Abstract

The fluorescence dynamics in Er3+and Yb3+ doped KGd(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 has been investigated. Lifetimes have been measured for the Yb  (2F5/2), Er  (4I13/2), and Er  (4S3/2) levels around 1, 1.5, and 0.55μm, respectively. The Yb  (2F5/2) lifetimes show a decreasing trend toward the limiting Er  (4I11/2) lifetime with increasing Er-to-Yb concentration ratio, whereas the Er  (4I13/2) lifetimes are mostly unaffected by the doping concentrations. A rate equation analysis has been performed to explain the observed behavior and gain is calculated for a continuous-wave laser at 1.53μm to find the optimum doping concentrations for high gain.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (2)

X. Mateos, R. Solé, Jna. Gavaldá, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Laroche, S. Girard, J. K. Sahu, W. A. Clarkson, and J. Nilsson, "Accurate efficiency evaluation of energy-transfer processes in phosphosilicate Er3+-Yb3+-codoped fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 195-202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, "Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm of an Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a CO2+:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, and J. A. Tellefsen, "Q-switching of an Er-Yb:glass microchip laser using an acousto-optical modulator," Opt. Commun. 217, 317-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, "Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping," Appl. Phys. B 75, 41-46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. A. R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix," J. Appl. Cryst. 35, 108-112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Lupei, G. Aka, E. Antic-Fidancev, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and P. Aschehoug, "Selective excitation study of Yb3+ in GdCa4O(BO3)3 and YCa4O(BO3)3," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 1107-1117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized infrared and Raman spectra of KGd(WO4)2 and their interpretation based on normal coordinate analysis," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 92-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Heumann, S. Bär, H. Kretschmann, and G. Huber, "Diode-pumped continuous-wave green upconversion lasing of Er3+:LiLuF4 using multipass pumping," Opt. Lett. 27, 1699-1701 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Cryst. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitising of Er3+ up-conversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 68, 187-197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber. "CW laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents," J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600-603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Simondi-Teisseire, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and A. M. Lejus, "Yb3+ to Er3+ energy transfer and rate-equations formalism in the eye safe laser material Yb:Er:Ca2Al2SiO7," Opt. Mater. 6, 267-274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. D. Marshall, S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, H. T. Powell, W. F. Krupke, and B. H. T. Chai, "1.047-μm Yb:Sr5(PO4)3F energy storage optical amplifier," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 67-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

D. S. Sumida and T. Y. Fan, "Effect of radiation trapping on fluorescence lifetime and emission cross section measurements in solid-state laser media," Opt. Lett. 19, 1343-1345 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Hutchinson, H. R. Verdun, B. H. T. Chai, B. Zandi, and L. D. Merkle, "Spectroscopic evaluation of CaYAlO4 doped with trivalent Er; Tm, Yb and Ho for eyesafe laser applications," Opt. Mater. 3, 287-306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

J. Hanuza and L. Macalik, "Polarized infra-red and Raman spectra of monoclinic α-KLn(WO4)2 single crystals (Ln = Sm-Lu, Y)," Spectrochim. Acta A 43, 361-373 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, "Erbium glass lasers and their applications," Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189-196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, and F. W. Ostermayer, "Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125-1137 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

S. V. Borisov and R. F. Kletsova, "Crystal structure of KY(WO4)2," Sov. Phys. Cryst. 13, 517-519 (1968).

Aguiló, M.

X. Mateos, R. Solé, Jna. Gavaldá, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. A. R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix," J. Appl. Cryst. 35, 108-112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitising of Er3+ up-conversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Cryst. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 68, 187-197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents," J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600-603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aka, G.

A. Lupei, G. Aka, E. Antic-Fidancev, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and P. Aschehoug, "Selective excitation study of Yb3+ in GdCa4O(BO3)3 and YCa4O(BO3)3," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 1107-1117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Antic-Fidancev, E.

A. Lupei, G. Aka, E. Antic-Fidancev, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and P. Aschehoug, "Selective excitation study of Yb3+ in GdCa4O(BO3)3 and YCa4O(BO3)3," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 1107-1117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aschehoug, P.

A. Lupei, G. Aka, E. Antic-Fidancev, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and P. Aschehoug, "Selective excitation study of Yb3+ in GdCa4O(BO3)3 and YCa4O(BO3)3," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 1107-1117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bär, S.

Benitez, J. M.

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Borisov, S. V.

S. V. Borisov and R. F. Kletsova, "Crystal structure of KY(WO4)2," Sov. Phys. Cryst. 13, 517-519 (1968).

Burns, P. A.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caird, J. A.

Chai, B. H. T.

C. D. Marshall, S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, H. T. Powell, W. F. Krupke, and B. H. T. Chai, "1.047-μm Yb:Sr5(PO4)3F energy storage optical amplifier," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 67-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hutchinson, H. R. Verdun, B. H. T. Chai, B. Zandi, and L. D. Merkle, "Spectroscopic evaluation of CaYAlO4 doped with trivalent Er; Tm, Yb and Ho for eyesafe laser applications," Opt. Mater. 3, 287-306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Dawes, J. M.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, P.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Denker, B.

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm of an Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a CO2+:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, "Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping," Appl. Phys. B 75, 41-46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, J. A. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. I. Galagan, V. V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, "Diode-pumped Er-Yb:glass laser passively Q switched by use of Co2+:MgAl2O4 as a saturable absorber," Appl. Opt. 39, 6188-6192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Díaz, F.

X. Mateos, R. Solé, Jna. Gavaldá, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. A. R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix," J. Appl. Cryst. 35, 108-112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Cryst. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitising of Er3+ up-conversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 68, 187-197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents," J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600-603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Diening, A.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber. "CW laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dunina, E. B.

Fagundes-Peters, D.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, "Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

Galagan, B.

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm of an Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a CO2+:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, "Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping," Appl. Phys. B 75, 41-46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Galagan, B. I.

Gapontsev, V. P.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, "Erbium glass lasers and their applications," Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189-196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gavaldá, Jna.

X. Mateos, R. Solé, Jna. Gavaldá, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gavaldà, J.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. A. R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix," J. Appl. Cryst. 35, 108-112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gavaldà, Jna.

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Cryst. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents," J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600-603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Giesen, A.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, "Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Girard, S.

Guggenheim, H. J.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, and F. W. Ostermayer, "Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125-1137 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hanuza, J.

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized infrared and Raman spectra of KGd(WO4)2 and their interpretation based on normal coordinate analysis," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 92-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza and L. Macalik, "Polarized infra-red and Raman spectra of monoclinic α-KLn(WO4)2 single crystals (Ln = Sm-Lu, Y)," Spectrochim. Acta A 43, 361-373 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hartung, S.

Hellström, J. E.

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm of an Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a CO2+:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heumann, E.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, H. Kretschmann, and G. Huber, "Diode-pumped continuous-wave green upconversion lasing of Er3+:LiLuF4 using multipass pumping," Opt. Lett. 27, 1699-1701 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber. "CW laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Hubert, H.

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, J. A.

J. A. Hutchinson, H. R. Verdun, B. H. T. Chai, B. Zandi, and L. D. Merkle, "Spectroscopic evaluation of CaYAlO4 doped with trivalent Er; Tm, Yb and Ho for eyesafe laser applications," Opt. Mater. 3, 287-306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Isineev, A. A.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, "Erbium glass lasers and their applications," Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189-196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber. "CW laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johannsen, J.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, "Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, and F. W. Ostermayer, "Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125-1137 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kahn-Harari, A.

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized infrared and Raman spectra of KGd(WO4)2 and their interpretation based on normal coordinate analysis," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 92-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, G.

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm of an Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a CO2+:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, and J. A. Tellefsen, "Q-switching of an Er-Yb:glass microchip laser using an acousto-optical modulator," Opt. Commun. 217, 317-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, "Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping," Appl. Phys. B 75, 41-46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, J. A. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. I. Galagan, V. V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, "Diode-pumped Er-Yb:glass laser passively Q switched by use of Co2+:MgAl2O4 as a saturable absorber," Appl. Opt. 39, 6188-6192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kletsova, R. F.

S. V. Borisov and R. F. Kletsova, "Crystal structure of KY(WO4)2," Sov. Phys. Cryst. 13, 517-519 (1968).

Kornienko, A. A.

Kravchenko, V. B.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, "Erbium glass lasers and their applications," Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189-196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, H.

Krupke, W. F.

C. D. Marshall, S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, H. T. Powell, W. F. Krupke, and B. H. T. Chai, "1.047-μm Yb:Sr5(PO4)3F energy storage optical amplifier," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 67-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlipensky, V. P. Mikhailov, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, S. Hartung, and G. Huber, "Fluorescence dynamics, excited-state absorption, and stimulated emission of Er3+ in KY(WO4)2," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1205-1212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber. "CW laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kutovoi, S.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, "Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lagatsky, A. A.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlipensky, V. P. Mikhailov, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, S. Hartung, and G. Huber, "Fluorescence dynamics, excited-state absorption, and stimulated emission of Er3+ in KY(WO4)2," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1205-1212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber. "CW laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laroche, M.

Laurell, F.

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm of an Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a CO2+:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, and J. A. Tellefsen, "Q-switching of an Er-Yb:glass microchip laser using an acousto-optical modulator," Opt. Commun. 217, 317-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, "Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping," Appl. Phys. B 75, 41-46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, J. A. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. I. Galagan, V. V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, "Diode-pumped Er-Yb:glass laser passively Q switched by use of Co2+:MgAl2O4 as a saturable absorber," Appl. Opt. 39, 6188-6192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Layne, C. B.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lejus, A. M.

B. Simondi-Teisseire, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and A. M. Lejus, "Yb3+ to Er3+ energy transfer and rate-equations formalism in the eye safe laser material Yb:Er:Ca2Al2SiO7," Opt. Mater. 6, 267-274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lowdermilk, W. H.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lupei, A.

A. Lupei, G. Aka, E. Antic-Fidancev, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and P. Aschehoug, "Selective excitation study of Yb3+ in GdCa4O(BO3)3 and YCa4O(BO3)3," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 1107-1117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Macalik, L.

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized infrared and Raman spectra of KGd(WO4)2 and their interpretation based on normal coordinate analysis," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 92-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza and L. Macalik, "Polarized infra-red and Raman spectra of monoclinic α-KLn(WO4)2 single crystals (Ln = Sm-Lu, Y)," Spectrochim. Acta A 43, 361-373 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, C. D.

C. D. Marshall, S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, H. T. Powell, W. F. Krupke, and B. H. T. Chai, "1.047-μm Yb:Sr5(PO4)3F energy storage optical amplifier," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 67-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Massons, J.

X. Mateos, R. Solé, Jna. Gavaldá, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. A. R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix," J. Appl. Cryst. 35, 108-112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitising of Er3+ up-conversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Cryst. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mateos, X.

X. Mateos, R. Solé, Jna. Gavaldá, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. A. R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix," J. Appl. Cryst. 35, 108-112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitising of Er3+ up-conversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matitsin, S. M.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, "Erbium glass lasers and their applications," Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189-196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Merkle, L. D.

J. A. Hutchinson, H. R. Verdun, B. H. T. Chai, B. Zandi, and L. D. Merkle, "Spectroscopic evaluation of CaYAlO4 doped with trivalent Er; Tm, Yb and Ho for eyesafe laser applications," Opt. Mater. 3, 287-306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meva, L.

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm of an Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a CO2+:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, V. P.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlipensky, V. P. Mikhailov, A. A. Kornienko, E. B. Dunina, S. Hartung, and G. Huber, "Fluorescence dynamics, excited-state absorption, and stimulated emission of Er3+ in KY(WO4)2," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1205-1212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber. "CW laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mond, M.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, "Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mougel, F.

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nikolov, V.

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 68, 187-197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents," J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600-603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Osiko, V.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, "Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping," Appl. Phys. B 75, 41-46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Osiko, V. V.

Ostermayer, F. W.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, and F. W. Ostermayer, "Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125-1137 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Pasiskevicius, V.

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm of an Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a CO2+:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, and J. A. Tellefsen, "Q-switching of an Er-Yb:glass microchip laser using an acousto-optical modulator," Opt. Commun. 217, 317-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, J. A. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. I. Galagan, V. V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, "Diode-pumped Er-Yb:glass laser passively Q switched by use of Co2+:MgAl2O4 as a saturable absorber," Appl. Opt. 39, 6188-6192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

C. D. Marshall, S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, H. T. Powell, W. F. Krupke, and B. H. T. Chai, "1.047-μm Yb:Sr5(PO4)3F energy storage optical amplifier," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 67-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, "Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peters, V.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, "Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Podlipensky, A. V.

Powell, H. T.

C. D. Marshall, S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, H. T. Powell, W. F. Krupke, and B. H. T. Chai, "1.047-μm Yb:Sr5(PO4)3F energy storage optical amplifier," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 67-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pujol, M. C.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. A. R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix," J. Appl. Cryst. 35, 108-112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Cryst. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitising of Er3+ up-conversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 68, 187-197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, A. J.

Rich, T. C.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, and F. W. Ostermayer, "Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125-1137 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rico, M.

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitising of Er3+ up-conversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 68, 187-197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Romero, J. J.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, "Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, X.

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents," J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600-603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J. K.

Shcherbitsky, V. G.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber. "CW laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simondi-Teisseire, B.

B. Simondi-Teisseire, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and A. M. Lejus, "Yb3+ to Er3+ energy transfer and rate-equations formalism in the eye safe laser material Yb:Er:Ca2Al2SiO7," Opt. Mater. 6, 267-274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. K.

C. D. Marshall, S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, H. T. Powell, W. F. Krupke, and B. H. T. Chai, "1.047-μm Yb:Sr5(PO4)3F energy storage optical amplifier," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 67-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Solans, X.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. A. R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix," J. Appl. Cryst. 35, 108-112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Cryst. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 68, 187-197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents," J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600-603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Solé, M. A. R.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. A. R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix," J. Appl. Cryst. 35, 108-112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solé, R.

X. Mateos, R. Solé, Jna. Gavaldá, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Cryst. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 68, 187-197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents," J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600-603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Speiser, J.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, "Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Staver, P. R.

Sumida, D. S.

Sverchkov, S.

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm of an Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a CO2+:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, "Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping," Appl. Phys. B 75, 41-46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, J. A. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. I. Galagan, V. V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, "Diode-pumped Er-Yb:glass laser passively Q switched by use of Co2+:MgAl2O4 as a saturable absorber," Appl. Opt. 39, 6188-6192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tellefsen, J.

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, "Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping," Appl. Phys. B 75, 41-46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tellefsen, J. A.

G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, and J. A. Tellefsen, "Q-switching of an Er-Yb:glass microchip laser using an acousto-optical modulator," Opt. Commun. 217, 317-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, J. A. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. I. Galagan, V. V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, "Diode-pumped Er-Yb:glass laser passively Q switched by use of Co2+:MgAl2O4 as a saturable absorber," Appl. Opt. 39, 6188-6192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Verdun, H. R.

J. A. Hutchinson, H. R. Verdun, B. H. T. Chai, B. Zandi, and L. D. Merkle, "Spectroscopic evaluation of CaYAlO4 doped with trivalent Er; Tm, Yb and Ho for eyesafe laser applications," Opt. Mater. 3, 287-306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Viana, B.

A. Lupei, G. Aka, E. Antic-Fidancev, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and P. Aschehoug, "Selective excitation study of Yb3+ in GdCa4O(BO3)3 and YCa4O(BO3)3," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 1107-1117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Simondi-Teisseire, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and A. M. Lejus, "Yb3+ to Er3+ energy transfer and rate-equations formalism in the eye safe laser material Yb:Er:Ca2Al2SiO7," Opt. Mater. 6, 267-274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, D.

A. Lupei, G. Aka, E. Antic-Fidancev, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and P. Aschehoug, "Selective excitation study of Yb3+ in GdCa4O(BO3)3 and YCa4O(BO3)3," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 1107-1117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Simondi-Teisseire, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and A. M. Lejus, "Yb3+ to Er3+ energy transfer and rate-equations formalism in the eye safe laser material Yb:Er:Ca2Al2SiO7," Opt. Mater. 6, 267-274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Voronina, I.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Zaldo, C.

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Cryst. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitising of Er3+ up-conversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 68, 187-197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zandi, B.

J. A. Hutchinson, H. R. Verdun, B. H. T. Chai, B. Zandi, and L. D. Merkle, "Spectroscopic evaluation of CaYAlO4 doped with trivalent Er; Tm, Yb and Ho for eyesafe laser applications," Opt. Mater. 3, 287-306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (5)

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, "Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping," Appl. Phys. B 75, 41-46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber. "CW laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates," Appl. Phys. B 64, 409-413 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, L. Meva, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, I. Voronina, J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, and F. Laurell, "Luminescent and laser properties of Yb-Er:GdCa4O(BO3)3: a new crystal for eye-safe 1.5-μm lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 577-581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hellström, G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, B. Denker, S. Sverchkov, B. Galagan, and L. Meva, "Passive Q-switching at 1.54 μm of an Er-Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a CO2+:MgAl2O4 saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 49-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals," Appl. Phys. B 68, 187-197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. Jiang, and J. Wang, "Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1575-1582 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. D. Marshall, S. A. Payne, L. K. Smith, H. T. Powell, W. F. Krupke, and B. H. T. Chai, "1.047-μm Yb:Sr5(PO4)3F energy storage optical amplifier," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 67-77 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

M. Rico, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, J. Massons, C. Zaldo, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Yb sensitising of Er3+ up-conversion emission in KGd(WO4)2:Er:Yb single crystals," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 362-366 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2)

M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, J. Massons, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution," J. Appl. Cryst. 34, 1-6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. A. R. Solé, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, "Structure, crystal growth and physical anisotropy of KYb(WO4)2, a new laser matrix," J. Appl. Cryst. 35, 108-112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, and F. W. Ostermayer, "Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125-1137 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, "Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135-140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, Jna. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, "Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents," J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600-603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

A. Lupei, G. Aka, E. Antic-Fidancev, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and P. Aschehoug, "Selective excitation study of Yb3+ in GdCa4O(BO3)3 and YCa4O(BO3)3," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 1107-1117 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized infrared and Raman spectra of KGd(WO4)2 and their interpretation based on normal coordinate analysis," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 92-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Karlsson, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, and J. A. Tellefsen, "Q-switching of an Er-Yb:glass microchip laser using an acousto-optical modulator," Opt. Commun. 217, 317-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, "Erbium glass lasers and their applications," Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189-196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (4)

X. Mateos, R. Solé, Jna. Gavaldá, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, and F. Díaz, "Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO4)2 co-doped with Er3+ and Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 28, 423-431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hutchinson, H. R. Verdun, B. H. T. Chai, B. Zandi, and L. D. Merkle, "Spectroscopic evaluation of CaYAlO4 doped with trivalent Er; Tm, Yb and Ho for eyesafe laser applications," Opt. Mater. 3, 287-306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Simondi-Teisseire, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and A. M. Lejus, "Yb3+ to Er3+ energy transfer and rate-equations formalism in the eye safe laser material Yb:Er:Ca2Al2SiO7," Opt. Mater. 6, 267-274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Cryst. (1)

S. V. Borisov and R. F. Kletsova, "Crystal structure of KY(WO4)2," Sov. Phys. Cryst. 13, 517-519 (1968).

Spectrochim. Acta A (1)

J. Hanuza and L. Macalik, "Polarized infra-red and Raman spectra of monoclinic α-KLn(WO4)2 single crystals (Ln = Sm-Lu, Y)," Spectrochim. Acta A 43, 361-373 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram of an Er–Yb double-tungstatesystem.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dynamics of the emission from the S 3 / 2 4 (solid line) and I 11 / 2 4 (dashed curve) levels in Er 1 % : KGW .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence dynamics from the Yb ( F 5 / 2 2 ) level around 1 μm in Yb : KGW and Er : Yb : KGW .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dynamics of the green emission from the Er ( S 3 / 2 4 ) level at 0.55 μm in Er : Yb : KGW .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dynamics from the Er ( I 13 / 2 4 ) level around 1.5 μm in Er 5 % : Yb 5 % : KGW (solid curve) and in Er 3 % : KYbW (dashed curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured lifetimes in Er : Yb : KGW versus doping concentration ratio [ Er ] / [ Yb ] : circles, Yb ( F 5 / 2 2 ) level at 1 μm ; triangles, rise time of the Er ( I 13 / 2 4 ) level at 1.5 μm ; squares, Er ( S 3 / 2 4 ) level at 0.55 μm ; solid curve, calculated lifetime of the Yb ( F 5 / 2 2 ) level with k FT / k BT = 4.2 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured lifetimes in Er : Yb : KYW versus doping concentration ratio [ Er ] / [ Yb ] : circles, Yb ( F 5 / 2 2 ) level at 1 μm ; triangles, rise time of the Er ( I 13 / 2 4 ) level at 1.5 μm ; squares, Er ( S 3 / 2 4 ) level at 0.55 μm ; solid curve, calculated lifetime of the Yb ( F 5 / 2 2 ) level with k FT / k BT = 2.3 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated single-pass gain including different upconversion processes ( UC 1 - UC 4 ) in Er:Yb:KYW crystals of 5 % Yb concentration and 1 mm thickness at 2 W pump power versus Er concentration. For all curves, (a)–(e) k C , 1 = 5 × 10 - 15 cm 3 s - 1 ; thin solid curve, (b) C up , 1 = 5 × 10 - 15 cm 3 s - 1 ; dashed curve, (c) k C , 2 = 1 × 10 - 17 cm 3 s - 1 ; dash–dot curve, (d) C up , 2 = 1 × 10 - 18 cm 3 s - 1 ; dotted curve, (e) C up , 2 = 1 × 10 - 17 cm 3 s - 1 .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated single-pass gain in Er : Yb : KYW (a)–(d) and Er 2.75 % : Yb 22 % : phosphate glass (e) of 1 mm thickness versus pump power. Cumulative upconversion ( UC 1 ) included in Er : Yb : KYW (a)–(d); k C , 1 = 5 × 10 - 15 cm 3 s - 1 . Cooperative upconversion ( UC 4 ) included in (c) C up , 2 = 1 × 10 - 18 cm 3 s - 1 and in (d) C up , 2 = 1 × 10 - 17 cm 3 s - 1 .

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Unit Cell Parameters of KREW (RE = Gd, Y and Yb)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Crystals Used in the Experiments with Doping Concentrations

Tables Icon

Table 3 Lifetimes of the 4 S 3∕2 and 4 I 11∕2 Levels in Singly Er-Doped Crystals

Tables Icon

Table 4 Lifetimes and Rise Times of the Yb (2 F 5∕2), Er (4 S 3∕2), and Er (4 I 13∕2) Levels in Er–Yb-Doped Crystals

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d N Yb , 2 d t = R P N Yb , 2 τ Yb k FT N Er , 1 N Yb , 2 + k BT N Yb , 1 N Er , 3 k C , 1 N Er , 3 N Yb , 2 k C , 2 N Er , 2 N Yb , 2 ,
d N Er , 6 d t = W NR , 6 N Er , 6 N Er , 6 τ Er , 6 + k C , 1 N Yb , 2 N Er , 3 + C up , 1 N Er , 3              2 ,
d N Er , 3 d t = W NR , 3 N Er , 3 N Er , 3 τ Er , 3 k BT N Yb , 1 N Er , 3 + k FT N Er , 1 N Yb , 2 k C , 1 N Yb , 2 N Er , 3 2 C up , 1 N Er , 3              2 + k C , 2 N Yb , 2 N Er , 2 + C up , 2 N Er , 2               2 + W NR , 6 N Er , 6 + ( β 65 + β 64 + β 63 ) N Er , 6 τ Er , 6 ,
d N Er , 2 d t = N Er , 2 τ Er , 2 k C , 2 N Yb , 2 N Er , 2 2 C up , 2 N Er , 2              2 + W NR , 3 N Er , 3 + β 32 N Er , 3 τ Er , 3 + β 62 N Er , 6 τ Er , 6 ,
N Yb = N Yb , 1 + N Yb , 2 ,
N Er = N Er , 1 + N Er , 2 + N Er , 3 + N Er , 6 .
d N Yb , 2 d t = ( W Yb + W FT ) N Yb , 2 + W BT N Er , 3 ,
d N Er , 3 d t = W FT N Yb , 2 ( W NR , 3 + W BT ) N Er , 3 ,
N Yb , 2 ( t ) = C 11 exp ( W eff , 1 t ) + C 12 exp ( W eff , 2 t ) ,
N Er , 3 ( t ) = C 21 exp ( W eff , 1 t ) + C 22 exp ( W eff , 2 t ) ,
W eff , 1 = W FT + W BT + W Yb + W NR , 3 2 + 1 2 [ ( W FT W BT + W Yb W NR , 3 ) 2 + 4 W FT W BT ] 1 / 2 ,
W eff , 2 = W FT + W BT + W Yb + W NR , 3 2 1 2 [ ( W FT W BT + W Yb W NR , 3 ) 2 + 4 W FT W BT ] 1 / 2 ,
C 11 = N Yb , 2 ( 0 ) W FT + W Yb W eff , 2 W eff , 1 W eff , 2 ,
C 12 = N Yb , 2 ( 0 ) C 11 ,
C 21 = C 11 W FT + W Yb W eff , 1 W BT ,
C 22 = C 21 .
W eff , 2 W Yb + W NR , 3 W Yb 1 + ( W FT / W BT ) 1 .

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