Abstract

A multilayer coating is a useful addition to a mirror in the x-ray region and has been applied to normal incidence mirrors used with soft x rays. When a multilayer coating is used on grazing incidence optics, higher performance can be achieved than without it. Cr∕Sc multilayers coated on a Wolter type I mirror substrate for a soft x-ray microscope are considered. The reflectivity and effective solid angle are calculated for Wolter type I mirrors with uniform and laterally graded multilayer coatings. The laterally graded multilayer mirror showed superior x-ray performance, and the multilayer tolerances were relaxed. This multilayer mirror could be especially useful in the soft x-ray microscope intended for biological applications.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics, Vol. PMI5 of SPIE Press Monographs (SPIE Press, 1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. W. Barbee, Jr., "Multilayers for x-ray optics," in Applications of Thin Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G.F.Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563,2-28 (1985).
  3. A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, and V. A. Slemzin, "Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range lambda = 4.5 nm," Phys. Scr. 48, 566-570 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  4. N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. Schäfers, H. C. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, and E. A. Shamov, "Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft-x-ray range," Appl. Opt. 37, 719-728 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Wolter, "Spiegelsysteme streifenden Einfalls als abbildende Optiken für Röntgenstrahlen," Ann. Phys. 10, 94-114 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, D. L. Windt, and F. E. Christensen, "Optimization of graded multilayer designs for astronomical x-ray telescopes," Appl. Opt. 38, 4766-4775 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980).
  9. F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, and J. Birch, "Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition," Opt. Eng. 41, 2903-2909 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Birch, F. Erilsson, G. A. Johansson, and H. M. Hertz, "Recent advances in ion-assisted growth of Cr/Sc multilayer x-ray mirrors for the water window," Vacuum 68, 275-282 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Kühne and R. Thornagel, "Soft x-ray emission from a laser-produced carbon plasma," in X-Ray Microscopy III, A.G.Michette, G.R.Morrison, and C.J.Buckley, eds. (Springer, 1990), pp. 39-42.
  12. L. Névot and P. Croce, "Charachérisation des surfaces par refléxion rasante de rayons x application á l'etude du polissage de quelques verres silicates," Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761-779 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interations: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30 000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. V. Vinogradov and B. Y. Zeldovich, "X-ray and far UV multilayer mirrors," Appl. Opt. 16, 89-93 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. Yamamoto and T. Namioka, "Layer-by-layer design method for soft-x-ray multilayers," Appl. Opt. 31, 1622-1630 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. I. Larruquert, "New layer-by-layer multilayer design method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 385-390 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. S. Chon, Y. Namba, and K. H. Yoon, "Optimization of a Wolter type I mirror for a soft x- ray microscope," Prec. Eng. 30, 223-230 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. T. Perkins, J. M. Thorne, and H. K. Pew, "Theoretical considerations in the design of multilayer X-ray optics," in X-Ray Imaging II,D.K.Bowen and L.V.Knight, eds., Proc. SPIE 691,76-82 (1986).
  19. A. Franks and B. Gale, "The development of single and multilayered Wolter x-ray microscopes," in Applications of Thin Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G.F.Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563,81-89 (1985).
  20. M. Schuster and H. Göbel, "Parallel-beam coupling into channel-cut monochromators using curved graded multilayers," J. Phys. D 28, A270-275 (1995).
    [Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. S. Chon, Y. Namba, and K. H. Yoon, "Optimization of a Wolter type I mirror for a soft x- ray microscope," Prec. Eng. 30, 223-230 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Birch, F. Erilsson, G. A. Johansson, and H. M. Hertz, "Recent advances in ion-assisted growth of Cr/Sc multilayer x-ray mirrors for the water window," Vacuum 68, 275-282 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, and J. Birch, "Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition," Opt. Eng. 41, 2903-2909 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. I. Larruquert, "New layer-by-layer multilayer design method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 385-390 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

M. Schuster and H. Göbel, "Parallel-beam coupling into channel-cut monochromators using curved graded multilayers," J. Phys. D 28, A270-275 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, and V. A. Slemzin, "Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range lambda = 4.5 nm," Phys. Scr. 48, 566-570 (1993).
[Crossref]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interations: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30 000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1980 (1)

L. Névot and P. Croce, "Charachérisation des surfaces par refléxion rasante de rayons x application á l'etude du polissage de quelques verres silicates," Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761-779 (1980).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

1952 (1)

H. Wolter, "Spiegelsysteme streifenden Einfalls als abbildende Optiken für Röntgenstrahlen," Ann. Phys. 10, 94-114 (1952).
[Crossref]

Akhsakhalyan, A. D.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, and V. A. Slemzin, "Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range lambda = 4.5 nm," Phys. Scr. 48, 566-570 (1993).
[Crossref]

Balakireva, L. L.

N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
[Crossref]

Barbee, T. W.

T. W. Barbee, Jr., "Multilayers for x-ray optics," in Applications of Thin Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G.F.Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563,2-28 (1985).

Birch, J.

J. Birch, F. Erilsson, G. A. Johansson, and H. M. Hertz, "Recent advances in ion-assisted growth of Cr/Sc multilayer x-ray mirrors for the water window," Vacuum 68, 275-282 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, and J. Birch, "Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition," Opt. Eng. 41, 2903-2909 (2002).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980).

Cheung, K. C.

N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chon, K. S.

K. S. Chon, Y. Namba, and K. H. Yoon, "Optimization of a Wolter type I mirror for a soft x- ray microscope," Prec. Eng. 30, 223-230 (2006).
[Crossref]

Christensen, F. E.

Croce, P.

L. Névot and P. Croce, "Charachérisation des surfaces par refléxion rasante de rayons x application á l'etude du polissage de quelques verres silicates," Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761-779 (1980).
[Crossref]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interations: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30 000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Eriksson, F.

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, and J. Birch, "Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition," Opt. Eng. 41, 2903-2909 (2002).
[Crossref]

Erilsson, F.

J. Birch, F. Erilsson, G. A. Johansson, and H. M. Hertz, "Recent advances in ion-assisted growth of Cr/Sc multilayer x-ray mirrors for the water window," Vacuum 68, 275-282 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fedorenko, A. I.

N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
[Crossref]

Franks, A.

A. Franks and B. Gale, "The development of single and multilayered Wolter x-ray microscopes," in Applications of Thin Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G.F.Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563,81-89 (1985).

Gale, B.

A. Franks and B. Gale, "The development of single and multilayered Wolter x-ray microscopes," in Applications of Thin Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G.F.Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563,81-89 (1985).

Göbel, H.

M. Schuster and H. Göbel, "Parallel-beam coupling into channel-cut monochromators using curved graded multilayers," J. Phys. D 28, A270-275 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interations: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30 000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Harrison, F. A.

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interations: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30 000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hertz, H. M.

J. Birch, F. Erilsson, G. A. Johansson, and H. M. Hertz, "Recent advances in ion-assisted growth of Cr/Sc multilayer x-ray mirrors for the water window," Vacuum 68, 275-282 (2003).
[Crossref]

Johansson, G. A.

J. Birch, F. Erilsson, G. A. Johansson, and H. M. Hertz, "Recent advances in ion-assisted growth of Cr/Sc multilayer x-ray mirrors for the water window," Vacuum 68, 275-282 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, and J. Birch, "Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition," Opt. Eng. 41, 2903-2909 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kolachevsky, N. N.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, and V. A. Slemzin, "Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range lambda = 4.5 nm," Phys. Scr. 48, 566-570 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kondratenko, V. V.

N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kozhevnikov, N. N.

N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kühne, M.

M. Kühne and R. Thornagel, "Soft x-ray emission from a laser-produced carbon plasma," in X-Ray Microscopy III, A.G.Michette, G.R.Morrison, and C.J.Buckley, eds. (Springer, 1990), pp. 39-42.

Larruquert, J. I.

Mao, P. H.

Mertins, H. C.

Mitropolsky, M. M.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, and V. A. Slemzin, "Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range lambda = 4.5 nm," Phys. Scr. 48, 566-570 (1993).
[Crossref]

Namba, Y.

K. S. Chon, Y. Namba, and K. H. Yoon, "Optimization of a Wolter type I mirror for a soft x- ray microscope," Prec. Eng. 30, 223-230 (2006).
[Crossref]

Namioka, T.

Névot, L.

L. Névot and P. Croce, "Charachérisation des surfaces par refléxion rasante de rayons x application á l'etude du polissage de quelques verres silicates," Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761-779 (1980).
[Crossref]

Packe, I.

Padmore, H. A.

N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
[Crossref]

Perkins, R. T.

R. T. Perkins, J. M. Thorne, and H. K. Pew, "Theoretical considerations in the design of multilayer X-ray optics," in X-Ray Imaging II,D.K.Bowen and L.V.Knight, eds., Proc. SPIE 691,76-82 (1986).

Pershin, Y. P.

N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pew, H. K.

R. T. Perkins, J. M. Thorne, and H. K. Pew, "Theoretical considerations in the design of multilayer X-ray optics," in X-Ray Imaging II,D.K.Bowen and L.V.Knight, eds., Proc. SPIE 691,76-82 (1986).

Ragozin, E. N.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, and V. A. Slemzin, "Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range lambda = 4.5 nm," Phys. Scr. 48, 566-570 (1993).
[Crossref]

Roper, M.

N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
[Crossref]

Salashchenko, N. N.

F. Schäfers, H. C. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, and E. A. Shamov, "Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft-x-ray range," Appl. Opt. 37, 719-728 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, and V. A. Slemzin, "Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range lambda = 4.5 nm," Phys. Scr. 48, 566-570 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schäfers, F.

Schmolla, F.

Schuster, M.

M. Schuster and H. Göbel, "Parallel-beam coupling into channel-cut monochromators using curved graded multilayers," J. Phys. D 28, A270-275 (1995).
[Crossref]

Serov, R. V.

N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shamov, E. A.

Slemzin, V. A.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, and V. A. Slemzin, "Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range lambda = 4.5 nm," Phys. Scr. 48, 566-570 (1993).
[Crossref]

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics, Vol. PMI5 of SPIE Press Monographs (SPIE Press, 1994).
[Crossref]

Thornagel, R.

M. Kühne and R. Thornagel, "Soft x-ray emission from a laser-produced carbon plasma," in X-Ray Microscopy III, A.G.Michette, G.R.Morrison, and C.J.Buckley, eds. (Springer, 1990), pp. 39-42.

Thorne, J. M.

R. T. Perkins, J. M. Thorne, and H. K. Pew, "Theoretical considerations in the design of multilayer X-ray optics," in X-Ray Imaging II,D.K.Bowen and L.V.Knight, eds., Proc. SPIE 691,76-82 (1986).

Van Dorssen, G. E.

N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
[Crossref]

Vinogradov, A. V.

N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. V. Vinogradov and B. Y. Zeldovich, "X-ray and far UV multilayer mirrors," Appl. Opt. 16, 89-93 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windt, D. L.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980).

Wolter, H.

H. Wolter, "Spiegelsysteme streifenden Einfalls als abbildende Optiken für Röntgenstrahlen," Ann. Phys. 10, 94-114 (1952).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, M.

Yoon, K. H.

K. S. Chon, Y. Namba, and K. H. Yoon, "Optimization of a Wolter type I mirror for a soft x- ray microscope," Prec. Eng. 30, 223-230 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yulin, S. A.

N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zeldovich, B. Y.

Zubarev, E. N.

N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ann. Phys. (1)

H. Wolter, "Spiegelsysteme streifenden Einfalls als abbildende Optiken für Röntgenstrahlen," Ann. Phys. 10, 94-114 (1952).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interations: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30 000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

M. Schuster and H. Göbel, "Parallel-beam coupling into channel-cut monochromators using curved graded multilayers," J. Phys. D 28, A270-275 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

N. N. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. Van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Synthesis and measurement of normal-incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594-603 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, and J. Birch, "Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition," Opt. Eng. 41, 2903-2909 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Scr. (1)

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, and V. A. Slemzin, "Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range lambda = 4.5 nm," Phys. Scr. 48, 566-570 (1993).
[Crossref]

Prec. Eng. (1)

K. S. Chon, Y. Namba, and K. H. Yoon, "Optimization of a Wolter type I mirror for a soft x- ray microscope," Prec. Eng. 30, 223-230 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

L. Névot and P. Croce, "Charachérisation des surfaces par refléxion rasante de rayons x application á l'etude du polissage de quelques verres silicates," Rev. Phys. Appl. 15, 761-779 (1980).
[Crossref]

Vacuum (1)

J. Birch, F. Erilsson, G. A. Johansson, and H. M. Hertz, "Recent advances in ion-assisted growth of Cr/Sc multilayer x-ray mirrors for the water window," Vacuum 68, 275-282 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

M. Kühne and R. Thornagel, "Soft x-ray emission from a laser-produced carbon plasma," in X-Ray Microscopy III, A.G.Michette, G.R.Morrison, and C.J.Buckley, eds. (Springer, 1990), pp. 39-42.

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E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics, Vol. PMI5 of SPIE Press Monographs (SPIE Press, 1994).
[Crossref]

T. W. Barbee, Jr., "Multilayers for x-ray optics," in Applications of Thin Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G.F.Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563,2-28 (1985).

R. T. Perkins, J. M. Thorne, and H. K. Pew, "Theoretical considerations in the design of multilayer X-ray optics," in X-Ray Imaging II,D.K.Bowen and L.V.Knight, eds., Proc. SPIE 691,76-82 (1986).

A. Franks and B. Gale, "The development of single and multilayered Wolter x-ray microscopes," in Applications of Thin Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G.F.Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563,81-89 (1985).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of a Wolter type I focusing mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two types of multilayer coatings (a) uniform and (b) laterally graded that are classified according to the variations of their d spacings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectivity and first Bragg angle for a uniform Cr∕Sc multilayer coating with γ = 0.385, N = 11, and σ = 0.5 nm on a flat nickel substrate as a function of the d spacing using unpolarized 3.374 nm x rays.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectivities of a flat nickel substrate with a 0.5 nm rms surface roughness (dashed curve), and a uniform Cr∕Sc multilayer coating with γ = 0.385, N = 11, and σ = 0.5 nm rms on the same substrate (solid curve). The first Bragg angle is shown at 6°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectivity as a function of the thickness ratio γ for uniform Cr∕Sc multilayer coatings with θ B = 6°, N = 11 (solid curve) and N = 3 (dotted curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relation between the reflectivity and the number of Cr∕Sc bilayers for four different d spacings (for the first Bragg angles).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Radius of the 80% encircled energy fraction for the D6 and the D7 mirror substrates.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflectivities and d spacings for the D6 mirror substrates coated with uniform (d = 21.07 nm) and laterally graded Cr∕Sc (γ = 0.395, N = 11, and σ = 0.5 nm) multilayer coatings: (a) ellipsoid and (b) hyperboloid.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effective solid angles for uniform (d = 21.07 nm, γ = 0.404, N = 11, and σ = 0.5 nm for D6) and laterally graded Cr∕Sc multilayer coatings (γ = 0.395 and σ = 0.5 nm for D6, and γ = 0.385 and σ = 0.5 nm for D7) with different numbers of bilayers on the D6 and D7 mirror substrates.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Reflectivities of a laterally graded multilayer coating (γ = 0.395, N = 11, and σ = 0.5 nm) on the D6 mirror substrate for x rays radiated from 100 μm off axis onto rings in the XY plane that are located on each ellipsoid and hyperbolid with a 6° incidence angle with respect to the on-axis source.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relation between the effective solid angle and the interface roughness for the laterally graded multilayer coatings with γ = 0.385 and N = 15 on the D7 mirror substrate.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Effective solid angle variations for laterally graded multilayer coatings with N = 15 and σ = 0.5 nm with respect to d-spacing deposition errors and assuming a constant thickness ratio of 0.385 on the D7 mirror substrate.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Optical Constants used for Calculation of Reflectivity Wavelength of 3.374 nm

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Table 2 Design Examples of Wolter type I Focusing Mirror Substrate for Multilayer Coatings a

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Table 3 Reflectivities of D6 and D7 Mirrors With and Without Multilayer Coatings

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