Abstract

A study of lateral, vertical, and combined spot-size converters is presented that employs full-vectorial numerical techniques such as modal solution and beam propagation based on the finite-element method. Spot-size expansion, coupling efficiency to an optical fiber, the mode-beating phenomenon, and transmission losses are demonstrated for all three spot-size-converter designs. Optimization of the device fabrication parameters is also reported. A significant improvement in the coupling efficiency and reduction of the device length are achieved when the length and the width are changed simultaneously.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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