Abstract

Fluoride thin films for 193-nm lithography were deposited by three different types of RF magnetron sputtering. Systematic analysis of the relation between optical properties and deposition conditions of these thin films is discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. SaitoA. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki and K. Sone, "Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. I. Coating materials," Appl. Opt. 41, 3242-3247 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Taki and K. Muramatsu, "Hetero-epitaxial growth and optical properties of LaF3 on CaF2," Thin Solid Films 420-421, 30-37 (2002).
  3. J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Far ultraviolet optical properties of MgF2 films deposited by ion-beam sputtering and their application as protective coatings for Al," Opt. Commun. 215, 93-99 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Yoshida, K. Nishimoto, K. Etoh, and I. Kataoka, "Development of high-reflection mirrors of fluoride multilayers for F2 excimer laser by ion beam sputtering method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5751-5752 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Furuta, "A fluoride made by self-recombination sputtering," Kogaku 32, 170-175 (2003), in Japanese.
  7. Y. Taki, "Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography," Vacuum 74, 431-435 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. F. Blunt and M. I. Cohen, "Irradiation-induced color centers in magnesium fluoride," Phys. Rev. 153, 1031-1038 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. A. Sibley and O. E. Facey, "Color centers in MgF2," Phys. Rev. 174, 1076-1082 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. I. Baryshnikov, L. I. Shchepina, S. V. Dorokhov, and T. A. Kolesnikova, "Photothermal conversion of the color centers in MgF2 single crystals," Opt. Spectrosc. 73, 291-292 (1992).

2004 (1)

Y. Taki, "Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography," Vacuum 74, 431-435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Far ultraviolet optical properties of MgF2 films deposited by ion-beam sputtering and their application as protective coatings for Al," Opt. Commun. 215, 93-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Furuta, "A fluoride made by self-recombination sputtering," Kogaku 32, 170-175 (2003), in Japanese.

2002 (3)

Y. Taki and K. Muramatsu, "Hetero-epitaxial growth and optical properties of LaF3 on CaF2," Thin Solid Films 420-421, 30-37 (2002).

T. Yoshida, K. Nishimoto, K. Etoh, and I. Kataoka, "Development of high-reflection mirrors of fluoride multilayers for F2 excimer laser by ion beam sputtering method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5751-5752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. SaitoA. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki and K. Sone, "Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. I. Coating materials," Appl. Opt. 41, 3242-3247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

V. I. Baryshnikov, L. I. Shchepina, S. V. Dorokhov, and T. A. Kolesnikova, "Photothermal conversion of the color centers in MgF2 single crystals," Opt. Spectrosc. 73, 291-292 (1992).

1968 (1)

W. A. Sibley and O. E. Facey, "Color centers in MgF2," Phys. Rev. 174, 1076-1082 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

R. F. Blunt and M. I. Cohen, "Irradiation-induced color centers in magnesium fluoride," Phys. Rev. 153, 1031-1038 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Baryshnikov, V. I.

V. I. Baryshnikov, L. I. Shchepina, S. V. Dorokhov, and T. A. Kolesnikova, "Photothermal conversion of the color centers in MgF2 single crystals," Opt. Spectrosc. 73, 291-292 (1992).

Biro, R.

Blunt, R. F.

R. F. Blunt and M. I. Cohen, "Irradiation-induced color centers in magnesium fluoride," Phys. Rev. 153, 1031-1038 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, M. I.

R. F. Blunt and M. I. Cohen, "Irradiation-induced color centers in magnesium fluoride," Phys. Rev. 153, 1031-1038 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Dorokhov, S. V.

V. I. Baryshnikov, L. I. Shchepina, S. V. Dorokhov, and T. A. Kolesnikova, "Photothermal conversion of the color centers in MgF2 single crystals," Opt. Spectrosc. 73, 291-292 (1992).

Dumas, L.

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Etoh, K.

T. Yoshida, K. Nishimoto, K. Etoh, and I. Kataoka, "Development of high-reflection mirrors of fluoride multilayers for F2 excimer laser by ion beam sputtering method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5751-5752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Facey, O. E.

W. A. Sibley and O. E. Facey, "Color centers in MgF2," Phys. Rev. 174, 1076-1082 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, M.

M. Furuta, "A fluoride made by self-recombination sputtering," Kogaku 32, 170-175 (2003), in Japanese.

Hasegawa, M.

Jacob, D.

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, I.

T. Yoshida, K. Nishimoto, K. Etoh, and I. Kataoka, "Development of high-reflection mirrors of fluoride multilayers for F2 excimer laser by ion beam sputtering method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5751-5752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Far ultraviolet optical properties of MgF2 films deposited by ion-beam sputtering and their application as protective coatings for Al," Opt. Commun. 215, 93-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kolesnikova, T. A.

V. I. Baryshnikov, L. I. Shchepina, S. V. Dorokhov, and T. A. Kolesnikova, "Photothermal conversion of the color centers in MgF2 single crystals," Opt. Spectrosc. 73, 291-292 (1992).

Larruquert, J. I.

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Far ultraviolet optical properties of MgF2 films deposited by ion-beam sputtering and their application as protective coatings for Al," Opt. Commun. 215, 93-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, A.

Muramatsu, K.

Y. Taki and K. Muramatsu, "Hetero-epitaxial growth and optical properties of LaF3 on CaF2," Thin Solid Films 420-421, 30-37 (2002).

Niisaka, S.

Nishimoto, K.

T. Yoshida, K. Nishimoto, K. Etoh, and I. Kataoka, "Development of high-reflection mirrors of fluoride multilayers for F2 excimer laser by ion beam sputtering method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5751-5752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Otani, M.

Ouchi, C.

Peiro, F.

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Quesnel, E.

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saito, J.

Saito, T.

Shchepina, L. I.

V. I. Baryshnikov, L. I. Shchepina, S. V. Dorokhov, and T. A. Kolesnikova, "Photothermal conversion of the color centers in MgF2 single crystals," Opt. Spectrosc. 73, 291-292 (1992).

Sibley, W. A.

W. A. Sibley and O. E. Facey, "Color centers in MgF2," Phys. Rev. 174, 1076-1082 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Sone, K.

Suzuki, Y.

Taki, Y.

Y. Taki, "Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography," Vacuum 74, 431-435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Taki and K. Muramatsu, "Hetero-epitaxial growth and optical properties of LaF3 on CaF2," Thin Solid Films 420-421, 30-37 (2002).

Tanaka, A.

Yoshida, T.

T. Yoshida, K. Nishimoto, K. Etoh, and I. Kataoka, "Development of high-reflection mirrors of fluoride multilayers for F2 excimer laser by ion beam sputtering method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5751-5752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Yoshida, K. Nishimoto, K. Etoh, and I. Kataoka, "Development of high-reflection mirrors of fluoride multilayers for F2 excimer laser by ion beam sputtering method," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5751-5752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kogaku (1)

M. Furuta, "A fluoride made by self-recombination sputtering," Kogaku 32, 170-175 (2003), in Japanese.

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Far ultraviolet optical properties of MgF2 films deposited by ion-beam sputtering and their application as protective coatings for Al," Opt. Commun. 215, 93-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

V. I. Baryshnikov, L. I. Shchepina, S. V. Dorokhov, and T. A. Kolesnikova, "Photothermal conversion of the color centers in MgF2 single crystals," Opt. Spectrosc. 73, 291-292 (1992).

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. A. Sibley and O. E. Facey, "Color centers in MgF2," Phys. Rev. 174, 1076-1082 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. F. Blunt and M. I. Cohen, "Irradiation-induced color centers in magnesium fluoride," Phys. Rev. 153, 1031-1038 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

Y. Taki, "Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography," Vacuum 74, 431-435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Y. Taki and K. Muramatsu, "Hetero-epitaxial growth and optical properties of LaF3 on CaF2," Thin Solid Films 420-421, 30-37 (2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawings of sputtering concepts for (a) process (I), (b) process (II), (c) process (III).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relation between the F/Al ratio and the SF6/Ar flow ratio for process (II). Optimum flow ratio is approximately 0.1 where the F/Al ratio comes to a maximum value.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittance spectra of MgF2 films on the CaF2 substrate deposited by process (III). As-deposited film (the bottom curve) shows peak-shaped absorption due to color centers. This absorption can be reduced with irradiation of UV light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmittance and reflectance spectra of both sides of the antireflection coating on the CaF2 substrate deposited by use of process (III). Transmittance is 99.5% and reflectance is 0.1%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-sectional SEM images of (a) GdF3 and (b) MgF2. AFM images of (c) GdF3 and (d) MgF2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Properties and Deposition Conditions for Processes (I), (II), and (III)

Metrics