Abstract

The totality of new and previous optical observations of a class of high-albedo solar system objects at small phase angles reveals a unique combination of extremely narrow brightness and polarization features centered at exactly the opposition. The specific morphological parameters of these features provide an almost unequivocal evidence that they are caused by the renowned effect of coherent backscattering.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. M. Watson, "Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves in an underdense plasma," J. Math. Phys. 10, 688-702 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Yu. N. Barabanenkov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. D. Ozrin, and A. I. Saichev, "Enhanced backscattering in optics," Progr. Opt. 29, 65-197 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Lagendijk and B. A. van Tiggelen, "Resonant multiple scattering of light," Phys. Rep. 270, 143-215 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. L. Kuz'min and V. P. Romanov, "Coherent phenomena in light scattering from disordered systems," Phys.-Uspekhi 39, 231-260 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. C. W. van Rossum and Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Multiple scattering of classical waves: microscopy, mesoscopy, and diffusion," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 313-371 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B.A.van Tiggelen and S.E.Skipetrov, eds., Wave Scattering in Complex Media: From Theory to Applications (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  8. M. I. Mishchenko, "On the nature of the polarization opposition effect exhibited by Saturn's rings," Astrophys. J. 411, 351-361 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. POE has the same physical origin as the well-known azimuthal asymmetry of the back-scattering intensity peak in the case of linearly polarized incident light.10
  10. M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Polarization effects in weak localization of light," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, S28-S31 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge University Press, 2002; http://www.giss.nasa.gov/∼crmim).
  12. M. I. Mishchenko, J.-M. Luck, and T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Full angular profile of the coherent polarization opposition effect," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 888-891 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Kuga and A. Ishimaru, "Retroreflectance from a dense distribution of spherical particles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 831-835 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Yu. G. Shkuratov, "A diffraction mechanism for the formation of the opposition effect of the brightness of surfaces having a complex structure," Kinem. Fiz. Nebes. Tel 4(4), 33-39 (1988) (in Russian).
  15. B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Cambridge University Press, 1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. E. Wolf, G. Maret, E. Akkermans, and R. Maynard, "Optical coherent backscattering by random media: an experimental study," J. Phys. France 49, 63-75 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. I. Mishchenko, "The angular width of the coherent back-scatter opposition effect: an application to icy outer planet satellites," Astrophys. Space Sci. 194, 327-333 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization characteristics of the coherent backscatter opposition effect," Earth Moon Planets 58, 127-144 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. E. Geake and M. Geake, "A remote-sensing method for sub-wavelength grains on planetary surfaces by optical polarimetry," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 245, 46-55 (1990).
  20. V. P. Tishkovets, P. V. Litvinov, and M. V. Lyubchenko, "Coherent opposition effect for semi-infinite discrete random medium in the double-scattering approximation," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 803-811 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. A. Franklin and A. F. Cook, "Optical properties of Saturn's rings. II. Two-color phase curves of the two bright rings," Astron. J. 70, 704-720 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Zellner, "On the nature of Iapetus," Astrophys. J. 174, L107-L109 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. A. Franklin and A. F. Cook, "Photometry of Saturn's satellites: the opposition effect of Iapetus at maximum light and the variability of Titan," Icarus 23, 355-362 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Dollfus, "Optical polarimetry of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter," Icarus 25, 416-431 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. L. Millis and D. T. Thompson, "UBV photometry of the Galilean satellites," Icarus 26, 408-419 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  26. B. Zellner and J. Gradie, "Minor planets and related objects. XX. Polarimetric evidence for the albedos and compositions of 94 asteroids," Astron. J. 81, 262-280 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. E. Johnson, J. C. Kemp, R. King, T. E. Parker, and M. S. Barbour, "New results from optical polarimetry of Saturn's rings," Nature 283, 146-149 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. W. Harris, J. W. Young, L. Contreiras, T. Dockweiler, L. Belkora, H. Salo, W. D. Harris, E. Bowell, M. Poutanen, R. P. Binzel, D. J. Tholen, and S. Wang, "Phase relations of high albedo asteroids: the unusual opposition brightening of 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina," Icarus 81, 365-374 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. A. Chigladze, "The study of polarimetric properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter and the planet Uranus," Ph.D. dissertation (Abastumany Astrophysical Observatory, 1989).
  30. D. T. Thompson and G. W. Lockwood, "Photoelectric photometry of Europa and Callisto 1976-1991," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14761-14772 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Dollfus, "Saturn's rings: optical reflectance polarimetry," Icarus 124, 237-261 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  32. V. K. Rosenbush, V. V. Avramchuk, A. E. Rosenbush, and M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter: observations and preliminary analysis," Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  33. V. Rosenbush, N. Kiselev, V. Avramchuk, and M. Mishchenko, "Photometric and polarimetric opposition phenomena exhibited by solar system bodies," in Optics of Cosmic Dust, G.Videen and M.Kocifaj, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 2002), pp. 191-224.
  34. V. K. Rosenbush, N. N. Kiselev, V. G. Shevchenko, K. Jockers, N. M. Shakhovskoy, and Yu. S. Efimov, "Polarization and brightness opposition effects for the E-type asteroid 64 Angelina," Icarus 178, 222-234 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  35. V. K. Rosenbush and N. N. Kiselev, "Polarization opposition effect for the Galilean satellites of Jupiter," Icarus 179, 490-496 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. Keränen, K. Muinonen, and J. Piironen, "Computations of coherent backscattering and shadowing effects for atmosphereless solar system objects," in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Halifax Contributions, G.Videen, Q.Fu, and P.Chýlek, eds. (Army Research Laboratory, 2000), pp. 279-282.
  37. K. Lumme and K. Muinonen, "A two-parameter system for linear polarization of some Solar System objects," in Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, A.W.Harris and E.Bowell, eds. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 1993), pp. 194-197.
  38. The nearly parabolic negative polarization branch (NPB) appears to be a ubiquitous trait of ASSBs. However, its physical origin remains to be uncertain (see Ref. 39 and references therein). Although it has been speculated that NPB could be caused by CB from particulate media,40,41 the results of Refs. 8, 12, and 20 indicate that this conjecture is unlikely to be correct.
  39. G.Videen, Ya.Yatskiv, and M.Mishchenko, eds., Photopolarimetry in Remote Sensing (Kluwer Academic, 2004).
  40. Yu. G. Shkuratov, "A new mechanism for the negative polarization of light scattered by the solid surfaces of cosmic bodies," Astron. Vestnik 23, 176-180 (1989) (in Russian).
  41. K. Muinonen, "Light scattering by inhomogeneous media: backward enhancement and reversal of linear polarization," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Helsinki, 1990).
  42. K. Muinonen, "Coherent backscattering of light by complex random media of spherical scatterers: numerical solution," Waves Random Media 14, 365-388 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

V. K. Rosenbush, N. N. Kiselev, V. G. Shevchenko, K. Jockers, N. M. Shakhovskoy, and Yu. S. Efimov, "Polarization and brightness opposition effects for the E-type asteroid 64 Angelina," Icarus 178, 222-234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rosenbush and N. N. Kiselev, "Polarization opposition effect for the Galilean satellites of Jupiter," Icarus 179, 490-496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Muinonen, "Coherent backscattering of light by complex random media of spherical scatterers: numerical solution," Waves Random Media 14, 365-388 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. P. Tishkovets, P. V. Litvinov, and M. V. Lyubchenko, "Coherent opposition effect for semi-infinite discrete random medium in the double-scattering approximation," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 803-811 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

M. C. W. van Rossum and Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Multiple scattering of classical waves: microscopy, mesoscopy, and diffusion," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 313-371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. K. Rosenbush, V. V. Avramchuk, A. E. Rosenbush, and M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter: observations and preliminary analysis," Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

A. Dollfus, "Saturn's rings: optical reflectance polarimetry," Icarus 124, 237-261 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Lagendijk and B. A. van Tiggelen, "Resonant multiple scattering of light," Phys. Rep. 270, 143-215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Kuz'min and V. P. Romanov, "Coherent phenomena in light scattering from disordered systems," Phys.-Uspekhi 39, 231-260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, "On the nature of the polarization opposition effect exhibited by Saturn's rings," Astrophys. J. 411, 351-361 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

D. T. Thompson and G. W. Lockwood, "Photoelectric photometry of Europa and Callisto 1976-1991," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14761-14772 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, "The angular width of the coherent back-scatter opposition effect: an application to icy outer planet satellites," Astrophys. Space Sci. 194, 327-333 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization characteristics of the coherent backscatter opposition effect," Earth Moon Planets 58, 127-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Yu. N. Barabanenkov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. D. Ozrin, and A. I. Saichev, "Enhanced backscattering in optics," Progr. Opt. 29, 65-197 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. E. Geake and M. Geake, "A remote-sensing method for sub-wavelength grains on planetary surfaces by optical polarimetry," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 245, 46-55 (1990).

1989 (2)

A. W. Harris, J. W. Young, L. Contreiras, T. Dockweiler, L. Belkora, H. Salo, W. D. Harris, E. Bowell, M. Poutanen, R. P. Binzel, D. J. Tholen, and S. Wang, "Phase relations of high albedo asteroids: the unusual opposition brightening of 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina," Icarus 81, 365-374 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yu. G. Shkuratov, "A new mechanism for the negative polarization of light scattered by the solid surfaces of cosmic bodies," Astron. Vestnik 23, 176-180 (1989) (in Russian).

1988 (3)

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Polarization effects in weak localization of light," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, S28-S31 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yu. G. Shkuratov, "A diffraction mechanism for the formation of the opposition effect of the brightness of surfaces having a complex structure," Kinem. Fiz. Nebes. Tel 4(4), 33-39 (1988) (in Russian).

P. E. Wolf, G. Maret, E. Akkermans, and R. Maynard, "Optical coherent backscattering by random media: an experimental study," J. Phys. France 49, 63-75 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1980 (1)

P. E. Johnson, J. C. Kemp, R. King, T. E. Parker, and M. S. Barbour, "New results from optical polarimetry of Saturn's rings," Nature 283, 146-149 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

B. Zellner and J. Gradie, "Minor planets and related objects. XX. Polarimetric evidence for the albedos and compositions of 94 asteroids," Astron. J. 81, 262-280 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

A. Dollfus, "Optical polarimetry of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter," Icarus 25, 416-431 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Millis and D. T. Thompson, "UBV photometry of the Galilean satellites," Icarus 26, 408-419 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

F. A. Franklin and A. F. Cook, "Photometry of Saturn's satellites: the opposition effect of Iapetus at maximum light and the variability of Titan," Icarus 23, 355-362 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

B. Zellner, "On the nature of Iapetus," Astrophys. J. 174, L107-L109 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

K. M. Watson, "Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves in an underdense plasma," J. Math. Phys. 10, 688-702 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

F. A. Franklin and A. F. Cook, "Optical properties of Saturn's rings. II. Two-color phase curves of the two bright rings," Astron. J. 70, 704-720 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Akkermans, E.

P. E. Wolf, G. Maret, E. Akkermans, and R. Maynard, "Optical coherent backscattering by random media: an experimental study," J. Phys. France 49, 63-75 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Avramchuk, V.

V. Rosenbush, N. Kiselev, V. Avramchuk, and M. Mishchenko, "Photometric and polarimetric opposition phenomena exhibited by solar system bodies," in Optics of Cosmic Dust, G.Videen and M.Kocifaj, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 2002), pp. 191-224.

Avramchuk, V. V.

V. K. Rosenbush, V. V. Avramchuk, A. E. Rosenbush, and M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter: observations and preliminary analysis," Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barabanenkov, Yu. N.

Yu. N. Barabanenkov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. D. Ozrin, and A. I. Saichev, "Enhanced backscattering in optics," Progr. Opt. 29, 65-197 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, M. S.

P. E. Johnson, J. C. Kemp, R. King, T. E. Parker, and M. S. Barbour, "New results from optical polarimetry of Saturn's rings," Nature 283, 146-149 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Belkora, L.

A. W. Harris, J. W. Young, L. Contreiras, T. Dockweiler, L. Belkora, H. Salo, W. D. Harris, E. Bowell, M. Poutanen, R. P. Binzel, D. J. Tholen, and S. Wang, "Phase relations of high albedo asteroids: the unusual opposition brightening of 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina," Icarus 81, 365-374 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Binzel, R. P.

A. W. Harris, J. W. Young, L. Contreiras, T. Dockweiler, L. Belkora, H. Salo, W. D. Harris, E. Bowell, M. Poutanen, R. P. Binzel, D. J. Tholen, and S. Wang, "Phase relations of high albedo asteroids: the unusual opposition brightening of 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina," Icarus 81, 365-374 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bowell, E.

A. W. Harris, J. W. Young, L. Contreiras, T. Dockweiler, L. Belkora, H. Salo, W. D. Harris, E. Bowell, M. Poutanen, R. P. Binzel, D. J. Tholen, and S. Wang, "Phase relations of high albedo asteroids: the unusual opposition brightening of 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina," Icarus 81, 365-374 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chigladze, R. A.

R. A. Chigladze, "The study of polarimetric properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter and the planet Uranus," Ph.D. dissertation (Abastumany Astrophysical Observatory, 1989).

Contreiras, L.

A. W. Harris, J. W. Young, L. Contreiras, T. Dockweiler, L. Belkora, H. Salo, W. D. Harris, E. Bowell, M. Poutanen, R. P. Binzel, D. J. Tholen, and S. Wang, "Phase relations of high albedo asteroids: the unusual opposition brightening of 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina," Icarus 81, 365-374 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cook, A. F.

F. A. Franklin and A. F. Cook, "Photometry of Saturn's satellites: the opposition effect of Iapetus at maximum light and the variability of Titan," Icarus 23, 355-362 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Franklin and A. F. Cook, "Optical properties of Saturn's rings. II. Two-color phase curves of the two bright rings," Astron. J. 70, 704-720 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Dockweiler, T.

A. W. Harris, J. W. Young, L. Contreiras, T. Dockweiler, L. Belkora, H. Salo, W. D. Harris, E. Bowell, M. Poutanen, R. P. Binzel, D. J. Tholen, and S. Wang, "Phase relations of high albedo asteroids: the unusual opposition brightening of 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina," Icarus 81, 365-374 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dollfus, A.

A. Dollfus, "Saturn's rings: optical reflectance polarimetry," Icarus 124, 237-261 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dollfus, "Optical polarimetry of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter," Icarus 25, 416-431 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, Yu. S.

V. K. Rosenbush, N. N. Kiselev, V. G. Shevchenko, K. Jockers, N. M. Shakhovskoy, and Yu. S. Efimov, "Polarization and brightness opposition effects for the E-type asteroid 64 Angelina," Icarus 178, 222-234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Franklin, F. A.

F. A. Franklin and A. F. Cook, "Photometry of Saturn's satellites: the opposition effect of Iapetus at maximum light and the variability of Titan," Icarus 23, 355-362 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Franklin and A. F. Cook, "Optical properties of Saturn's rings. II. Two-color phase curves of the two bright rings," Astron. J. 70, 704-720 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Geake, J. E.

J. E. Geake and M. Geake, "A remote-sensing method for sub-wavelength grains on planetary surfaces by optical polarimetry," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 245, 46-55 (1990).

Geake, M.

J. E. Geake and M. Geake, "A remote-sensing method for sub-wavelength grains on planetary surfaces by optical polarimetry," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 245, 46-55 (1990).

Gradie, J.

B. Zellner and J. Gradie, "Minor planets and related objects. XX. Polarimetric evidence for the albedos and compositions of 94 asteroids," Astron. J. 81, 262-280 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hapke, B.

B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Cambridge University Press, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Harris, A. W.

A. W. Harris, J. W. Young, L. Contreiras, T. Dockweiler, L. Belkora, H. Salo, W. D. Harris, E. Bowell, M. Poutanen, R. P. Binzel, D. J. Tholen, and S. Wang, "Phase relations of high albedo asteroids: the unusual opposition brightening of 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina," Icarus 81, 365-374 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Harris, W. D.

A. W. Harris, J. W. Young, L. Contreiras, T. Dockweiler, L. Belkora, H. Salo, W. D. Harris, E. Bowell, M. Poutanen, R. P. Binzel, D. J. Tholen, and S. Wang, "Phase relations of high albedo asteroids: the unusual opposition brightening of 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina," Icarus 81, 365-374 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

Jockers, K.

V. K. Rosenbush, N. N. Kiselev, V. G. Shevchenko, K. Jockers, N. M. Shakhovskoy, and Yu. S. Efimov, "Polarization and brightness opposition effects for the E-type asteroid 64 Angelina," Icarus 178, 222-234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. E.

P. E. Johnson, J. C. Kemp, R. King, T. E. Parker, and M. S. Barbour, "New results from optical polarimetry of Saturn's rings," Nature 283, 146-149 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, J. C.

P. E. Johnson, J. C. Kemp, R. King, T. E. Parker, and M. S. Barbour, "New results from optical polarimetry of Saturn's rings," Nature 283, 146-149 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Keränen, S.

S. Keränen, K. Muinonen, and J. Piironen, "Computations of coherent backscattering and shadowing effects for atmosphereless solar system objects," in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Halifax Contributions, G.Videen, Q.Fu, and P.Chýlek, eds. (Army Research Laboratory, 2000), pp. 279-282.

King, R.

P. E. Johnson, J. C. Kemp, R. King, T. E. Parker, and M. S. Barbour, "New results from optical polarimetry of Saturn's rings," Nature 283, 146-149 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kiselev, N.

V. Rosenbush, N. Kiselev, V. Avramchuk, and M. Mishchenko, "Photometric and polarimetric opposition phenomena exhibited by solar system bodies," in Optics of Cosmic Dust, G.Videen and M.Kocifaj, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 2002), pp. 191-224.

Kiselev, N. N.

V. K. Rosenbush, N. N. Kiselev, V. G. Shevchenko, K. Jockers, N. M. Shakhovskoy, and Yu. S. Efimov, "Polarization and brightness opposition effects for the E-type asteroid 64 Angelina," Icarus 178, 222-234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rosenbush and N. N. Kiselev, "Polarization opposition effect for the Galilean satellites of Jupiter," Icarus 179, 490-496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kravtsov, Yu. A.

Yu. N. Barabanenkov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. D. Ozrin, and A. I. Saichev, "Enhanced backscattering in optics," Progr. Opt. 29, 65-197 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kuga, Y.

Kuz'min, V. L.

V. L. Kuz'min and V. P. Romanov, "Coherent phenomena in light scattering from disordered systems," Phys.-Uspekhi 39, 231-260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lacis, A. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering (Cambridge University Press, 2006).

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge University Press, 2002; http://www.giss.nasa.gov/∼crmim).

Lagendijk, A.

A. Lagendijk and B. A. van Tiggelen, "Resonant multiple scattering of light," Phys. Rep. 270, 143-215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Polarization effects in weak localization of light," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, S28-S31 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Litvinov, P. V.

V. P. Tishkovets, P. V. Litvinov, and M. V. Lyubchenko, "Coherent opposition effect for semi-infinite discrete random medium in the double-scattering approximation," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 803-811 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lockwood, G. W.

D. T. Thompson and G. W. Lockwood, "Photoelectric photometry of Europa and Callisto 1976-1991," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14761-14772 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Luck, J.-M.

Lumme, K.

K. Lumme and K. Muinonen, "A two-parameter system for linear polarization of some Solar System objects," in Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, A.W.Harris and E.Bowell, eds. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 1993), pp. 194-197.

Lyubchenko, M. V.

V. P. Tishkovets, P. V. Litvinov, and M. V. Lyubchenko, "Coherent opposition effect for semi-infinite discrete random medium in the double-scattering approximation," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 803-811 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maret, G.

P. E. Wolf, G. Maret, E. Akkermans, and R. Maynard, "Optical coherent backscattering by random media: an experimental study," J. Phys. France 49, 63-75 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Maynard, R.

P. E. Wolf, G. Maret, E. Akkermans, and R. Maynard, "Optical coherent backscattering by random media: an experimental study," J. Phys. France 49, 63-75 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Millis, R. L.

R. L. Millis and D. T. Thompson, "UBV photometry of the Galilean satellites," Icarus 26, 408-419 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M.

V. Rosenbush, N. Kiselev, V. Avramchuk, and M. Mishchenko, "Photometric and polarimetric opposition phenomena exhibited by solar system bodies," in Optics of Cosmic Dust, G.Videen and M.Kocifaj, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 2002), pp. 191-224.

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, J.-M. Luck, and T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Full angular profile of the coherent polarization opposition effect," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 888-891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rosenbush, V. V. Avramchuk, A. E. Rosenbush, and M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter: observations and preliminary analysis," Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, "On the nature of the polarization opposition effect exhibited by Saturn's rings," Astrophys. J. 411, 351-361 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, "The angular width of the coherent back-scatter opposition effect: an application to icy outer planet satellites," Astrophys. Space Sci. 194, 327-333 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization characteristics of the coherent backscatter opposition effect," Earth Moon Planets 58, 127-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge University Press, 2002; http://www.giss.nasa.gov/∼crmim).

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering (Cambridge University Press, 2006).

Muinonen, K.

K. Muinonen, "Coherent backscattering of light by complex random media of spherical scatterers: numerical solution," Waves Random Media 14, 365-388 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Muinonen, "Light scattering by inhomogeneous media: backward enhancement and reversal of linear polarization," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Helsinki, 1990).

S. Keränen, K. Muinonen, and J. Piironen, "Computations of coherent backscattering and shadowing effects for atmosphereless solar system objects," in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Halifax Contributions, G.Videen, Q.Fu, and P.Chýlek, eds. (Army Research Laboratory, 2000), pp. 279-282.

K. Lumme and K. Muinonen, "A two-parameter system for linear polarization of some Solar System objects," in Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, A.W.Harris and E.Bowell, eds. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 1993), pp. 194-197.

Nieuwenhuizen, T. M.

Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.

M. C. W. van Rossum and Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Multiple scattering of classical waves: microscopy, mesoscopy, and diffusion," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 313-371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ozrin, V. D.

Yu. N. Barabanenkov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. D. Ozrin, and A. I. Saichev, "Enhanced backscattering in optics," Progr. Opt. 29, 65-197 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Parker, T. E.

P. E. Johnson, J. C. Kemp, R. King, T. E. Parker, and M. S. Barbour, "New results from optical polarimetry of Saturn's rings," Nature 283, 146-149 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Piironen, J.

S. Keränen, K. Muinonen, and J. Piironen, "Computations of coherent backscattering and shadowing effects for atmosphereless solar system objects," in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Halifax Contributions, G.Videen, Q.Fu, and P.Chýlek, eds. (Army Research Laboratory, 2000), pp. 279-282.

Poutanen, M.

A. W. Harris, J. W. Young, L. Contreiras, T. Dockweiler, L. Belkora, H. Salo, W. D. Harris, E. Bowell, M. Poutanen, R. P. Binzel, D. J. Tholen, and S. Wang, "Phase relations of high albedo asteroids: the unusual opposition brightening of 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina," Icarus 81, 365-374 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Romanov, V. P.

V. L. Kuz'min and V. P. Romanov, "Coherent phenomena in light scattering from disordered systems," Phys.-Uspekhi 39, 231-260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbush, A. E.

V. K. Rosenbush, V. V. Avramchuk, A. E. Rosenbush, and M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter: observations and preliminary analysis," Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbush, V.

V. Rosenbush, N. Kiselev, V. Avramchuk, and M. Mishchenko, "Photometric and polarimetric opposition phenomena exhibited by solar system bodies," in Optics of Cosmic Dust, G.Videen and M.Kocifaj, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 2002), pp. 191-224.

Rosenbush, V. K.

V. K. Rosenbush, N. N. Kiselev, V. G. Shevchenko, K. Jockers, N. M. Shakhovskoy, and Yu. S. Efimov, "Polarization and brightness opposition effects for the E-type asteroid 64 Angelina," Icarus 178, 222-234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rosenbush and N. N. Kiselev, "Polarization opposition effect for the Galilean satellites of Jupiter," Icarus 179, 490-496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rosenbush, V. V. Avramchuk, A. E. Rosenbush, and M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter: observations and preliminary analysis," Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saichev, A. I.

Yu. N. Barabanenkov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. D. Ozrin, and A. I. Saichev, "Enhanced backscattering in optics," Progr. Opt. 29, 65-197 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Salo, H.

A. W. Harris, J. W. Young, L. Contreiras, T. Dockweiler, L. Belkora, H. Salo, W. D. Harris, E. Bowell, M. Poutanen, R. P. Binzel, D. J. Tholen, and S. Wang, "Phase relations of high albedo asteroids: the unusual opposition brightening of 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina," Icarus 81, 365-374 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shakhovskoy, N. M.

V. K. Rosenbush, N. N. Kiselev, V. G. Shevchenko, K. Jockers, N. M. Shakhovskoy, and Yu. S. Efimov, "Polarization and brightness opposition effects for the E-type asteroid 64 Angelina," Icarus 178, 222-234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shevchenko, V. G.

V. K. Rosenbush, N. N. Kiselev, V. G. Shevchenko, K. Jockers, N. M. Shakhovskoy, and Yu. S. Efimov, "Polarization and brightness opposition effects for the E-type asteroid 64 Angelina," Icarus 178, 222-234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shkuratov, Yu. G.

Yu. G. Shkuratov, "A new mechanism for the negative polarization of light scattered by the solid surfaces of cosmic bodies," Astron. Vestnik 23, 176-180 (1989) (in Russian).

Yu. G. Shkuratov, "A diffraction mechanism for the formation of the opposition effect of the brightness of surfaces having a complex structure," Kinem. Fiz. Nebes. Tel 4(4), 33-39 (1988) (in Russian).

Tholen, D. J.

A. W. Harris, J. W. Young, L. Contreiras, T. Dockweiler, L. Belkora, H. Salo, W. D. Harris, E. Bowell, M. Poutanen, R. P. Binzel, D. J. Tholen, and S. Wang, "Phase relations of high albedo asteroids: the unusual opposition brightening of 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina," Icarus 81, 365-374 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. T.

D. T. Thompson and G. W. Lockwood, "Photoelectric photometry of Europa and Callisto 1976-1991," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14761-14772 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Millis and D. T. Thompson, "UBV photometry of the Galilean satellites," Icarus 26, 408-419 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tishkovets, V. P.

V. P. Tishkovets, P. V. Litvinov, and M. V. Lyubchenko, "Coherent opposition effect for semi-infinite discrete random medium in the double-scattering approximation," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 803-811 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge University Press, 2002; http://www.giss.nasa.gov/∼crmim).

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering (Cambridge University Press, 2006).

van Albada, M. P.

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Polarization effects in weak localization of light," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, S28-S31 (1988).
[CrossRef]

van der Mark, M. B.

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Polarization effects in weak localization of light," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, S28-S31 (1988).
[CrossRef]

van Rossum, M. C. W.

M. C. W. van Rossum and Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Multiple scattering of classical waves: microscopy, mesoscopy, and diffusion," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 313-371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Tiggelen, B. A.

A. Lagendijk and B. A. van Tiggelen, "Resonant multiple scattering of light," Phys. Rep. 270, 143-215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

A. W. Harris, J. W. Young, L. Contreiras, T. Dockweiler, L. Belkora, H. Salo, W. D. Harris, E. Bowell, M. Poutanen, R. P. Binzel, D. J. Tholen, and S. Wang, "Phase relations of high albedo asteroids: the unusual opposition brightening of 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina," Icarus 81, 365-374 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Watson, K. M.

K. M. Watson, "Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves in an underdense plasma," J. Math. Phys. 10, 688-702 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, P. E.

P. E. Wolf, G. Maret, E. Akkermans, and R. Maynard, "Optical coherent backscattering by random media: an experimental study," J. Phys. France 49, 63-75 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. W.

A. W. Harris, J. W. Young, L. Contreiras, T. Dockweiler, L. Belkora, H. Salo, W. D. Harris, E. Bowell, M. Poutanen, R. P. Binzel, D. J. Tholen, and S. Wang, "Phase relations of high albedo asteroids: the unusual opposition brightening of 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina," Icarus 81, 365-374 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zellner, B.

B. Zellner and J. Gradie, "Minor planets and related objects. XX. Polarimetric evidence for the albedos and compositions of 94 asteroids," Astron. J. 81, 262-280 (1976).
[CrossRef]

B. Zellner, "On the nature of Iapetus," Astrophys. J. 174, L107-L109 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Astron. J. (2)

F. A. Franklin and A. F. Cook, "Optical properties of Saturn's rings. II. Two-color phase curves of the two bright rings," Astron. J. 70, 704-720 (1965).
[CrossRef]

B. Zellner and J. Gradie, "Minor planets and related objects. XX. Polarimetric evidence for the albedos and compositions of 94 asteroids," Astron. J. 81, 262-280 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Vestnik (1)

Yu. G. Shkuratov, "A new mechanism for the negative polarization of light scattered by the solid surfaces of cosmic bodies," Astron. Vestnik 23, 176-180 (1989) (in Russian).

Astrophys. J. (3)

V. K. Rosenbush, V. V. Avramchuk, A. E. Rosenbush, and M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter: observations and preliminary analysis," Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, "On the nature of the polarization opposition effect exhibited by Saturn's rings," Astrophys. J. 411, 351-361 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Zellner, "On the nature of Iapetus," Astrophys. J. 174, L107-L109 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. Space Sci. (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, "The angular width of the coherent back-scatter opposition effect: an application to icy outer planet satellites," Astrophys. Space Sci. 194, 327-333 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Earth Moon Planets (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization characteristics of the coherent backscatter opposition effect," Earth Moon Planets 58, 127-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (7)

F. A. Franklin and A. F. Cook, "Photometry of Saturn's satellites: the opposition effect of Iapetus at maximum light and the variability of Titan," Icarus 23, 355-362 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. Dollfus, "Optical polarimetry of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter," Icarus 25, 416-431 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Millis and D. T. Thompson, "UBV photometry of the Galilean satellites," Icarus 26, 408-419 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Harris, J. W. Young, L. Contreiras, T. Dockweiler, L. Belkora, H. Salo, W. D. Harris, E. Bowell, M. Poutanen, R. P. Binzel, D. J. Tholen, and S. Wang, "Phase relations of high albedo asteroids: the unusual opposition brightening of 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina," Icarus 81, 365-374 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Dollfus, "Saturn's rings: optical reflectance polarimetry," Icarus 124, 237-261 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rosenbush, N. N. Kiselev, V. G. Shevchenko, K. Jockers, N. M. Shakhovskoy, and Yu. S. Efimov, "Polarization and brightness opposition effects for the E-type asteroid 64 Angelina," Icarus 178, 222-234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rosenbush and N. N. Kiselev, "Polarization opposition effect for the Galilean satellites of Jupiter," Icarus 179, 490-496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

D. T. Thompson and G. W. Lockwood, "Photoelectric photometry of Europa and Callisto 1976-1991," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14761-14772 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Math. Phys. (1)

K. M. Watson, "Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves in an underdense plasma," J. Math. Phys. 10, 688-702 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Polarization effects in weak localization of light," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, S28-S31 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. France (1)

P. E. Wolf, G. Maret, E. Akkermans, and R. Maynard, "Optical coherent backscattering by random media: an experimental study," J. Phys. France 49, 63-75 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

V. P. Tishkovets, P. V. Litvinov, and M. V. Lyubchenko, "Coherent opposition effect for semi-infinite discrete random medium in the double-scattering approximation," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 803-811 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kinem. Fiz. Nebes. Tel (1)

Yu. G. Shkuratov, "A diffraction mechanism for the formation of the opposition effect of the brightness of surfaces having a complex structure," Kinem. Fiz. Nebes. Tel 4(4), 33-39 (1988) (in Russian).

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

J. E. Geake and M. Geake, "A remote-sensing method for sub-wavelength grains on planetary surfaces by optical polarimetry," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 245, 46-55 (1990).

Nature (1)

P. E. Johnson, J. C. Kemp, R. King, T. E. Parker, and M. S. Barbour, "New results from optical polarimetry of Saturn's rings," Nature 283, 146-149 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Lagendijk and B. A. van Tiggelen, "Resonant multiple scattering of light," Phys. Rep. 270, 143-215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys.-Uspekhi (1)

V. L. Kuz'min and V. P. Romanov, "Coherent phenomena in light scattering from disordered systems," Phys.-Uspekhi 39, 231-260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Progr. Opt. (1)

Yu. N. Barabanenkov, Yu. A. Kravtsov, V. D. Ozrin, and A. I. Saichev, "Enhanced backscattering in optics," Progr. Opt. 29, 65-197 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. C. W. van Rossum and Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Multiple scattering of classical waves: microscopy, mesoscopy, and diffusion," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 313-371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Waves Random Media (1)

K. Muinonen, "Coherent backscattering of light by complex random media of spherical scatterers: numerical solution," Waves Random Media 14, 365-388 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge University Press, 2002; http://www.giss.nasa.gov/∼crmim).

B.A.van Tiggelen and S.E.Skipetrov, eds., Wave Scattering in Complex Media: From Theory to Applications (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering (Cambridge University Press, 2006).

POE has the same physical origin as the well-known azimuthal asymmetry of the back-scattering intensity peak in the case of linearly polarized incident light.10

S. Keränen, K. Muinonen, and J. Piironen, "Computations of coherent backscattering and shadowing effects for atmosphereless solar system objects," in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Halifax Contributions, G.Videen, Q.Fu, and P.Chýlek, eds. (Army Research Laboratory, 2000), pp. 279-282.

K. Lumme and K. Muinonen, "A two-parameter system for linear polarization of some Solar System objects," in Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, A.W.Harris and E.Bowell, eds. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 1993), pp. 194-197.

The nearly parabolic negative polarization branch (NPB) appears to be a ubiquitous trait of ASSBs. However, its physical origin remains to be uncertain (see Ref. 39 and references therein). Although it has been speculated that NPB could be caused by CB from particulate media,40,41 the results of Refs. 8, 12, and 20 indicate that this conjecture is unlikely to be correct.

G.Videen, Ya.Yatskiv, and M.Mishchenko, eds., Photopolarimetry in Remote Sensing (Kluwer Academic, 2004).

V. Rosenbush, N. Kiselev, V. Avramchuk, and M. Mishchenko, "Photometric and polarimetric opposition phenomena exhibited by solar system bodies," in Optics of Cosmic Dust, G.Videen and M.Kocifaj, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 2002), pp. 191-224.

K. Muinonen, "Light scattering by inhomogeneous media: backward enhancement and reversal of linear polarization," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Helsinki, 1990).

R. A. Chigladze, "The study of polarimetric properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter and the planet Uranus," Ph.D. dissertation (Abastumany Astrophysical Observatory, 1989).

B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Cambridge University Press, 1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic explanation of CB. The direct (solid arrows) and reverse (dashed arrows) wave paths go through the same group of N particles, but in opposite directions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angular profiles of BOE (thick gray curve) and POE (thin black curve). The reflected intensity is divided by that of the incoherent backgound. The degree of linear polarization is defined as the Stokes-parameter ratio −QI with the meridional plane of the reflection direction serving as the reference plane.[11] The dimensionless angular parameter q is defined as the product of the phase angle, the wavenumber, and the mean free path of light in the scattering medium.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative intensity and linear polarization versus phase angle for high-albedo ASSBs. The intensity is normalized to unity at the smallest phase angle available. The plane through the Sun, the object, and the observer serves as the reference plane for defining the Stokes parameters. The polarization data for Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Saturn's rings at phase angles greater than 1° were obtained by averaging data from Refs. 24, 27, 29, 32, and 35 over 1° intervals with equal weight assigned to each observation. The intensity data were fitted with an exponential–linear function.[36] The polarimetric data were fitted by a trigonometric polynomial.[37]

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