V. Venugopalan, J. S. You, and B. J. Tromberg, "Radiative transport in the diffusion approximation: an extension for highly absorbing media and small source-detector separations," Phys. Rev. E 58, 2395-2407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Turzhitsky, V.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koestier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, "Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis," Gut 54, 654-660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1995).

van Gemert, M. J. C.

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255-2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Veen, R. L. P.

Vaupel, P.

P. Vaupel and L. Harrison, "Tumor hypoxia: causative factors, compensatory mechanisms, and cellular response," Oncologist 9, (Suppl. 5)4-9 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vaupel, O. Thews, and M. Hoeckel, "Treatment resistance of solid tumors: role of hypoxia and anemia," Med. Oncol. 18, 243-259 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Venugopalan, V.

V. Venugopalan, J. S. You, and B. J. Tromberg, "Radiative transport in the diffusion approximation: an extension for highly absorbing media and small source-detector separations," Phys. Rev. E 58, 2395-2407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verkruysse, W.

Wali, R. K.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koestier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, "Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis," Gut 54, 654-660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alterations in early precancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. W.

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome," Cancer Res. 64, 7553-7651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warshaw, A. L.

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, "Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 116-123 (1996).
[PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wicky, L.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Yodh, A. G.

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome," Cancer Res. 64, 7553-7651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Determination of optical properties of blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983-1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, J. S.

V. Venugopalan, J. S. You, and B. J. Tromberg, "Radiative transport in the diffusion approximation: an extension for highly absorbing media and small source-detector separations," Phys. Rev. E 58, 2395-2407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Determination of optical properties of blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983-1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

Appl. Opt. (8)

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, "Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 2304-2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, "Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 36, 949-957 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L. A. Paunescu, J. S. Maier, and E. Gratton, "Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media," Appl. Opt. 37, 7447-7458 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 3048-3054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. F. Bonner, "Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium," Appl. Opt. 31, 6535-6546 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Dick, "Applicability of Beer's law for dispersion media with a high concentration of particles," Appl. Opt. 37, 4998-5004 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Marchesini, A. Bertoni, S. Andreola, E. Melloni, and A. E. Sichirollo, "Extinction and absorption coefficients and scattering phase functions of human tissues in vitro," Appl. Opt. 28, 2318-2324 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. J. Emanuele, D. B. Shin, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Treatment-induced changes in tumor oxygenation predict photodynamic therapy outcome," Cancer Res. 64, 7553-7651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gut (1)

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koestier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, "Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis," Gut 54, 654-660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

T. Collier, A. Dizem, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, K. Chen, and V. Backman, "Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alterations in early precancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243-255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Physiol. (2)

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, "Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 116-123 (1996).
[PubMed]

G. R. Kelman, "Digital computer subroutine for the conversion of oxygen tension into saturation," J. Appl. Physiol. 21, 1375-1376 (1966).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Strantonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, "Evaluation of blood oxygenation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 457-467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Med. Oncol. (1)

P. Vaupel, O. Thews, and M. Hoeckel, "Treatment resistance of solid tumors: role of hypoxia and anemia," Med. Oncol. 18, 243-259 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

T. J. Farrell and M. S. Patterson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oncologist (1)

P. Vaupel and L. Harrison, "Tumor hypoxia: causative factors, compensatory mechanisms, and cellular response," Oncologist 9, (Suppl. 5)4-9 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

S. J. Matcher and C. E. Cooper, "Absolute quantification of deoxyhaemoglobin concentration in tissue near infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1295-1312 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurements of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "Determination of optical properties of blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983-1993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255-2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

V. Venugopalan, J. S. You, and B. J. Tromberg, "Radiative transport in the diffusion approximation: an extension for highly absorbing media and small source-detector separations," Phys. Rev. E 58, 2395-2407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplac, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. L. Hull and T. H. Foster, "Noninvasive near-infrared hemoglobin spectroscopy for in vivo monitoring of tumor-oxygenation and response to oxygen modifiers," in Proc. SPIE 2979, 355-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of our system. The light from a xenon lamp is collimated using a 4 - f system and then passed through the first polarizer P. It is then directed onto the sample, and backscattered light passes through another polarizer before reaching a spectrograph (SG) coupled to a CCD camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra taken from a sample consisting of 4.3 µm polystyrene beads suspended in a solution of water and hemoglobin. Note the characteristic oxygenated hemoglobin absorption bands in all three spectra at approximately 542 and 576 nm . I and I were normalized against the copolarized and cross-polarized spectra from our reflectance standard, and Δ I was normalized against the sum of the copolarized and cross-polarized reflectance spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Recreation of the hemoglobin oxygen dissociation curve using the spectral analysis of a polarization-gated signal. The dashed curve represents the curve as predicted by Kelman's subroutine.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative concentration of hemoglobin α calculated over a range of physiological values. The solid line represents the curve used to calibrate α for calculations of absolute hemoglobin concentration. Dashed lines represent linear approximations for µ s = 38.4 and 223 cm - 1 . We used these curves to identify a maximum reasonable deviation in calculations of hemoglobin concentration due to scattering.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of two-layer phantom study. The agreement between these data and those gathered during the single-layer phantom study demonstrates the relevance of our technique for in vivo applications.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectra taken from human biopsy samples. (a) Polarization-gated spectrum taken from a control group patient prior to hemoglobin removal. (b) Polarization-gated spectrum from (a) after hemoglobin removal. (c) Polarization-gated spectrum taken from a test group patient prior to hemoglobin removal. (d) Polarization-gated spectrum from (d) after hemoglobin removal. In both (b) and (d), the dashed curves represent the linear approximation of the spectrum.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Display of EIBS in both (a) the AOM rat model and (b) the human colon biopsies. To obtain these results we used the calibration curve in Fig. 4 to convert α to true C Hb . This relation was C Hb = 0.876 α . Error bars represent possible deviation on account of scattering ranging from µ s = 38.4 to 223 cm - 1 . Final population sizes were 4 rats and 24 human patients.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔI ( λ ) = I ( λ ) - I ( λ ) I RS ( λ ) + I RS ( λ ) ,
Δ I ( λ ) = Δ I scattering ( λ ) exp [ - αA PG ( λ ) ] ,
S O 2 = α HbO 2 α HbO 2 + α Hb × 100 % ,
C Hb α = α Hb + α HbO 2 .

Metrics