Abstract

A study of lateral, vertical, and combined spot-size converters is presented that employs full-vectorial numerical techniques such as modal solution and beam propagation based on the finite-element method. Spot-size expansion, coupling efficiency to an optical fiber, the mode-beating phenomenon, and transmission losses are demonstrated for all three spot-size-converter designs. Optimization of the device fabrication parameters is also reported. A significant improvement in the coupling efficiency and reduction of the device length are achieved when the length and the width are changed simultaneously.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. Livas, E. Kintze, D. Mull, L. Missaggia, and W. DiNatale, "Fabrication of two-sided anamorphic microlenses and direct coupling of tapered high-power diode laser to single-mode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1315-1317 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. M. Presby and C. A. Edwards, "Near 100% efficient fiber microlenses," Electron. Lett. 28, 582-584 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, and T. Kimura, "Characteristics of a hemispherical microlens for coupling between a semiconductor laser and single mode fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1067-1072 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Edwards, H. Presby, and C. Dragone, "Ideal microlenses for laser to fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-11, 252-257 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, "A simple lateral tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. PT-5, 345-347 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Mersali, H. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, "Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization-insensitive optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-13, 1856-1871 (1995).
  7. Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Italy, and T. Sugie, "Spot-size converted 1.3 µm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28, 2040-2041 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. S. Fan and R. B. Hooker, "Tapered polymer single-mode waveguides for mode transformation," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-17, 466-474 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, and L. R. Dalton, "Vertical tapered mode size transformation in polymer waveguides for efficient fiber coupling," in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 8-10.
  11. C. Lee, M. Wu, L. Sheu, P. Fan, and J. Hsu, "Design and analysis of completely adiabatic tapered waveguides by conformal mapping," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-15, 403-410 (1997).
  12. R. Ridgway, D. Nippa, S. Risser, and V. McGinniss, "Silica waveguide electrooptic modulator employing push-pull electrodes," presented at Integrated Photonics Research Topical Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 1 July 2004, paper IThC2.
  13. G. B. Hocker and W. K. Burn, "Mode dispersion indiffused channel waveguides by the effective index method," Appl. Opt. 16, 113-118 (1977).
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  14. M. S. Stern, "Semiconductor polarized finite difference method for optical waveguides with arbitrary index profiles," Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 135, 56-63 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. M. A. Rahman and J. B. Davies, "Finite element solution of integrated optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 682-688 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. M. A. Rahman and S. Haxha, "Optimization of microwave properties for ultrahigh-speed etched and unetched lithium niobate electro-optic modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-20, 1856-1863 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. S. A. Obayya, S. Haxha, B. M. A. Rahman, C. Themistos, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Optimization of the optical properties of deeply etched semiconductor electro-optic modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 1813-1819 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. M. A. Rahman, W. Boonthittanont, S. S. Obayya, T. Wongcharoen, E. O. Ladele, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Rigorous beam propagation analysis of tapered spot-size converters in deep-etched semiconductor waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 3392-3398 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Wongcharoen, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Spot-size conversion using uniform waveguide sections for efficient laser-fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-19, 708-716 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, and H. El-Mikati, "New full vectorial numerically efficient propagation algorithm based on the finite element method," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-18, 409-415 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Kobayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Ekawa, T. Watanabe, T. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, H. Soda, S. Ogita, and M. Kobayashi, "Narrow-beam divergence 1.3-µm multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with monolithically integrated tapered thickness waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1384-1391 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and P. C. Kendall, "Rib waveguide spot-size transformers: modal properties," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-17, 848-856 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. S. A. Obayya, S. Haxha, B. M. A. Rahman, C. Themistos, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Optimization of the optical properties of deeply etched semiconductor electro-optic modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 1813-1819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. M. A. Rahman, W. Boonthittanont, S. S. Obayya, T. Wongcharoen, E. O. Ladele, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Rigorous beam propagation analysis of tapered spot-size converters in deep-etched semiconductor waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 3392-3398 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. M. A. Rahman and S. Haxha, "Optimization of microwave properties for ultrahigh-speed etched and unetched lithium niobate electro-optic modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-20, 1856-1863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Wongcharoen, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Spot-size conversion using uniform waveguide sections for efficient laser-fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-19, 708-716 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, and H. El-Mikati, "New full vectorial numerically efficient propagation algorithm based on the finite element method," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-18, 409-415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

R. S. Fan and R. B. Hooker, "Tapered polymer single-mode waveguides for mode transformation," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-17, 466-474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and P. C. Kendall, "Rib waveguide spot-size transformers: modal properties," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-17, 848-856 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

H. Kobayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Ekawa, T. Watanabe, T. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, H. Soda, S. Ogita, and M. Kobayashi, "Narrow-beam divergence 1.3-µm multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with monolithically integrated tapered thickness waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1384-1391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, and L. R. Dalton, "Vertical tapered mode size transformation in polymer waveguides for efficient fiber coupling," in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 8-10.

C. Lee, M. Wu, L. Sheu, P. Fan, and J. Hsu, "Design and analysis of completely adiabatic tapered waveguides by conformal mapping," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-15, 403-410 (1997).

1995 (3)

Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. Livas, E. Kintze, D. Mull, L. Missaggia, and W. DiNatale, "Fabrication of two-sided anamorphic microlenses and direct coupling of tapered high-power diode laser to single-mode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1315-1317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Mersali, H. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, "Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization-insensitive optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-13, 1856-1871 (1995).

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Italy, and T. Sugie, "Spot-size converted 1.3 µm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

C. Edwards, H. Presby, and C. Dragone, "Ideal microlenses for laser to fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-11, 252-257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, "A simple lateral tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. PT-5, 345-347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

H. M. Presby and C. A. Edwards, "Near 100% efficient fiber microlenses," Electron. Lett. 28, 582-584 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28, 2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. S. Stern, "Semiconductor polarized finite difference method for optical waveguides with arbitrary index profiles," Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 135, 56-63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

B. M. A. Rahman and J. B. Davies, "Finite element solution of integrated optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 682-688 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, and T. Kimura, "Characteristics of a hemispherical microlens for coupling between a semiconductor laser and single mode fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1067-1072 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

Bachmann, M.

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28, 2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Benson, T. M.

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and P. C. Kendall, "Rib waveguide spot-size transformers: modal properties," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-17, 848-856 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berenger, J. P.

J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boonthittanont, W.

B. M. A. Rahman, W. Boonthittanont, S. S. Obayya, T. Wongcharoen, E. O. Ladele, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Rigorous beam propagation analysis of tapered spot-size converters in deep-etched semiconductor waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 3392-3398 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, T.

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28, 2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bruckner, H.

B. Mersali, H. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, "Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization-insensitive optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-13, 1856-1871 (1995).

Burn, W. K.

Carenco, A.

B. Mersali, H. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, "Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization-insensitive optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-13, 1856-1871 (1995).

Chen, A.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, and L. R. Dalton, "Vertical tapered mode size transformation in polymer waveguides for efficient fiber coupling," in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 8-10.

Chen, J.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, and L. R. Dalton, "Vertical tapered mode size transformation in polymer waveguides for efficient fiber coupling," in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 8-10.

Chuyanov, V.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, and L. R. Dalton, "Vertical tapered mode size transformation in polymer waveguides for efficient fiber coupling," in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 8-10.

Dalton, L. R.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, and L. R. Dalton, "Vertical tapered mode size transformation in polymer waveguides for efficient fiber coupling," in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 8-10.

Davies, J. B.

B. M. A. Rahman and J. B. Davies, "Finite element solution of integrated optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 682-688 (1984).
[CrossRef]

DiNatale, W.

Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. Livas, E. Kintze, D. Mull, L. Missaggia, and W. DiNatale, "Fabrication of two-sided anamorphic microlenses and direct coupling of tapered high-power diode laser to single-mode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1315-1317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dragone, C.

C. Edwards, H. Presby, and C. Dragone, "Ideal microlenses for laser to fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-11, 252-257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, C.

C. Edwards, H. Presby, and C. Dragone, "Ideal microlenses for laser to fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-11, 252-257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, C. A.

H. M. Presby and C. A. Edwards, "Near 100% efficient fiber microlenses," Electron. Lett. 28, 582-584 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ekawa, M.

H. Kobayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Ekawa, T. Watanabe, T. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, H. Soda, S. Ogita, and M. Kobayashi, "Narrow-beam divergence 1.3-µm multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with monolithically integrated tapered thickness waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1384-1391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

El-Mikati, H.

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, and H. El-Mikati, "New full vectorial numerically efficient propagation algorithm based on the finite element method," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-18, 409-415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, P.

C. Lee, M. Wu, L. Sheu, P. Fan, and J. Hsu, "Design and analysis of completely adiabatic tapered waveguides by conformal mapping," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-15, 403-410 (1997).

Fan, R. S.

R. S. Fan and R. B. Hooker, "Tapered polymer single-mode waveguides for mode transformation," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-17, 466-474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feuillade, M.

B. Mersali, H. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, "Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization-insensitive optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-13, 1856-1871 (1995).

Fujii, T.

H. Kobayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Ekawa, T. Watanabe, T. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, H. Soda, S. Ogita, and M. Kobayashi, "Narrow-beam divergence 1.3-µm multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with monolithically integrated tapered thickness waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1384-1391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fukano, H.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Italy, and T. Sugie, "Spot-size converted 1.3 µm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, M.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Italy, and T. Sugie, "Spot-size converted 1.3 µm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, and L. R. Dalton, "Vertical tapered mode size transformation in polymer waveguides for efficient fiber coupling," in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 8-10.

Grattan, K. T. V.

S. S. A. Obayya, S. Haxha, B. M. A. Rahman, C. Themistos, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Optimization of the optical properties of deeply etched semiconductor electro-optic modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 1813-1819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. M. A. Rahman, W. Boonthittanont, S. S. Obayya, T. Wongcharoen, E. O. Ladele, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Rigorous beam propagation analysis of tapered spot-size converters in deep-etched semiconductor waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 3392-3398 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Wongcharoen, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Spot-size conversion using uniform waveguide sections for efficient laser-fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-19, 708-716 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guekos, G.

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28, 2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Haxha, S.

S. S. A. Obayya, S. Haxha, B. M. A. Rahman, C. Themistos, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Optimization of the optical properties of deeply etched semiconductor electro-optic modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 1813-1819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. M. A. Rahman and S. Haxha, "Optimization of microwave properties for ultrahigh-speed etched and unetched lithium niobate electro-optic modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-20, 1856-1863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hocker, G. B.

Hooker, R. B.

R. S. Fan and R. B. Hooker, "Tapered polymer single-mode waveguides for mode transformation," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-17, 466-474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J.

C. Lee, M. Wu, L. Sheu, P. Fan, and J. Hsu, "Design and analysis of completely adiabatic tapered waveguides by conformal mapping," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-15, 403-410 (1997).

Hunziker, W.

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28, 2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, T.

H. Kobayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Ekawa, T. Watanabe, T. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, H. Soda, S. Ogita, and M. Kobayashi, "Narrow-beam divergence 1.3-µm multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with monolithically integrated tapered thickness waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1384-1391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Italy, Y.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Italy, and T. Sugie, "Spot-size converted 1.3 µm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kasaya, K.

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, "A simple lateral tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. PT-5, 345-347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, P. C.

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and P. C. Kendall, "Rib waveguide spot-size transformers: modal properties," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-17, 848-856 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, and T. Kimura, "Characteristics of a hemispherical microlens for coupling between a semiconductor laser and single mode fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1067-1072 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kintze, E.

Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. Livas, E. Kintze, D. Mull, L. Missaggia, and W. DiNatale, "Fabrication of two-sided anamorphic microlenses and direct coupling of tapered high-power diode laser to single-mode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1315-1317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, H.

H. Kobayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Ekawa, T. Watanabe, T. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, H. Soda, S. Ogita, and M. Kobayashi, "Narrow-beam divergence 1.3-µm multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with monolithically integrated tapered thickness waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1384-1391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

H. Kobayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Ekawa, T. Watanabe, T. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, H. Soda, S. Ogita, and M. Kobayashi, "Narrow-beam divergence 1.3-µm multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with monolithically integrated tapered thickness waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1384-1391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, "A simple lateral tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. PT-5, 345-347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ladele, E. O.

B. M. A. Rahman, W. Boonthittanont, S. S. Obayya, T. Wongcharoen, E. O. Ladele, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Rigorous beam propagation analysis of tapered spot-size converters in deep-etched semiconductor waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 3392-3398 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

C. Lee, M. Wu, L. Sheu, P. Fan, and J. Hsu, "Design and analysis of completely adiabatic tapered waveguides by conformal mapping," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-15, 403-410 (1997).

Liau, Z. L.

Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. Livas, E. Kintze, D. Mull, L. Missaggia, and W. DiNatale, "Fabrication of two-sided anamorphic microlenses and direct coupling of tapered high-power diode laser to single-mode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1315-1317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Livas, J.

Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. Livas, E. Kintze, D. Mull, L. Missaggia, and W. DiNatale, "Fabrication of two-sided anamorphic microlenses and direct coupling of tapered high-power diode laser to single-mode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1315-1317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S. H.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, and L. R. Dalton, "Vertical tapered mode size transformation in polymer waveguides for efficient fiber coupling," in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 8-10.

Marti-Carrera, F. I.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, and L. R. Dalton, "Vertical tapered mode size transformation in polymer waveguides for efficient fiber coupling," in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 8-10.

Matsumoto, S.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Italy, and T. Sugie, "Spot-size converted 1.3 µm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McGinniss, V.

R. Ridgway, D. Nippa, S. Risser, and V. McGinniss, "Silica waveguide electrooptic modulator employing push-pull electrodes," presented at Integrated Photonics Research Topical Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 1 July 2004, paper IThC2.

Melchior, H.

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28, 2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mersali, B.

B. Mersali, H. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, "Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization-insensitive optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-13, 1856-1871 (1995).

Missaggia, L.

Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. Livas, E. Kintze, D. Mull, L. Missaggia, and W. DiNatale, "Fabrication of two-sided anamorphic microlenses and direct coupling of tapered high-power diode laser to single-mode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1315-1317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mitomi, O.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Italy, and T. Sugie, "Spot-size converted 1.3 µm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, "A simple lateral tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. PT-5, 345-347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mull, D.

Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. Livas, E. Kintze, D. Mull, L. Missaggia, and W. DiNatale, "Fabrication of two-sided anamorphic microlenses and direct coupling of tapered high-power diode laser to single-mode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1315-1317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, and T. Kimura, "Characteristics of a hemispherical microlens for coupling between a semiconductor laser and single mode fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1067-1072 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, M.

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, "A simple lateral tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. PT-5, 345-347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nippa, D.

R. Ridgway, D. Nippa, S. Risser, and V. McGinniss, "Silica waveguide electrooptic modulator employing push-pull electrodes," presented at Integrated Photonics Research Topical Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 1 July 2004, paper IThC2.

Noguchi, Y.

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, "A simple lateral tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. PT-5, 345-347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Obayya, S. S.

B. M. A. Rahman, W. Boonthittanont, S. S. Obayya, T. Wongcharoen, E. O. Ladele, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Rigorous beam propagation analysis of tapered spot-size converters in deep-etched semiconductor waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 3392-3398 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Obayya, S. S. A.

S. S. A. Obayya, S. Haxha, B. M. A. Rahman, C. Themistos, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Optimization of the optical properties of deeply etched semiconductor electro-optic modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 1813-1819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, and H. El-Mikati, "New full vectorial numerically efficient propagation algorithm based on the finite element method," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-18, 409-415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ogita, S.

H. Kobayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Ekawa, T. Watanabe, T. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, H. Soda, S. Ogita, and M. Kobayashi, "Narrow-beam divergence 1.3-µm multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with monolithically integrated tapered thickness waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1384-1391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, M.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Italy, and T. Sugie, "Spot-size converted 1.3 µm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ougazzaden, A.

B. Mersali, H. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, "Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization-insensitive optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-13, 1856-1871 (1995).

Presby, H.

C. Edwards, H. Presby, and C. Dragone, "Ideal microlenses for laser to fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-11, 252-257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H. M.

H. M. Presby and C. A. Edwards, "Near 100% efficient fiber microlenses," Electron. Lett. 28, 582-584 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ra, Y.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, and L. R. Dalton, "Vertical tapered mode size transformation in polymer waveguides for efficient fiber coupling," in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 8-10.

Rahman, B. M. A.

S. S. A. Obayya, S. Haxha, B. M. A. Rahman, C. Themistos, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Optimization of the optical properties of deeply etched semiconductor electro-optic modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 1813-1819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. M. A. Rahman, W. Boonthittanont, S. S. Obayya, T. Wongcharoen, E. O. Ladele, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Rigorous beam propagation analysis of tapered spot-size converters in deep-etched semiconductor waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 3392-3398 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. M. A. Rahman and S. Haxha, "Optimization of microwave properties for ultrahigh-speed etched and unetched lithium niobate electro-optic modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-20, 1856-1863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Wongcharoen, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Spot-size conversion using uniform waveguide sections for efficient laser-fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-19, 708-716 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, and H. El-Mikati, "New full vectorial numerically efficient propagation algorithm based on the finite element method," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-18, 409-415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. M. A. Rahman and J. B. Davies, "Finite element solution of integrated optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 682-688 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rajarajan, M.

T. Wongcharoen, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Spot-size conversion using uniform waveguide sections for efficient laser-fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-19, 708-716 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, R.

R. Ridgway, D. Nippa, S. Risser, and V. McGinniss, "Silica waveguide electrooptic modulator employing push-pull electrodes," presented at Integrated Photonics Research Topical Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 1 July 2004, paper IThC2.

Risser, S.

R. Ridgway, D. Nippa, S. Risser, and V. McGinniss, "Silica waveguide electrooptic modulator employing push-pull electrodes," presented at Integrated Photonics Research Topical Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 1 July 2004, paper IThC2.

Sainson, S.

B. Mersali, H. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, "Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization-insensitive optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-13, 1856-1871 (1995).

Sakai, J.

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, and T. Kimura, "Characteristics of a hemispherical microlens for coupling between a semiconductor laser and single mode fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1067-1072 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, Y.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Italy, and T. Sugie, "Spot-size converted 1.3 µm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sewell, P.

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and P. C. Kendall, "Rib waveguide spot-size transformers: modal properties," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-17, 848-856 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, L.

C. Lee, M. Wu, L. Sheu, P. Fan, and J. Hsu, "Design and analysis of completely adiabatic tapered waveguides by conformal mapping," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-15, 403-410 (1997).

Smit, M.

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28, 2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soda, H.

H. Kobayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Ekawa, T. Watanabe, T. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, H. Soda, S. Ogita, and M. Kobayashi, "Narrow-beam divergence 1.3-µm multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with monolithically integrated tapered thickness waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1384-1391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, and L. R. Dalton, "Vertical tapered mode size transformation in polymer waveguides for efficient fiber coupling," in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 8-10.

Stern, M. S.

M. S. Stern, "Semiconductor polarized finite difference method for optical waveguides with arbitrary index profiles," Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 135, 56-63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sugie, T.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Italy, and T. Sugie, "Spot-size converted 1.3 µm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, and L. R. Dalton, "Vertical tapered mode size transformation in polymer waveguides for efficient fiber coupling," in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 8-10.

Suzaki, Y.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Italy, and T. Sugie, "Spot-size converted 1.3 µm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Themistos, C.

S. S. A. Obayya, S. Haxha, B. M. A. Rahman, C. Themistos, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Optimization of the optical properties of deeply etched semiconductor electro-optic modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 1813-1819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tohmori, Y.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Italy, and T. Sugie, "Spot-size converted 1.3 µm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wada, M.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Italy, and T. Sugie, "Spot-size converted 1.3 µm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walpole, J. N.

Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. Livas, E. Kintze, D. Mull, L. Missaggia, and W. DiNatale, "Fabrication of two-sided anamorphic microlenses and direct coupling of tapered high-power diode laser to single-mode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1315-1317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

H. Kobayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Ekawa, T. Watanabe, T. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, H. Soda, S. Ogita, and M. Kobayashi, "Narrow-beam divergence 1.3-µm multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with monolithically integrated tapered thickness waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1384-1391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wongcharoen, T.

B. M. A. Rahman, W. Boonthittanont, S. S. Obayya, T. Wongcharoen, E. O. Ladele, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Rigorous beam propagation analysis of tapered spot-size converters in deep-etched semiconductor waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 3392-3398 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Wongcharoen, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Spot-size conversion using uniform waveguide sections for efficient laser-fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-19, 708-716 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

C. Lee, M. Wu, L. Sheu, P. Fan, and J. Hsu, "Design and analysis of completely adiabatic tapered waveguides by conformal mapping," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-15, 403-410 (1997).

Yamada, J.

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, and T. Kimura, "Characteristics of a hemispherical microlens for coupling between a semiconductor laser and single mode fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1067-1072 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Italy, and T. Sugie, "Spot-size converted 1.3 µm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

H. Kobayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Ekawa, T. Watanabe, T. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, H. Soda, S. Ogita, and M. Kobayashi, "Narrow-beam divergence 1.3-µm multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with monolithically integrated tapered thickness waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1384-1391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (3)

H. M. Presby and C. A. Edwards, "Near 100% efficient fiber microlenses," Electron. Lett. 28, 582-584 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suzaki, H. Fukano, M. Okamoto, Y. Sakai, O. Mitomi, S. Matsumoto, M. Yamamoto, M. Fukuda, M. Wada, Y. Italy, and T. Sugie, "Spot-size converted 1.3 µm laser with butt-jointed selectively grown vertically tapered waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 1069-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28, 2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Yamada, Y. Murakami, J. Sakai, and T. Kimura, "Characteristics of a hemispherical microlens for coupling between a semiconductor laser and single mode fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 1067-1072 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Kobayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Ekawa, T. Watanabe, T. Ishikawa, T. Fujii, H. Soda, S. Ogita, and M. Kobayashi, "Narrow-beam divergence 1.3-µm multiple-quantum-well laser diodes with monolithically integrated tapered thickness waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1384-1391 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Z. L. Liau, J. N. Walpole, J. Livas, E. Kintze, D. Mull, L. Missaggia, and W. DiNatale, "Fabrication of two-sided anamorphic microlenses and direct coupling of tapered high-power diode laser to single-mode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1315-1317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, "A simple lateral tapered waveguide for low-loss coupling to single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. PT-5, 345-347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (11)

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and P. C. Kendall, "Rib waveguide spot-size transformers: modal properties," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-17, 848-856 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Mersali, H. Bruckner, M. Feuillade, S. Sainson, A. Ougazzaden, and A. Carenco, "Theoretical and experimental studies of a spot-size transformer with integrated waveguide for polarization-insensitive optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-13, 1856-1871 (1995).

C. Edwards, H. Presby, and C. Dragone, "Ideal microlenses for laser to fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-11, 252-257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Fan and R. B. Hooker, "Tapered polymer single-mode waveguides for mode transformation," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-17, 466-474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Lee, M. Wu, L. Sheu, P. Fan, and J. Hsu, "Design and analysis of completely adiabatic tapered waveguides by conformal mapping," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-15, 403-410 (1997).

B. M. A. Rahman and J. B. Davies, "Finite element solution of integrated optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 682-688 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. M. A. Rahman and S. Haxha, "Optimization of microwave properties for ultrahigh-speed etched and unetched lithium niobate electro-optic modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-20, 1856-1863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. S. A. Obayya, S. Haxha, B. M. A. Rahman, C. Themistos, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Optimization of the optical properties of deeply etched semiconductor electro-optic modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 1813-1819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. M. A. Rahman, W. Boonthittanont, S. S. Obayya, T. Wongcharoen, E. O. Ladele, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Rigorous beam propagation analysis of tapered spot-size converters in deep-etched semiconductor waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-21, 3392-3398 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Wongcharoen, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Spot-size conversion using uniform waveguide sections for efficient laser-fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-19, 708-716 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, and H. El-Mikati, "New full vectorial numerically efficient propagation algorithm based on the finite element method," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-18, 409-415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEE Optoelectron. (1)

M. S. Stern, "Semiconductor polarized finite difference method for optical waveguides with arbitrary index profiles," Proc. IEE Optoelectron. 135, 56-63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. Ridgway, D. Nippa, S. Risser, and V. McGinniss, "Silica waveguide electrooptic modulator employing push-pull electrodes," presented at Integrated Photonics Research Topical Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., 1 July 2004, paper IThC2.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, S. H. Mao, Y. Ra, and L. R. Dalton, "Vertical tapered mode size transformation in polymer waveguides for efficient fiber coupling," in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 8-10.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of (a) a laterally tapered SSC design, (b) a vertically tapered SSC design, and (c) a combined SSC design.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of results of the normalized propagation constant presented by Sewell et al.[23] and our finite-element method simulation technique.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of the spot-size area of the TE and TM modes as a function of the upper rib width W for the laterally tapered SSC. Inset field profile before and after mode conversion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of the spot-size area as a function of the upper rib height H obtained from the modal solution and the BPM for the vertical tapered SSC.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of the spot size of the lateral SSC along the axial direction for total lengths of 500, 1000, and 2000 µm when a different final width is considered.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of the spot size of the vertical SSC along the axial direction for total lengths of 500, 1000, and 2000 µm when a different final height is considered.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation of the spot size of the combined SSC along the axial direction for total lengths of 500, 1000, and 2000 µm when different final widths and heights are considered.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of the coupling efficiency and the spot-size area of the lateral SSC along the axial direction for total lengths of 500, 1000, and 2000 µm when Gaussian radii Ω 0 are 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 µm .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variation of the coupling efficiency and the spot-size area of the vertical SSC along the axial direction and with the upper rib height H for total lengths of 500, 1000, and 2000 µm when Gaussian radii Ω 0 are 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 µm .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Variation of the coupling efficiency and the spot-size area of the combined SSC along the axial direction and with upper rib height H and upper rib width W for total lengths of 500, 1000, and 2000 µm when Gaussian radii Ω 0 are 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 µm .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Variation of the spot-size area of the combined SSC with upper rib height H and upper rib width W when the total lengths of the SSC are 500, 1000, and 2000 µm .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Variations of the coupling efficiencies of the lateral, vertical, and combined SSCs along the axial direction for total lengths of 500, 1000, and 2000 µm when the Gaussian radius Ω 0 = 4.0 µm .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Variation of the relative power transmission as a function of the propagation distance when the Gaussian field Ω 0 = 1.75 µm for lateral, vertical, and combined SSCs.

Metrics