Abstract

Using synchrotron radiation, we have measured the efficiency at an angle of incidence of 10° of a holographic ion-etched spherical blazed grating and three of its fourth-generation replicas. The measured efficiency profile of replicas 1 and 3 prior to multilayer coating oscillated from thin-film interference produced by the replicas' Al∕Al2O3/SiO2 structure. A Mo2C∕Si multilayer coating was applied to the master grating and replicas 1 and 2. After coating, the maximum grating efficiency occurred in the 2nd order and the maximum values were 12.4% at 143.8  Å for the master and 11.6% at 145.2  Å for replicas 1 and 2. On the basis of measurements obtained after coating, the derived groove efficiency was 22 .2% for the master, 19 .4% for replica 1, and 19 .3% for replica 2. The groove efficiency of the uncoated replica 3 was 24.3% at 142 .5   Å. We find that the replicas are reasonably faithful copies of the ion-etched master, and models based on measured atomic force microscope groove profiles are in general agreement with measured results. However, subtle issues remain regarding the widths of the peak order profile and the location of its maximum wavelength.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-l/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
  2. M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
  3. J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).
  4. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
  5. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
  6. M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).
  7. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo∕Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 136–142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
  8. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115–340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line∕mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).
  9. W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, “Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 24–42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line∕mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6411–6415 (1997).
  10. M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, K. F. Heidemann, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, “Efficiency calibration of the first multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight grating for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6487–6493 (1999).
  11. M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Kowalski, “Space Science Division's J-PEX instrument to provide new data on the evolution of white dwarf stars,” NRL Labstracts (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 2001).
  13. R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. A. Barstow, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, N. P. Bannister, D. Yentis, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, I. Hubeny, S. Schuh, S. Dreizler, T. W. Barbee, “High resolution EUV spectroscopy of G191-B2B II: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362, 1273–1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Replication of a holographic ion-etched spherical blazed grating for use at extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths: topography,” Appl. Opt. 45, 305–321 (2006).
  16. W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141–153 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” NRL Memo. Rep. 7620-95-7738 (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 1995).
  18. W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 465–468 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Comparison of the calculated and the measured efficiencies of a normal-incidence grating in the 125–225-Å wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8939–8943 (1997).
  20. W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, R. G. Cruddace, “Investigation of the properties of an ion-etched plane laminar holographic grating,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6157–6165 (2001).
  21. J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Thin-film interference effects on the efficiency of a normal-incidence grating in the 100–350-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1251–1258 (1999).
  22. L. I. Goray, J. F. Seely, “Efficiencies of master, replica, and multilayer gratings for the soft-x-ray–extreme-ultraviolet range: modeling based on the modified integral method and comparisons with measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1434–1445 (2002).
  23. E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Surface scattering,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 1, p. 7.11.
  24. T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a Mo∕Si multilayer structure,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4852–4854 (1993).
  25. http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/.
  26. C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, J. F. Seely, “MoRu-Be multilayer-coated grating with 10.4% normal-incidence efficiency near the 11.4-nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 26, 125–127 (2001).
  27. J. F. Seely, C. Montcalm, S. Baker, S. Bajt, “High-efficiency MoRu∕Be multilayer coated gratings operating near normal incidence in the 11.1–12.0-nm wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5565–5574 (2001).
  28. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, “Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2914–2916 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, “High-efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high-resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy,” in UV and Gamma Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910–921 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  30. B. Vidal, P. Vincent, P. Dhez, M. Neviere, “Thin films and gratings: theories used to optimize the high reflectivity of mirrors and gratings for x-ray optics,” in Applications of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563, 142–149 (1985).
  31. K.-H. Hellwege, “Uber rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter,” Z. Phys. 106, 588–596 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K.-H. Hellwege, “Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter, Nachtrag,” Z. Phys. 111, 495–497 (1939).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

M. A. Barstow, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, N. P. Bannister, D. Yentis, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, I. Hubeny, S. Schuh, S. Dreizler, T. W. Barbee, “High resolution EUV spectroscopy of G191-B2B II: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362, 1273–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, “High-efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high-resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy,” in UV and Gamma Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910–921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, “Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2914–2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

L. I. Goray, J. F. Seely, “Efficiencies of master, replica, and multilayer gratings for the soft-x-ray–extreme-ultraviolet range: modeling based on the modified integral method and comparisons with measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1434–1445 (2002).

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, J. F. Seely, “MoRu-Be multilayer-coated grating with 10.4% normal-incidence efficiency near the 11.4-nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 26, 125–127 (2001).

J. F. Seely, C. Montcalm, S. Baker, S. Bajt, “High-efficiency MoRu∕Be multilayer coated gratings operating near normal incidence in the 11.1–12.0-nm wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5565–5574 (2001).

W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, R. G. Cruddace, “Investigation of the properties of an ion-etched plane laminar holographic grating,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6157–6165 (2001).

1999 (2)

1997 (4)

1995 (3)

1993 (3)

1990 (1)

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-l/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).

1986 (1)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

B. Vidal, P. Vincent, P. Dhez, M. Neviere, “Thin films and gratings: theories used to optimize the high reflectivity of mirrors and gratings for x-ray optics,” in Applications of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563, 142–149 (1985).

1982 (1)

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1939 (1)

K.-H. Hellwege, “Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter, Nachtrag,” Z. Phys. 111, 495–497 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1937 (1)

K.-H. Hellwege, “Uber rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter,” Z. Phys. 106, 588–596 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Bajt, S.

Baker, S.

Bannister, N. P.

M. A. Barstow, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, N. P. Bannister, D. Yentis, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, I. Hubeny, S. Schuh, S. Dreizler, T. W. Barbee, “High resolution EUV spectroscopy of G191-B2B II: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362, 1273–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Replication of a holographic ion-etched spherical blazed grating for use at extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths: topography,” Appl. Opt. 45, 305–321 (2006).

M. A. Barstow, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, N. P. Bannister, D. Yentis, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, I. Hubeny, S. Schuh, S. Dreizler, T. W. Barbee, “High resolution EUV spectroscopy of G191-B2B II: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362, 1273–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, “Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2914–2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, “High-efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high-resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy,” in UV and Gamma Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910–921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, K. F. Heidemann, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, “Efficiency calibration of the first multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight grating for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6487–6493 (1999).

W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, “Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 24–42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line∕mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6411–6415 (1997).

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115–340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line∕mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo∕Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 136–142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).

T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a Mo∕Si multilayer structure,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4852–4854 (1993).

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-l/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).

Barstow, M. A.

M. A. Barstow, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, N. P. Bannister, D. Yentis, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, I. Hubeny, S. Schuh, S. Dreizler, T. W. Barbee, “High resolution EUV spectroscopy of G191-B2B II: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362, 1273–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, C. N.

Brown, C. M.

Church, E. L.

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Surface scattering,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 1, p. 7.11.

Cruddace, R. G.

M. A. Barstow, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, N. P. Bannister, D. Yentis, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, I. Hubeny, S. Schuh, S. Dreizler, T. W. Barbee, “High resolution EUV spectroscopy of G191-B2B II: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362, 1273–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, “Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2914–2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, “High-efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high-resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy,” in UV and Gamma Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910–921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, R. G. Cruddace, “Investigation of the properties of an ion-etched plane laminar holographic grating,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6157–6165 (2001).

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, K. F. Heidemann, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, “Efficiency calibration of the first multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight grating for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6487–6493 (1999).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115–340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line∕mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).

T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a Mo∕Si multilayer structure,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4852–4854 (1993).

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-l/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” NRL Memo. Rep. 7620-95-7738 (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 1995).

Culhane, J. L.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dhez, P.

B. Vidal, P. Vincent, P. Dhez, M. Neviere, “Thin films and gratings: theories used to optimize the high reflectivity of mirrors and gratings for x-ray optics,” in Applications of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563, 142–149 (1985).

Dreizler, S.

M. A. Barstow, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, N. P. Bannister, D. Yentis, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, I. Hubeny, S. Schuh, S. Dreizler, T. W. Barbee, “High resolution EUV spectroscopy of G191-B2B II: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362, 1273–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eby, R.

Fraser, G. W.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, G. G.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, K. F. Heidemann, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, “Efficiency calibration of the first multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight grating for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6487–6493 (1999).

Goldstein, W.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, W. H.

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goray, L. I.

Gursky, H.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, K. F. Heidemann, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, “Efficiency calibration of the first multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight grating for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6487–6493 (1999).

Heidemann, K. F.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, “Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2914–2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, “High-efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high-resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy,” in UV and Gamma Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910–921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, K. F. Heidemann, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, “Efficiency calibration of the first multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight grating for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6487–6493 (1999).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).

Heinzmann, U.

Hellwege, K.-H.

K.-H. Hellwege, “Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter, Nachtrag,” Z. Phys. 111, 495–497 (1939).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Hellwege, “Uber rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter,” Z. Phys. 106, 588–596 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Holland, G. E.

Hubeny, I.

M. A. Barstow, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, N. P. Bannister, D. Yentis, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, I. Hubeny, S. Schuh, S. Dreizler, T. W. Barbee, “High resolution EUV spectroscopy of G191-B2B II: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362, 1273–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Replication of a holographic ion-etched spherical blazed grating for use at extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths: topography,” Appl. Opt. 45, 305–321 (2006).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, “High-efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high-resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy,” in UV and Gamma Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910–921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, “Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2914–2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, R. G. Cruddace, “Investigation of the properties of an ion-etched plane laminar holographic grating,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6157–6165 (2001).

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Thin-film interference effects on the efficiency of a normal-incidence grating in the 100–350-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1251–1258 (1999).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, K. F. Heidemann, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, “Efficiency calibration of the first multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight grating for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6487–6493 (1999).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).

W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, “Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 24–42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line∕mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6411–6415 (1997).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Comparison of the calculated and the measured efficiencies of a normal-incidence grating in the 125–225-Å wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8939–8943 (1997).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115–340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line∕mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo∕Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 136–142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).

T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a Mo∕Si multilayer structure,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4852–4854 (1993).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-l/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” NRL Memo. Rep. 7620-95-7738 (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 1995).

Kabler, M. N.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kierey, H.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, “Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2914–2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, “High-efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high-resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy,” in UV and Gamma Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910–921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kirkland, J. P.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

Kordas, J. F.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M.

M. Kowalski, “Space Science Division's J-PEX instrument to provide new data on the evolution of white dwarf stars,” NRL Labstracts (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 2001).

Kowalski, M. P.

M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Replication of a holographic ion-etched spherical blazed grating for use at extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths: topography,” Appl. Opt. 45, 305–321 (2006).

M. A. Barstow, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, N. P. Bannister, D. Yentis, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, I. Hubeny, S. Schuh, S. Dreizler, T. W. Barbee, “High resolution EUV spectroscopy of G191-B2B II: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362, 1273–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, “Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2914–2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, “High-efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high-resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy,” in UV and Gamma Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910–921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, R. G. Cruddace, “Investigation of the properties of an ion-etched plane laminar holographic grating,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6157–6165 (2001).

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, K. F. Heidemann, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, “Efficiency calibration of the first multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight grating for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6487–6493 (1999).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).

W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, “Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 24–42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line∕mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6411–6415 (1997).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Comparison of the calculated and the measured efficiencies of a normal-incidence grating in the 125–225-Å wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8939–8943 (1997).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115–340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line∕mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo∕Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 136–142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).

T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a Mo∕Si multilayer structure,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4852–4854 (1993).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” NRL Memo. Rep. 7620-95-7738 (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 1995).

Lapington, J. S.

M. A. Barstow, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, N. P. Bannister, D. Yentis, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, I. Hubeny, S. Schuh, S. Dreizler, T. W. Barbee, “High resolution EUV spectroscopy of G191-B2B II: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362, 1273–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lenke, R.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, “High-efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high-resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy,” in UV and Gamma Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910–921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, “Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2914–2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Menke, D.

Montcalm, C.

Nelles, B.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, “High-efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high-resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy,” in UV and Gamma Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910–921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neviere, M.

B. Vidal, P. Vincent, P. Dhez, M. Neviere, “Thin films and gratings: theories used to optimize the high reflectivity of mirrors and gratings for x-ray optics,” in Applications of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563, 142–149 (1985).

Osterried, K.

Rife, J. C.

W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, R. G. Cruddace, “Investigation of the properties of an ion-etched plane laminar holographic grating,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6157–6165 (2001).

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Thin-film interference effects on the efficiency of a normal-incidence grating in the 100–350-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1251–1258 (1999).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, K. F. Heidemann, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, “Efficiency calibration of the first multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight grating for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6487–6493 (1999).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).

W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, “Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 24–42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line∕mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6411–6415 (1997).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Comparison of the calculated and the measured efficiencies of a normal-incidence grating in the 125–225-Å wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8939–8943 (1997).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115–340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line∕mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo∕Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 136–142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).

T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a Mo∕Si multilayer structure,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4852–4854 (1993).

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-l/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” NRL Memo. Rep. 7620-95-7738 (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 1995).

Sanderson, B.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schuh, S.

M. A. Barstow, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, N. P. Bannister, D. Yentis, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, I. Hubeny, S. Schuh, S. Dreizler, T. W. Barbee, “High resolution EUV spectroscopy of G191-B2B II: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362, 1273–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. F.

L. I. Goray, J. F. Seely, “Efficiencies of master, replica, and multilayer gratings for the soft-x-ray–extreme-ultraviolet range: modeling based on the modified integral method and comparisons with measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1434–1445 (2002).

J. F. Seely, C. Montcalm, S. Baker, S. Bajt, “High-efficiency MoRu∕Be multilayer coated gratings operating near normal incidence in the 11.1–12.0-nm wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5565–5574 (2001).

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, J. F. Seely, “MoRu-Be multilayer-coated grating with 10.4% normal-incidence efficiency near the 11.4-nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 26, 125–127 (2001).

J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Thin-film interference effects on the efficiency of a normal-incidence grating in the 100–350-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1251–1258 (1999).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Comparison of the calculated and the measured efficiencies of a normal-incidence grating in the 125–225-Å wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8939–8943 (1997).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).

W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, “Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 24–42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line∕mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6411–6415 (1997).

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115–340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line∕mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo∕Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 136–142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).

T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a Mo∕Si multilayer structure,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4852–4854 (1993).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” NRL Memo. Rep. 7620-95-7738 (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 1995).

Spragg, J. E.

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stolt, K. G.

Takacs, P. Z.

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Surface scattering,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 1, p. 7.11.

Tandy, J. A.

M. A. Barstow, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, N. P. Bannister, D. Yentis, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, I. Hubeny, S. Schuh, S. Dreizler, T. W. Barbee, “High resolution EUV spectroscopy of G191-B2B II: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362, 1273–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, B.

B. Vidal, P. Vincent, P. Dhez, M. Neviere, “Thin films and gratings: theories used to optimize the high reflectivity of mirrors and gratings for x-ray optics,” in Applications of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563, 142–149 (1985).

Vincent, P.

B. Vidal, P. Vincent, P. Dhez, M. Neviere, “Thin films and gratings: theories used to optimize the high reflectivity of mirrors and gratings for x-ray optics,” in Applications of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563, 142–149 (1985).

Williams, R. T.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yentis, D.

M. A. Barstow, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, N. P. Bannister, D. Yentis, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, I. Hubeny, S. Schuh, S. Dreizler, T. W. Barbee, “High resolution EUV spectroscopy of G191-B2B II: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362, 1273–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yentis, D. J.

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (15)

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, R. G. Cruddace, “Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2422–2425 (1993).

T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, “Long-term stability of a Mo∕Si multilayer structure,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4852–4854 (1993).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo∕Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 136–142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).

W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, “Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 24–42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line∕mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6411–6415 (1997).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Comparison of the calculated and the measured efficiencies of a normal-incidence grating in the 125–225-Å wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8939–8943 (1997).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115–340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line∕mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).

J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Thin-film interference effects on the efficiency of a normal-incidence grating in the 100–350-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1251–1258 (1999).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, K. F. Heidemann, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, “Efficiency calibration of the first multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight grating for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6487–6493 (1999).

J. F. Seely, C. Montcalm, S. Baker, S. Bajt, “High-efficiency MoRu∕Be multilayer coated gratings operating near normal incidence in the 11.1–12.0-nm wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5565–5574 (2001).

W. R. Hunter, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, R. G. Cruddace, “Investigation of the properties of an ion-etched plane laminar holographic grating,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6157–6165 (2001).

L. I. Goray, J. F. Seely, “Efficiencies of master, replica, and multilayer gratings for the soft-x-ray–extreme-ultraviolet range: modeling based on the modified integral method and comparisons with measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1434–1445 (2002).

M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “Replication of a holographic ion-etched spherical blazed grating for use at extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths: topography,” Appl. Opt. 45, 305–321 (2006).

Astrophys. J. Lett. (1)

R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, D. Yentis, G. G. Fritz, C. M. Brown, H. Gursky, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Spragg, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, J. L. Culhane, T. W. Barbee, J. F. Kordas, W. Goldstein, “High-resolution spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 565, L47–L50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

M. A. Barstow, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, N. P. Bannister, D. Yentis, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, I. Hubeny, S. Schuh, S. Dreizler, T. W. Barbee, “High resolution EUV spectroscopy of G191-B2B II: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362, 1273–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. (1)

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Scr. (1)

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-l/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).

Proc. SPIE (3)

M. P. Kowalski, H. Gursky, J. C. Rife, D. J. Yentis, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, K. F. Heidemann, G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, N. P. Bannister, J. S. Lapington, J. A. Tandy, B. Sanderson, “Efficiency calibration of the four multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer,” in UV/EUV and Visible Space Instrumentation for Astronomy and Solar Physics, O. H. W. Svegmund, S. Fineschi, and M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE 4498, 303–314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, “High-efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high-resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy,” in UV and Gamma Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910–921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Vidal, P. Vincent, P. Dhez, M. Neviere, “Thin films and gratings: theories used to optimize the high reflectivity of mirrors and gratings for x-ray optics,” in Applications of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563, 142–149 (1985).

Z. Phys. (2)

K.-H. Hellwege, “Uber rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter,” Z. Phys. 106, 588–596 (1937).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Hellwege, “Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter, Nachtrag,” Z. Phys. 111, 495–497 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Kowalski, “Space Science Division's J-PEX instrument to provide new data on the evolution of white dwarf stars,” NRL Labstracts (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 2001).

E. L. Church, P. Z. Takacs, “Surface scattering,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 1, p. 7.11.

http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C,” NRL Memo. Rep. 7620-95-7738 (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a multilayer-coated blazed grating replica (not to scale).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured (data) efficiency of replica 3 made at an angle of incidence of 10° for the (a) 0th, (b) ±1st, (c) ±2nd, and (d) ±3rd orders. All model results have been corrected for roughness by multiplying by a Strehl ratio. (e) The sum of all measured orders are the data points. The other curves are the sum of all (Strehl-modifed) model orders and the calculation of reflectance as modified by a Debye–Waller factor. Roughness was set at 12 Å rms in both models.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured efficiency of the master grating, replica 1, and replica 3 made at an angle of incidence of 10° for the (a) −1st, (b) −2nd, (c) −3rd, (d) +1st, (e) +2nd, (f) +3rd, and (g) 0th order and (h) the sum of all measured grating orders. In (a)–(f) the inside orders of the master are compared with the outside orders of the replicas and vice versa, as explained in the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured efficiency of replica 3 in the 2nd, 1st, and 0th orders made at an angle of incidence of 10°. The legend identifies orders in the original orientation and after the grating was rotated 180° about its normal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured reflectance made at an angle of incidence of 10° of the witness flats for the master grating and replica 1 and for replica 2. The solid curve is the best-fit model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured efficiency of the multilayer-coated master, replica 1, and replica 2 for the (a) −1st, (b) −2nd, (c) −3rd, (d) +1st, (e) +2nd, (f) +3rd, and (g) 0th order and (h) the sum of all measured orders, made at an angle of incidence of 10°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured reflectance of the witness flat and measured grating efficiency normalized to the peak efficiency or reflectance, respectively, for (a) the master grating, (b) replica 1, and (c) replica 2, and the relevant witness flat. The legend identifies the orders.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured (data) and modeled efficiency of the multilayer-coated master made at an angle of incidence of 10° for the (a) ±1st, (b) ±2nd, (c) ±3rd, (d) −4th, and (e) 0th orders. (f) Sum of all the measured and modeled orders, sum of all measured orders added to the product of the model absorption and the measured multilayer reflectance, and modeled reflectance of the multilayer witness flat.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Groove efficiency derived from efficiency measurements (numerator of the groove efficiency) made prior to coating with a multilayer in the −2nd order and the sum of the measured orders for (a) the master grating, (b) replica 1, and (c) replica 3. (The legends list these as data.) The model curves were calculated using measured AFM groove profiles in the groove efficiency numerator. In all cases the surface reflectance (denominator of the groove efficiency) was calculated from a model that assumed no roughness.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Groove efficiency in the −2nd order for (a) the master grating, (b) replica 1, and (c) replica 2. Bare values were derived using the measured or model efficiency before multilayer (ML) coating in the numerator and the modeled reflectance in the denominator. Multilayer values were derived using the measured efficiency after multilayer coating in the numerator and the measured reflectance of the witness flat in the denominator. The colored solid curves were derived using the measured efficiency after multilayer coating in the numerator and the best-fit model of the witness flat reflectance in the denominator at angles of incidence of 10.0° (red), 12.0° (yellow), 12.5° (green), and 13.0° (blue).

Metrics