Abstract

An efficient computation of the time-dependent forward solution for photon transport in a head model is a key capability for performing accurate inversion for functional diffuse optical imaging of the brain. The diffusion approximation to photon transport is much faster to simulate than the physically correct radiative transport equation (RTE); however, it is commonly assumed that scattering lengths must be much smaller than all system dimensions and all absorption lengths for the approximation to be accurate. Neither of these conditions is satisfied in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Since line-of-sight distances in the CSF are small, of the order of a few millimeters, we explore the idea that the CSF scattering coefficient may be modeled by any value from zero up to the order of the typical inverse line-of-sight distance, or approximately 0.3mm1, without significantly altering the calculated detector signals or the partial path lengths relevant for functional measurements. We demonstrate this in detail by using a Monte Carlo simulation of the RTE in a three-dimensional head model based on clinical magnetic resonance imaging data, with realistic optode geometries. Our findings lead us to expect that the diffusion approximation will be valid even in the presence of the CSF, with consequences for faster solution of the inverse problem.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  35. J. D. Riley, S. R. Arridge, Y. Chrysanthou, H. Dehghani, E. M. Hillman, and M. Schweiger, "Radiosity diffusion model in 3D," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy , S. Andersson-Engels and M. F. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE 4431, 153-164 (2001).
  36. H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  38. E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Near-infrared light propagation in an adult head model. I. Modeling of low-level scattering in the cerebrospinal fluid layer," Appl. Opt. 42, 2906-2914 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. K. Uludag, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Cross talk in the Lambert-Beer calculation for near-infrared wavelengths estimated by Monte Carlo simulations," J. of Biomed. Opt. 7, 51-59 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  43. D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, "Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy," Neuroimage 23, S275-288 (2004).
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  44. L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. D. A. Boas, J. P. Culver, J. J. Stott, and A. K. Dunn, "Three dimensional Monte Carlo code for photon migration through complex heterogeneous media including the adult human head," Opt. Express 10, 159-170 (2002).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. G. Strangman, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, "Factors affecting the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy concentration calculations for focal changes in oxygenation parameters," Neuroimage 18, 865-879 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. E. Okada, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Firbank, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimental validation of Monte Carlo and finite-element methods for the estimation of the optical path length in inhomogeneous tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 3362-3371 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. H. Dehghani and D. T. Delpy, "Near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Effect of scattering and absorbing obstructions in the cerebrospinal fluid layer on light distribution in the tissue," Appl. Opt. 39, 4721-4729 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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2005 (7)

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gratton, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, M. Wolf, and A. Webb, "Measurement of brain activity by near-infrared light," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilcox, H. Bortfeld, R. Woods, E. Wruck, and D. A. Boas, "Using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess neural activation during object processing in infants," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011010 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. M. Dale, "Simulation study of magnetic resonance imaging-guided cortically constrained diffuse optical tomography of human brain function," Appl. Opt. 44, 1957-1968 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, A. Iwasaki, Y. Ogoshi, and E. Okada, "Practical and adequate approach to modeling light propagation in an adult head with low-scattering regions by use of diffusion theory," Appl. Opt. 44, 2094-2103 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorenson, and D. A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral dynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Montcel, R. Chabrier, and P. Poulet, "Detection of cortical activation with time-resolved diffuse optical methods," Appl. Opt. 44, 1942-1947 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stossel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, "Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy," Neuroimage 23, S275-288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (14)

D. A. Boas, G. Strangman, J. P. Culver, R. D. Hoge, G. Jasdzewski, R. A. Poldrack, B. R. Rosen, and J. B. Mandeville, "Can the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen be estimated with near-infrared spectroscopy?" Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2405-2418 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangman, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, "Factors affecting the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy concentration calculations for focal changes in oxygenation parameters," Neuroimage 18, 865-879 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jing, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. E. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography," Appl. Opt. 42, 5181-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "The role of diffuse optical spectroscopy in the clinical management of breast cancer," Dis. Markers 19, 95-105 (2003).

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. H. Thompson, J. P. Culver, and D. A. Boas, "Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured non-invasively with near infrared optical imaging," Psychophysiology 40, 548-560 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Koizumi, T. Yamamoto, A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, H. Sato, H. Kawaguchi, and N. Ichikawa, "Optical topography: practical problems and new applications," Appl. Opt. 42, 3054-3062 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pena, A. Maki, D. Kovacic, G. Dehaene-Lambertz, H. Koizumi, F. Bouquet, and J. Mehler, "Sounds and silence: an optical topography study of language recognition at birth," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 11702-11705 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Barnett, J. P. Culver, A. G. Sorensen, A. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Robust inference of baseline optical properties of the human head with 3D segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3095-3108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Near-infrared light propagation in an adult head model. I. Modeling of low-level scattering in the cerebrospinal fluid layer," Appl. Opt. 42, 2906-2914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bal and K. Ren, "Generalized diffusion model in optical tomography with clear layers," J. Opt. Soc. A 20, 2355-2364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukui, Y. Ajichi, and E. Okada, "Monte Carlo prediction of near-infrared light propagation in realistic adult and neonatal head models," Appl. Opt. 42, 2881-2887 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hayashi, Y. Kashio, and E. Okada, "Hybrid Monte Carlo-diffusion method for light propagation in tissue with a low-scattering region," Appl. Opt. 42, 2888-2896 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

K. Uludag, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Cross talk in the Lambert-Beer calculation for near-infrared wavelengths estimated by Monte Carlo simulations," J. of Biomed. Opt. 7, 51-59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, "MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Chernomordik, D. W. Hattery, D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and A. Gandjbakhche, "Quantification of optical properties of a breast tumor using random walk theory," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 80-87 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, J. P. Culver, J. J. Stott, and A. K. Dunn, "Three dimensional Monte Carlo code for photon migration through complex heterogeneous media including the adult human head," Opt. Express 10, 159-170 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obring, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Riley, S. R. Arridge, Y. Chrysanthou, H. Dehghani, E. M. Hillman, and M. Schweiger, "Radiosity diffusion model in 3D," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy , S. Andersson-Engels and M. F. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE 4431, 153-164 (2001).

2000 (4)

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography in the presence of void regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1659-1670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Effect of discrete scatterers in CSF layer on optical path length in the brain," in Photon Migration, Diffuse Spectroscopy, and Optical Coherence Tomography: Imaging and Functional Assessment , S. Andersson-Engels and J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4160, 196-203 (2000).

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, "The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: a direct method for domains with nonscattering regions," Med. Phys. 27, 252-264 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani and D. T. Delpy, "Near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Effect of scattering and absorbing obstructions in the cerebrospinal fluid layer on light distribution in the tissue," Appl. Opt. 39, 4721-4729 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, "Optical tomography in medical imaging," Inverse Probl. 15, 41-93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

B. W. Pogue and K. D. Paulsen, "High-resolution near-infrared tomographic imaging simulations of the rat cranium by use of a priori magnetic resonance imaging structural information," Opt. Lett. 23, 1716-1718 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Effect of a nonscattering layer on time-resolved photon migration paths, in Photon Propagation in Tissues IV , D. A. Benaron, B. Chance, M. Ferrari, and M. Kohl-Bareis, eds., Proc. SPIE 3566, 2-9 (1998).

S. Takahshi and Y. Yamada, "Simulation of 3D light propagation in a layered head model including a clear CSF layer," OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 21, 2-6 (1998).

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, "Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285-1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Firbank, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimental validation of Monte Carlo and finite-element methods for the estimation of the optical path length in inhomogeneous tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 3362-3371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, J. Change, S. S. Barbour, P. C. Koo, and R. Aronson, "MRI-guided optical tomography: prospects and computation for a new imaging method," IEEE Comput. Sci. Eng. 2, 63-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, and U. Dirnagl, "Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults," Neurosci. Lett. 154, 101-104 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hoshi and M. Tamura, "Detection of dynamic changes in cerebral oxygenation coupled to neuronal function during mental work in man," Neurosci. Lett. 150, 5-8 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ajichi, Y.

Alcouffe, R. E.

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, "Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285-1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aronson, R.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, J. Change, S. S. Barbour, P. C. Koo, and R. Aronson, "MRI-guided optical tomography: prospects and computation for a new imaging method," IEEE Comput. Sci. Eng. 2, 63-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Riley, S. R. Arridge, Y. Chrysanthou, H. Dehghani, E. M. Hillman, and M. Schweiger, "Radiosity diffusion model in 3D," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy , S. Andersson-Engels and M. F. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE 4431, 153-164 (2001).

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography in the presence of void regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1659-1670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, "The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: a direct method for domains with nonscattering regions," Med. Phys. 27, 252-264 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, "Optical tomography in medical imaging," Inverse Probl. 15, 41-93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Firbank, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimental validation of Monte Carlo and finite-element methods for the estimation of the optical path length in inhomogeneous tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 3362-3371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).
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Bal, G.

G. Bal and K. Ren, "Generalized diffusion model in optical tomography with clear layers," J. Opt. Soc. A 20, 2355-2364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, R. L.

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, "Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285-1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, J. Change, S. S. Barbour, P. C. Koo, and R. Aronson, "MRI-guided optical tomography: prospects and computation for a new imaging method," IEEE Comput. Sci. Eng. 2, 63-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, S. S.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, J. Change, S. S. Barbour, P. C. Koo, and R. Aronson, "MRI-guided optical tomography: prospects and computation for a new imaging method," IEEE Comput. Sci. Eng. 2, 63-77 (1995).
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Barnett, A. H.

Bertero, M.

M. Bertero and P. Boccacci, Introduction to Inverse Problems in Imaging(Institute of Physics, 1998).

Boas, D. A.

T. Wilcox, H. Bortfeld, R. Woods, E. Wruck, and D. A. Boas, "Using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess neural activation during object processing in infants," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011010 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. M. Dale, "Simulation study of magnetic resonance imaging-guided cortically constrained diffuse optical tomography of human brain function," Appl. Opt. 44, 1957-1968 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorenson, and D. A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral dynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, "Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy," Neuroimage 23, S275-288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Barnett, J. P. Culver, A. G. Sorensen, A. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Robust inference of baseline optical properties of the human head with 3D segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3095-3108 (2003).
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D. A. Boas, G. Strangman, J. P. Culver, R. D. Hoge, G. Jasdzewski, R. A. Poldrack, B. R. Rosen, and J. B. Mandeville, "Can the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen be estimated with near-infrared spectroscopy?" Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2405-2418 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangman, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, "Factors affecting the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy concentration calculations for focal changes in oxygenation parameters," Neuroimage 18, 865-879 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. E. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography," Appl. Opt. 42, 5181-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. H. Thompson, J. P. Culver, and D. A. Boas, "Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured non-invasively with near infrared optical imaging," Psychophysiology 40, 548-560 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, J. P. Culver, J. J. Stott, and A. K. Dunn, "Three dimensional Monte Carlo code for photon migration through complex heterogeneous media including the adult human head," Opt. Express 10, 159-170 (2002).
[PubMed]

Boccacci, P.

M. Bertero and P. Boccacci, Introduction to Inverse Problems in Imaging(Institute of Physics, 1998).

Bortfeld, H.

T. Wilcox, H. Bortfeld, R. Woods, E. Wruck, and D. A. Boas, "Using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess neural activation during object processing in infants," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011010 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouquet, F.

M. Pena, A. Maki, D. Kovacic, G. Dehaene-Lambertz, H. Koizumi, F. Bouquet, and J. Mehler, "Sounds and silence: an optical topography study of language recognition at birth," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 11702-11705 (2003).
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Brukilacchio, T. J.

Butler, J.

N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "The role of diffuse optical spectroscopy in the clinical management of breast cancer," Dis. Markers 19, 95-105 (2003).

Cerussi, A. E.

N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "The role of diffuse optical spectroscopy in the clinical management of breast cancer," Dis. Markers 19, 95-105 (2003).

Chabrier, R.

Chance, B.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, "MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Change, J.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, J. Change, S. S. Barbour, P. C. Koo, and R. Aronson, "MRI-guided optical tomography: prospects and computation for a new imaging method," IEEE Comput. Sci. Eng. 2, 63-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chaves, T.

Chen, Y.

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chernomordik, V.

V. Chernomordik, D. W. Hattery, D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and A. Gandjbakhche, "Quantification of optical properties of a breast tumor using random walk theory," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 80-87 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chorlton, M.

Chrysanthou, Y.

J. D. Riley, S. R. Arridge, Y. Chrysanthou, H. Dehghani, E. M. Hillman, and M. Schweiger, "Radiosity diffusion model in 3D," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy , S. Andersson-Engels and M. F. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE 4431, 153-164 (2001).

Cope, M.

Corlu, A.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. H. Thompson, J. P. Culver, and D. A. Boas, "Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured non-invasively with near infrared optical imaging," Psychophysiology 40, 548-560 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Barnett, J. P. Culver, A. G. Sorensen, A. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Robust inference of baseline optical properties of the human head with 3D segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3095-3108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, G. Strangman, J. P. Culver, R. D. Hoge, G. Jasdzewski, R. A. Poldrack, B. R. Rosen, and J. B. Mandeville, "Can the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen be estimated with near-infrared spectroscopy?" Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2405-2418 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, J. P. Culver, J. J. Stott, and A. K. Dunn, "Three dimensional Monte Carlo code for photon migration through complex heterogeneous media including the adult human head," Opt. Express 10, 159-170 (2002).
[PubMed]

Czerniecki, B. J.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dale, A.

Dale, A. M.

D. A. Boas and A. M. Dale, "Simulation study of magnetic resonance imaging-guided cortically constrained diffuse optical tomography of human brain function," Appl. Opt. 44, 1957-1968 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, "Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy," Neuroimage 23, S275-288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danesini, G.

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehaene-Lambertz, G.

M. Pena, A. Maki, D. Kovacic, G. Dehaene-Lambertz, H. Koizumi, F. Bouquet, and J. Mehler, "Sounds and silence: an optical topography study of language recognition at birth," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 11702-11705 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jing, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Riley, S. R. Arridge, Y. Chrysanthou, H. Dehghani, E. M. Hillman, and M. Schweiger, "Radiosity diffusion model in 3D," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy , S. Andersson-Engels and M. F. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE 4431, 153-164 (2001).

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography in the presence of void regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1659-1670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, "The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: a direct method for domains with nonscattering regions," Med. Phys. 27, 252-264 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani and D. T. Delpy, "Near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Effect of scattering and absorbing obstructions in the cerebrospinal fluid layer on light distribution in the tissue," Appl. Opt. 39, 4721-4729 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Near-infrared light propagation in an adult head model. I. Modeling of low-level scattering in the cerebrospinal fluid layer," Appl. Opt. 42, 2906-2914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Effect of discrete scatterers in CSF layer on optical path length in the brain," in Photon Migration, Diffuse Spectroscopy, and Optical Coherence Tomography: Imaging and Functional Assessment , S. Andersson-Engels and J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4160, 196-203 (2000).

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography in the presence of void regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1659-1670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani and D. T. Delpy, "Near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Effect of scattering and absorbing obstructions in the cerebrospinal fluid layer on light distribution in the tissue," Appl. Opt. 39, 4721-4729 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Effect of a nonscattering layer on time-resolved photon migration paths, in Photon Propagation in Tissues IV , D. A. Benaron, B. Chance, M. Ferrari, and M. Kohl-Bareis, eds., Proc. SPIE 3566, 2-9 (1998).

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Firbank, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimental validation of Monte Carlo and finite-element methods for the estimation of the optical path length in inhomogeneous tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 3362-3371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeMichele, A.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dirnagl, U.

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, and U. Dirnagl, "Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults," Neurosci. Lett. 154, 101-104 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

Durduran, T.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. H. Thompson, J. P. Culver, and D. A. Boas, "Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured non-invasively with near infrared optical imaging," Psychophysiology 40, 548-560 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firbank, M.

Fraker, D. L.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorenson, and D. A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral dynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, "Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy," Neuroimage 23, S275-288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangman, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, "Factors affecting the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy concentration calculations for focal changes in oxygenation parameters," Neuroimage 18, 865-879 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. H. Thompson, J. P. Culver, and D. A. Boas, "Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured non-invasively with near infrared optical imaging," Psychophysiology 40, 548-560 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukui, Y.

Gaida, G.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gandjbakhche, A.

V. Chernomordik, D. W. Hattery, D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and A. Gandjbakhche, "Quantification of optical properties of a breast tumor using random walk theory," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 80-87 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, J. J.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jing, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graber, H. L.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, J. Change, S. S. Barbour, P. C. Koo, and R. Aronson, "MRI-guided optical tomography: prospects and computation for a new imaging method," IEEE Comput. Sci. Eng. 2, 63-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gratton, E.

E. Gratton, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, M. Wolf, and A. Webb, "Measurement of brain activity by near-infrared light," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosenick, D.

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stossel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Chernomordik, D. W. Hattery, D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and A. Gandjbakhche, "Quantification of optical properties of a breast tumor using random walk theory," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 80-87 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosicka-Koptyra, M.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hattery, D. W.

V. Chernomordik, D. W. Hattery, D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and A. Gandjbakhche, "Quantification of optical properties of a breast tumor using random walk theory," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 80-87 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, T.

Hielscher, A. H.

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, "Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285-1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M.

J. D. Riley, S. R. Arridge, Y. Chrysanthou, H. Dehghani, E. M. Hillman, and M. Schweiger, "Radiosity diffusion model in 3D," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy , S. Andersson-Engels and M. F. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE 4431, 153-164 (2001).

Hillman, E. M. C.

E. M. C. Hillman, Experimental and theoretical investigations of near infrared tomographic imaging methods and clinical applications (University College London, 2002).
[PubMed]

Hiraoka, M.

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hock, C.

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, and U. Dirnagl, "Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults," Neurosci. Lett. 154, 101-104 (1993).
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Hoge, R. D.

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D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stossel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
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V. Chernomordik, D. W. Hattery, D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and A. Gandjbakhche, "Quantification of optical properties of a breast tumor using random walk theory," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 80-87 (2002).
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J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obring, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
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X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1147 (2003).
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D. A. Boas, G. Strangman, J. P. Culver, R. D. Hoge, G. Jasdzewski, R. A. Poldrack, B. R. Rosen, and J. B. Mandeville, "Can the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen be estimated with near-infrared spectroscopy?" Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2405-2418 (2003).
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R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
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Sato, H.

Schlag, P. M.

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stossel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Chernomordik, D. W. Hattery, D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and A. Gandjbakhche, "Quantification of optical properties of a breast tumor using random walk theory," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 80-87 (2002).
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M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
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Schleinkofer, L.

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, and U. Dirnagl, "Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults," Neurosci. Lett. 154, 101-104 (1993).
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V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, "MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. D. Riley, S. R. Arridge, Y. Chrysanthou, H. Dehghani, E. M. Hillman, and M. Schweiger, "Radiosity diffusion model in 3D," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy , S. Andersson-Engels and M. F. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE 4431, 153-164 (2001).

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).
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J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorenson, and D. A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral dynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
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N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "The role of diffuse optical spectroscopy in the clinical management of breast cancer," Dis. Markers 19, 95-105 (2003).

Soho, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jing, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
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Sorenson, A. G.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorenson, and D. A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral dynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
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P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
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S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jing, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
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K. Uludag, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Cross talk in the Lambert-Beer calculation for near-infrared wavelengths estimated by Monte Carlo simulations," J. of Biomed. Opt. 7, 51-59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obring, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stossel, J.

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stossel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
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Stott, J. J.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorenson, and D. A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral dynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroszczynski, C.

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stossel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahshi, S.

S. Takahshi and Y. Yamada, "Simulation of 3D light propagation in a layered head model including a clear CSF layer," OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 21, 2-6 (1998).

Tamura, M.

Y. Hoshi and M. Tamura, "Detection of dynamic changes in cerebral oxygenation coupled to neuronal function during mental work in man," Neurosci. Lett. 150, 5-8 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, J. H.

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. H. Thompson, J. P. Culver, and D. A. Boas, "Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured non-invasively with near infrared optical imaging," Psychophysiology 40, 548-560 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toronov, V.

E. Gratton, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, M. Wolf, and A. Webb, "Measurement of brain activity by near-infrared light," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Torricelli, A.

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosteson, T. D.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jing, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "The role of diffuse optical spectroscopy in the clinical management of breast cancer," Dis. Markers 19, 95-105 (2003).

Uludag, K.

K. Uludag, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Cross talk in the Lambert-Beer calculation for near-infrared wavelengths estimated by Monte Carlo simulations," J. of Biomed. Opt. 7, 51-59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Villringer, A.

K. Uludag, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Cross talk in the Lambert-Beer calculation for near-infrared wavelengths estimated by Monte Carlo simulations," J. of Biomed. Opt. 7, 51-59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obring, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, and U. Dirnagl, "Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults," Neurosci. Lett. 154, 101-104 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stossel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Chernomordik, D. W. Hattery, D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and A. Gandjbakhche, "Quantification of optical properties of a breast tumor using random walk theory," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 80-87 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obring, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wassermann, B.

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stossel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, A.

E. Gratton, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, M. Wolf, and A. Webb, "Measurement of brain activity by near-infrared light," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, T.

T. Wilcox, H. Bortfeld, R. Woods, E. Wruck, and D. A. Boas, "Using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess neural activation during object processing in infants," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011010 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, M.

E. Gratton, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, M. Wolf, and A. Webb, "Measurement of brain activity by near-infrared light," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, U.

E. Gratton, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, M. Wolf, and A. Webb, "Measurement of brain activity by near-infrared light," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Woods, R.

T. Wilcox, H. Bortfeld, R. Woods, E. Wruck, and D. A. Boas, "Using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess neural activation during object processing in infants," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011010 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wruck, E.

T. Wilcox, H. Bortfeld, R. Woods, E. Wruck, and D. A. Boas, "Using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess neural activation during object processing in infants," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011010 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, T.

Yamada, Y.

S. Takahshi and Y. Yamada, "Simulation of 3D light propagation in a layered head model including a clear CSF layer," OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 21, 2-6 (1998).

Yamamoto, T.

Yamashita, Y.

Yodh, A. G.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, "MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (12)

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. E. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography," Appl. Opt. 42, 5181-5190 (2003).
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H. Koizumi, T. Yamamoto, A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, H. Sato, H. Kawaguchi, and N. Ichikawa, "Optical topography: practical problems and new applications," Appl. Opt. 42, 3054-3062 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. M. Dale, "Simulation study of magnetic resonance imaging-guided cortically constrained diffuse optical tomography of human brain function," Appl. Opt. 44, 1957-1968 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head," Appl. Opt. 36, 21-31 (1997).
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Y. Fukui, Y. Ajichi, and E. Okada, "Monte Carlo prediction of near-infrared light propagation in realistic adult and neonatal head models," Appl. Opt. 42, 2881-2887 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hayashi, Y. Kashio, and E. Okada, "Hybrid Monte Carlo-diffusion method for light propagation in tissue with a low-scattering region," Appl. Opt. 42, 2888-2896 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koyama, A. Iwasaki, Y. Ogoshi, and E. Okada, "Practical and adequate approach to modeling light propagation in an adult head with low-scattering regions by use of diffusion theory," Appl. Opt. 44, 2094-2103 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Barnett, J. P. Culver, A. G. Sorensen, A. Dale, and D. A. Boas, "Robust inference of baseline optical properties of the human head with 3D segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3095-3108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Near-infrared light propagation in an adult head model. I. Modeling of low-level scattering in the cerebrospinal fluid layer," Appl. Opt. 42, 2906-2914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Montcel, R. Chabrier, and P. Poulet, "Detection of cortical activation with time-resolved diffuse optical methods," Appl. Opt. 44, 1942-1947 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Firbank, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimental validation of Monte Carlo and finite-element methods for the estimation of the optical path length in inhomogeneous tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 3362-3371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani and D. T. Delpy, "Near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: Effect of scattering and absorbing obstructions in the cerebrospinal fluid layer on light distribution in the tissue," Appl. Opt. 39, 4721-4729 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dis. Markers (1)

N. Shah, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "The role of diffuse optical spectroscopy in the clinical management of breast cancer," Dis. Markers 19, 95-105 (2003).

IEEE Comput. Sci. Eng. (1)

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, J. Change, S. S. Barbour, P. C. Koo, and R. Aronson, "MRI-guided optical tomography: prospects and computation for a new imaging method," IEEE Comput. Sci. Eng. 2, 63-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Inverse Probl. (1)

S. R. Arridge, "Optical tomography in medical imaging," Inverse Probl. 15, 41-93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

E. Gratton, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, M. Wolf, and A. Webb, "Measurement of brain activity by near-infrared light," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilcox, H. Bortfeld, R. Woods, E. Wruck, and D. A. Boas, "Using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess neural activation during object processing in infants," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011010 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Chernomordik, D. W. Hattery, D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, H. Rinneberg, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and A. Gandjbakhche, "Quantification of optical properties of a breast tumor using random walk theory," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 80-87 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorenson, and D. A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral dynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. of Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Uludag, M. Kohl, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Cross talk in the Lambert-Beer calculation for near-infrared wavelengths estimated by Monte Carlo simulations," J. of Biomed. Opt. 7, 51-59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. A (1)

G. Bal and K. Ren, "Generalized diffusion model in optical tomography with clear layers," J. Opt. Soc. A 20, 2355-2364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. Phys. (4)

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, "The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: a direct method for domains with nonscattering regions," Med. Phys. 27, 252-264 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neoplasia (1)

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. Schnall, and B. Chance, "MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (2)

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, "Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy," Neuroimage 23, S275-288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangman, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, "Factors affecting the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy concentration calculations for focal changes in oxygenation parameters," Neuroimage 18, 865-879 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurosci. Lett. (2)

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, and U. Dirnagl, "Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to study hemodynamic changes during activation of brain function in human adults," Neurosci. Lett. 154, 101-104 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hoshi and M. Tamura, "Detection of dynamic changes in cerebral oxygenation coupled to neuronal function during mental work in man," Neurosci. Lett. 150, 5-8 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. (1)

S. Takahshi and Y. Yamada, "Simulation of 3D light propagation in a layered head model including a clear CSF layer," OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 21, 2-6 (1998).

Photon Migration, Diffuse Spectroscopy, and Optical Coherence Tomography: Imaging and Functional Assessment (1)

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Effect of discrete scatterers in CSF layer on optical path length in the brain," in Photon Migration, Diffuse Spectroscopy, and Optical Coherence Tomography: Imaging and Functional Assessment , S. Andersson-Engels and J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4160, 196-203 (2000).

Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy (1)

J. D. Riley, S. R. Arridge, Y. Chrysanthou, H. Dehghani, E. M. Hillman, and M. Schweiger, "Radiosity diffusion model in 3D," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy , S. Andersson-Engels and M. F. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE 4431, 153-164 (2001).

Photon Propagation in Tissues IV (1)

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Effect of a nonscattering layer on time-resolved photon migration paths, in Photon Propagation in Tissues IV , D. A. Benaron, B. Chance, M. Ferrari, and M. Kohl-Bareis, eds., Proc. SPIE 3566, 2-9 (1998).

Phys. Med. Biol. (6)

D. A. Boas, G. Strangman, J. P. Culver, R. D. Hoge, G. Jasdzewski, R. A. Poldrack, B. R. Rosen, and J. B. Mandeville, "Can the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen be estimated with near-infrared spectroscopy?" Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2405-2418 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obring, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, "Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285-1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stossel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (3)

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jing, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pena, A. Maki, D. Kovacic, G. Dehaene-Lambertz, H. Koizumi, F. Bouquet, and J. Mehler, "Sounds and silence: an optical topography study of language recognition at birth," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 11702-11705 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psychophysiology (1)

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, J. H. Thompson, J. P. Culver, and D. A. Boas, "Hemodynamic evoked response of the sensorimotor cortex measured non-invasively with near infrared optical imaging," Psychophysiology 40, 548-560 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Bertero and P. Boccacci, Introduction to Inverse Problems in Imaging(Institute of Physics, 1998).

E. M. C. Hillman, Experimental and theoretical investigations of near infrared tomographic imaging methods and clinical applications (University College London, 2002).
[PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Head geometry and probe placement. The gray diamond on the top of the head indicates the position of the single source and the gray circles show the position of the 25 detectors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Total detected fluence simulated with Monte Carlo in cw. (b) Relative fluence in cw calculated with respect to MC o , which is the MC prediction when μ s , CSF = 0.001 mm−1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) MC normalized path length factor calculated versus separation for three different μ s , CSF : 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mm−1 in cw. The PPF is normalized by the total sensitivity to all tissue types. MC measure of relative sensitivity to (b) scalp–skull layer and (c) brain versus separation when varying μ s , CSF in cw ( μ s , CSF = 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mm−1). The error is calculated with respect to PPF o , which is the MC prediction of PPF when μ s , CSF = 0.001 mm−1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluence changes as a function of μ s , CSF . CSF scattering coefficient varies from 0.001 to 1.0 mm−1. The data are calculated via MC simulations in cw using μ s , CSF values of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.7, and 1.0.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Partial path length absolute changes as a function of μ s , CSF scattering coefficient varies from 0.001 to 1.0 mm−1 taking values of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.7, and 1.0, and the PPF is simulated with MC in cw. Results are shown for separations of 20, 30, and 40 mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) (a) Temporal point spread function predicted by MC and (b) its relative error with respect to the reference measurement MC o , simulated with μ s , CSF = 0.001 mm−1. Results are shown for separations of 20, 30, and 40 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) (a) Monte Carlo prediction of the optical pathlength factor at three μ s , CSF = 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mm−1 versus time delay normalized by the total PPF. Results are shown for separations of 20, 30, and 40 mm. (b) Relative sensitivity to absorption changes in the scalp–skull layer when μ s , CSF = 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mm−1 versus time delay as predicted by Monte Carlo. The reference measure of sensitivity to scalp–skull is given by simulating PPF when μ s , CSF is 0.001 mm−1. (c) Time-resolved Monte Carlo predictions of the relative sensitivity to absorption changes in the brain when μ s , CSF assumes the values of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mm−1. The reference measure of sensitivity to brain is given by simulating PPF when μ s , CSF is 0.001 mm−1. Results are shown for separations of 20, 30, and 40 mm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fluence changes as a function of μ s , CSF for different separations at a time delay of 2 ns. CSF scattering coefficient varies between 0.001 and 1.0 mm−1.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Absolute changes in the partial optical path length versus μ s , CSF at source–detector separations of 20, 30, and 40 mm for a time delay of 2 ns.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Properties of the Adult Head Model

Equations (3)

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Φ j ( t i ) = 1 N j ( t i ) Δ t l = 1 N j ( t i ) Π m = 1 N R exp ( μ a , m L j , l , m ) ,
PPF m = OD / μ a , m ,
PPF j , m = l = 1 N j ( t i ) II m = 1 N S L j , l , m exp ( μ a , m L j , l , m ) l = 1 N j ( t i ) II m = 1 N R exp ( μ a , m L j , l , m ) .

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