Abstract

A new integral imaging (II) system that can magnify 3D reconstructed images by employing an intermediate-view reconstruction technique (IVRT) is proposed in which the number of the elemental images obtained from a one-step pickup process can be computationally increased by use of an IVRT without mechanical movement and a long multistep pickup process. To show the feasibility of the proposed II system, some optical experiments on the magnification of 3D reconstructed images with a real 3D object have been carried out and results are presented.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. J.-H. Park, H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Scaling of three-dimensional integral imaging," Jpn. J. of Appl. Phys. 44, 216-224 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by elemental image resizing and elemental lens switching," Appl. Opt. 41, 6875-6883 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification," Appl. Opt. 43, 4882-4895 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J.-W. Bae, H.-C. Park, E.-S. Kim, and J.-S. Yoo, "Efficient disparity estimation algorithm based on spatial correlation," Opt. Eng. 42, 176-181 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. H. Bae and E.-S. Kim, "New disparity estimation scheme based on adaptive matching windows for intermediate view reconstruction," Opt. Eng. 42, 1778-1786 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Redert, E. Hendriks, and J. Biemond, "Synthesis of multiviewpoint images at non-intermediate positions," In Proceedings of the (IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing) (IEEE, 1997), Vol. 4, pp. 2749-2752.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. Heitz and P. Bouthemy, "Multimodel estimation of discontinuous optical flow using Markov random fields," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 1217-1232, (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. H. Nagel and W. Enkelmann, "An investigation of smoothness constraints for the estimation of displacement vector fields from image sequences," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-8, 565-593 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. S. Taubman and M. W. Marcellin, JPGE2000-Image Compression Fundamentals, Standards and Practice (Kluwer, 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. M. Eskicioglu and P. S. Fisher, "Image Quality Measures and Their Performance," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2959-2965 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

D.-H. Shin, M. Cho, and E.-S. Kim, "Computational implementation of asymmetric integral imaging by use of two crossed lenticular sheets," ETRI J. 27, 289-293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Scaling of three-dimensional integral imaging," Jpn. J. of Appl. Phys. 44, 216-224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, B. Javidi, and F. Jin, "3D object scaling in integral imaging display by varying the spatial ray sampling rate," Opt. Express 13, 3242-3251 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (6)

2003 (4)

S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, and B. Lee, "Enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system by use of double display devices," Appl. Opt. 42, 4186-4195 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional image sensing and reconstruction with time-division multiplexed computational integral imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 7036-7042 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-W. Bae, H.-C. Park, E.-S. Kim, and J.-S. Yoo, "Efficient disparity estimation algorithm based on spatial correlation," Opt. Eng. 42, 176-181 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Bae and E.-S. Kim, "New disparity estimation scheme based on adaptive matching windows for intermediate view reconstruction," Opt. Eng. 42, 1778-1786 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

A. M. Eskicioglu and P. S. Fisher, "Image Quality Measures and Their Performance," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2959-2965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

F. Heitz and P. Bouthemy, "Multimodel estimation of discontinuous optical flow using Markov random fields," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 1217-1232, (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. H. Nagel and W. Enkelmann, "An investigation of smoothness constraints for the estimation of displacement vector fields from image sequences," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-8, 565-593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, "La photographie integrale," Comp. Rend. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Arai, J.

Bae, J.-W.

J.-W. Bae, H.-C. Park, E.-S. Kim, and J.-S. Yoo, "Efficient disparity estimation algorithm based on spatial correlation," Opt. Eng. 42, 176-181 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bae, K. H.

K. H. Bae and E.-S. Kim, "New disparity estimation scheme based on adaptive matching windows for intermediate view reconstruction," Opt. Eng. 42, 1778-1786 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benton, S. A.

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Extraction and conversion of the 3D information for integral imaging," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI,A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 329-336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biemond, J.

A. Redert, E. Hendriks, and J. Biemond, "Synthesis of multiviewpoint images at non-intermediate positions," In Proceedings of the (IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing) (IEEE, 1997), Vol. 4, pp. 2749-2752.

Bolas, M. T.

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Extraction and conversion of the 3D information for integral imaging," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI,A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 329-336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bouthemy, P.

F. Heitz and P. Bouthemy, "Multimodel estimation of discontinuous optical flow using Markov random fields," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 1217-1232, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.

D.-H. Shin, M. Cho, and E.-S. Kim, "Computational implementation of asymmetric integral imaging by use of two crossed lenticular sheets," ETRI J. 27, 289-293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Scaling of three-dimensional integral imaging," Jpn. J. of Appl. Phys. 44, 216-224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Extraction and conversion of the 3D information for integral imaging," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI,A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 329-336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification," Appl. Opt. 43, 4882-4895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by elemental image resizing and elemental lens switching," Appl. Opt. 41, 6875-6883 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dohi, T.

Enkelmann, W.

H. H. Nagel and W. Enkelmann, "An investigation of smoothness constraints for the estimation of displacement vector fields from image sequences," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-8, 565-593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Eskicioglu, A. M.

A. M. Eskicioglu and P. S. Fisher, "Image Quality Measures and Their Performance," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2959-2965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, P. S.

A. M. Eskicioglu and P. S. Fisher, "Image Quality Measures and Their Performance," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2959-2965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hata, N.

Heitz, F.

F. Heitz and P. Bouthemy, "Multimodel estimation of discontinuous optical flow using Markov random fields," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 1217-1232, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, E.

A. Redert, E. Hendriks, and J. Biemond, "Synthesis of multiviewpoint images at non-intermediate positions," In Proceedings of the (IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing) (IEEE, 1997), Vol. 4, pp. 2749-2752.

Hong, J.

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Extraction and conversion of the 3D information for integral imaging," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI,A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 329-336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.-H.

Hoshino, H.

Iwahara, M.

Jang, J.-S.

Javidi, B.

Jin, F.

Jung, S.

Kim, E.-S.

D.-H. Shin, M. Cho, and E.-S. Kim, "Computational implementation of asymmetric integral imaging by use of two crossed lenticular sheets," ETRI J. 27, 289-293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Bae, H.-C. Park, E.-S. Kim, and J.-S. Yoo, "Efficient disparity estimation algorithm based on spatial correlation," Opt. Eng. 42, 176-181 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Bae and E.-S. Kim, "New disparity estimation scheme based on adaptive matching windows for intermediate view reconstruction," Opt. Eng. 42, 1778-1786 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, Y.

Lee, B.

Liao, H.

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, "La photographie integrale," Comp. Rend. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Marcellin, M. W.

D. S. Taubman and M. W. Marcellin, JPGE2000-Image Compression Fundamentals, Standards and Practice (Kluwer, 2002).
[CrossRef]

Merritt, J. O.

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Extraction and conversion of the 3D information for integral imaging," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI,A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 329-336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Min, S.-W.

Nagel, H. H.

H. H. Nagel and W. Enkelmann, "An investigation of smoothness constraints for the estimation of displacement vector fields from image sequences," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-8, 565-593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Okano, F.

Park, H.-C.

J.-W. Bae, H.-C. Park, E.-S. Kim, and J.-S. Yoo, "Efficient disparity estimation algorithm based on spatial correlation," Opt. Eng. 42, 176-181 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-H.

Redert, A.

A. Redert, E. Hendriks, and J. Biemond, "Synthesis of multiviewpoint images at non-intermediate positions," In Proceedings of the (IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing) (IEEE, 1997), Vol. 4, pp. 2749-2752.

Shin, D.-H.

D.-H. Shin, M. Cho, and E.-S. Kim, "Computational implementation of asymmetric integral imaging by use of two crossed lenticular sheets," ETRI J. 27, 289-293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-W.

Stern, A.

Taubman, D. S.

D. S. Taubman and M. W. Marcellin, JPGE2000-Image Compression Fundamentals, Standards and Practice (Kluwer, 2002).
[CrossRef]

Woods, A. J.

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Extraction and conversion of the 3D information for integral imaging," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI,A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 329-336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, J.-S.

J.-W. Bae, H.-C. Park, E.-S. Kim, and J.-S. Yoo, "Efficient disparity estimation algorithm based on spatial correlation," Opt. Eng. 42, 176-181 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Comp. Rend. (1)

G. Lippmann, "La photographie integrale," Comp. Rend. 146, 446-451 (1908).

ETRI J. (1)

D.-H. Shin, M. Cho, and E.-S. Kim, "Computational implementation of asymmetric integral imaging by use of two crossed lenticular sheets," ETRI J. 27, 289-293 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

A. M. Eskicioglu and P. S. Fisher, "Image Quality Measures and Their Performance," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2959-2965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (2)

F. Heitz and P. Bouthemy, "Multimodel estimation of discontinuous optical flow using Markov random fields," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 1217-1232, (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Nagel and W. Enkelmann, "An investigation of smoothness constraints for the estimation of displacement vector fields from image sequences," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-8, 565-593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. of Appl. Phys. (1)

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Scaling of three-dimensional integral imaging," Jpn. J. of Appl. Phys. 44, 216-224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J.-W. Bae, H.-C. Park, E.-S. Kim, and J.-S. Yoo, "Efficient disparity estimation algorithm based on spatial correlation," Opt. Eng. 42, 176-181 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Bae and E.-S. Kim, "New disparity estimation scheme based on adaptive matching windows for intermediate view reconstruction," Opt. Eng. 42, 1778-1786 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Extraction and conversion of the 3D information for integral imaging," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI,A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 329-336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Redert, E. Hendriks, and J. Biemond, "Synthesis of multiviewpoint images at non-intermediate positions," In Proceedings of the (IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing) (IEEE, 1997), Vol. 4, pp. 2749-2752.

D. S. Taubman and M. W. Marcellin, JPGE2000-Image Compression Fundamentals, Standards and Practice (Kluwer, 2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Magnification of a 3D object using the MALT.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Proposed II system using the IVRT.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principle of the IVRT.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of IEI calculated for three different α values with Δα = 1∕4.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for picking elemental images in an II system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Pickup of elemental images. (b) Enlarged images.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

IEI calculated from the elemental images of Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison to calculate a PSNR.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical setup for display experiments.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental results for magnification: (a) original, (b) two times, (c) three times.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Test images for calculating the PSNR: (a) 3D objects and (b) IEI results.

Equations (1)

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I P ( x , y ) = ( 1 α ) I L [ x + α d ( x , y ) , y ] + α I R [ x ( 1 α ) d ( x , y ) , y ] .

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