Abstract

A 2 μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar (HDIAL) has been operated at the Instïtut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (Paris) to monitor the CO2 mixing ratio in absolute value at high accuracy in the atmospheric boundary layer. Horizontal measurements at increasing range are made to retrieve the optical depth. The experimental setup takes advantage of a heterodyne lidar developed for wind velocity measurements. A control unit based on a photoacoustic cell filled with CO2 is tested to correct afterward for ON-line frequency drift. The HDIAL results are validated using in situ routine measurements. The Doppler capability is used to follow the change in wind direction in the Paris suburbs.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

P. J. Rayner and D. M. O'Brien, "The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

B. J. Rye and R. M. Hardesty, "Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. I: Spectral accumulation and the Cramer-Rao lower bound," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 16 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

D. K. Killinger and N. Menyuk, "Effect of turbulence-induced correlation on laser remote sensing error," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 968-970 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

A. B. Antipov and Yu. N. Ponomarev, "Investigation of weak absorption lines of gases with a laser spectrophone," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 740-742 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Amzajerdian, F.

Antipov, A. B.

A. B. Antipov and Yu. N. Ponomarev, "Investigation of weak absorption lines of gases with a laser spectrophone," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 740-742 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Arie, E.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ballard, J.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, B. W.

Beyon, J. Y.

Bjoraker, G.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet, B.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bösenberg, J.

Brown, L. R.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bruneau, D.

D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte, J. Pelon, and P. H. Flamant, "Development of 2-μm coherent lidar emitter with transform-limited pulse output for wind and water-vapor measurements," 9th CLRC (1997), Linköping, Sweden.

D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte, J. Pelon, and P. H. Flamant, "Development of 2-μm coherent lidar emitter with transform-limited pulse output for wind and water-vapor measurements," presented at the Swedish Defense Research Establishment 9th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Linköping, Sweden, 23-27 June 1997.

D. Bruneau, F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, and J. Pelon, "A complementary study of DIAL optimization," Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, and J. Pelon, "Wind velocity and backscatter measurements at 2 μm with the heterodyne detection lidar EMIL," 20th International Laser Radar Conference (2000), Vichy, France.

Camy-Peyret, C.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J. P.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chedin, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Churnside, J. H.

Chursin, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ciais, P.

L. Pépin, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, D. Worthy, and P. Ciais, "A new gas chromatographic experiment to analyze greenhouse gases in flask samples and in ambient air in the region of Saclay," Institut Pierre Simon Laplace internal publication No. 13 (2002), Paris, France (available on request).

Clerbaux, C.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. E.

Delmonte, S.

D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte, J. Pelon, and P. H. Flamant, "Development of 2-μm coherent lidar emitter with transform-limited pulse output for wind and water-vapor measurements," presented at the Swedish Defense Research Establishment 9th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Linköping, Sweden, 23-27 June 1997.

D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte, J. Pelon, and P. H. Flamant, "Development of 2-μm coherent lidar emitter with transform-limited pulse output for wind and water-vapor measurements," 9th CLRC (1997), Linköping, Sweden.

Duxbury, G.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P. H.

D. Bruneau, F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, and J. Pelon, "A complementary study of DIAL optimization," Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte, J. Pelon, and P. H. Flamant, "Development of 2-μm coherent lidar emitter with transform-limited pulse output for wind and water-vapor measurements," 9th CLRC (1997), Linköping, Sweden.

D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte, J. Pelon, and P. H. Flamant, "Development of 2-μm coherent lidar emitter with transform-limited pulse output for wind and water-vapor measurements," presented at the Swedish Defense Research Establishment 9th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Linköping, Sweden, 23-27 June 1997.

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge U. Press, 1985), Chap. 14.

Flaud, J. M.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fourrie, N.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Gamache, R.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gibert, F.

D. Bruneau, F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, and J. Pelon, "A complementary study of DIAL optimization," Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Goldman, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Golovko, V.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Graner, G.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guelachvili, G.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hardesty, M. R.

Hardesty, R. M.

B. J. Rye and R. M. Hardesty, "Estimate optimization parameters for incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar," Appl. Opt. 36, 9425-9436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Rye and R. M. Hardesty, "Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. I: Spectral accumulation and the Cramer-Rao lower bound," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 16 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J. M.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, S. W.

Hilico, J. C.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, J.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

Jacquinet-Husson, N.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kavaya, M. J.

Killinger, D. K.

D. K. Killinger and N. Menyuk, "Effect of turbulence-induced correlation on laser remote sensing error," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 968-970 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Koch, G. J.

Le Rille, O.

D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, and J. Pelon, "Wind velocity and backscatter measurements at 2 μm with the heterodyne detection lidar EMIL," 20th International Laser Radar Conference (2000), Vichy, France.

Lefevre, G.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lellouch, E.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Menyuk, N.

D. K. Killinger and N. Menyuk, "Effect of turbulence-induced correlation on laser remote sensing error," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 968-970 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

Mikhailenko, S. N.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Naumenko, O. V.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
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Nemtchinov, V.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
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Newnham, D. A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
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Nikitin, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
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O'Brien, D. M.

P. J. Rayner and D. M. O'Brien, "The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175-178 (2001).
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Orphal, J.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
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Pelon, J.

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D. Bruneau, F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, and J. Pelon, "A complementary study of DIAL optimization," Appl. Opt. (to be published).
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D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte, J. Pelon, and P. H. Flamant, "Development of 2-μm coherent lidar emitter with transform-limited pulse output for wind and water-vapor measurements," 9th CLRC (1997), Linköping, Sweden.

Pépin, L.

L. Pépin, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, D. Worthy, and P. Ciais, "A new gas chromatographic experiment to analyze greenhouse gases in flask samples and in ambient air in the region of Saclay," Institut Pierre Simon Laplace internal publication No. 13 (2002), Paris, France (available on request).

Perrin, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
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Petros, M.

Ponomarev, Yu. N.

A. B. Antipov and Yu. N. Ponomarev, "Investigation of weak absorption lines of gases with a laser spectrophone," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4, 740-742 (1974).
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Post, M. J.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge U. Press, 1985), Chap. 14.

Ramonet, M.

L. Pépin, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, D. Worthy, and P. Ciais, "A new gas chromatographic experiment to analyze greenhouse gases in flask samples and in ambient air in the region of Saclay," Institut Pierre Simon Laplace internal publication No. 13 (2002), Paris, France (available on request).

Rayner, P. J.

P. J. Rayner and D. M. O'Brien, "The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, D. C.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
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Rinsland, C. P.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
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Rosenmann, L.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
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Rothman, L. S.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
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Rye, B. J.

B. J. Rye and R. M. Hardesty, "Estimate optimization parameters for incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar," Appl. Opt. 36, 9425-9436 (1997).
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B. J. Rye and R. M. Hardesty, "Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. I: Spectral accumulation and the Cramer-Rao lower bound," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 16 (1993).
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Salamitou, P.

P. Salamitou, "Comparison of performance of a pulsed coherent Doppler Lidar for wind measurements at 2-μm and 10-μm wavelength," Ph.D. dissertation (Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 1994).

Schmidt, M.

L. Pépin, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, D. Worthy, and P. Ciais, "A new gas chromatographic experiment to analyze greenhouse gases in flask samples and in ambient air in the region of Saclay," Institut Pierre Simon Laplace internal publication No. 13 (2002), Paris, France (available on request).

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scott, N. A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Selby, J.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Singh, U. N.

Sinitsa, L. N.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sirota, J. M.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. M.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. M.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge U. Press, 1985), Chap. 14.

Tipping, R. H.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tratt, D. M.

Tyuterev, V. G.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Urban, S.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vay, S.

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge U. Press, 1985), Chap. 14.

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Worthy, D.

L. Pépin, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, D. Worthy, and P. Ciais, "A new gas chromatographic experiment to analyze greenhouse gases in flask samples and in ambient air in the region of Saclay," Institut Pierre Simon Laplace internal publication No. 13 (2002), Paris, France (available on request).

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Yuen, E. Y.

Yura, H. T.

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

P. J. Rayner and D. M. O'Brien, "The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

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[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. (2)

N. Jacquinet-Husson, E. Arie, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J. M. Flaud, N. Fourrie, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefevre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsland, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, V. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, and M. Weber, "The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 62, 205-254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database, and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte, J. Pelon, and P. H. Flamant, "Development of 2-μm coherent lidar emitter with transform-limited pulse output for wind and water-vapor measurements," presented at the Swedish Defense Research Establishment 9th Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Linköping, Sweden, 23-27 June 1997.

D. Bruneau, O. Le Rille, and J. Pelon, "Wind velocity and backscatter measurements at 2 μm with the heterodyne detection lidar EMIL," 20th International Laser Radar Conference (2000), Vichy, France.

D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte, J. Pelon, and P. H. Flamant, "Development of 2-μm coherent lidar emitter with transform-limited pulse output for wind and water-vapor measurements," 9th CLRC (1997), Linköping, Sweden.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge U. Press, 1985), Chap. 14.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the 2 μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar (HDIAL) for CO2 measurements. HWP, half-wave plate; QWP, quarter-wave plate; OAM, optoacoustic modulator; PZT, piezoelectric element; BE, beam expander; BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Layout of coherent detection, spectral control, and signal processing units. QWP, quarter-wave plate; HWP, half-wave plate; BE, beam expander; BS, beam splitter; L, lens (f = 25 mm); A, amplifier; ADC, analog-to-digital converter LP, low-pressure cell; HP, high-pressure cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Atmospheric transmission spectrum for CO2 (for 370 ppm mixing ratio) and H2O (15 g kg−1) mixing ratio in the 2.06–2.07 μm range for a 1 km vertical path starting from the ground level. The arrow indicates the CO2 ON line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) ON-line emission frequency drift calculated from the 1000 mbar CO2 photoacoustic cell signal as a function of time. (b) Experimental slopes from optical-depth fitting (cross), calculated slopes using spectroscopic information from HITRAN database and in situ temperature, pressure, and relative humidity data, assuming a 390 ppm CO2 mixing ratio (dashed curve) and corrected using CO2 photoacoustic cell signal (solid curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OFF-line (dashed curve) and ON-line CNRs (solid curve) as a function of range for 300 shot-pair averaging. ON- and OFF-line heterodyne efficiency and LO level are different, and this explains different noise levels and CNRs at short range.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative error on power estimates using square (•) and Levin-like filter (+) estimators for 300 ON- and OFF-line pair averaging or 1 min as a function of CNR. Cramer– Rao lower bound (solid curve) and theoretical Squarer (dashed curve) estimates are also displayed for comparison.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical-depth estimate and statistical error as a function of range using squarer (•) and Levin-like filter (+) estimators for 300 ON- and OFF-line pair averaging or 1 min. The statistical error calculated using the Cramer–Rao lower bound for power estimate (dashed curve) is also displayed for comparison.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Mean experimental optical depth relative error in the range of 0.5–1.5 km using squarer (•) and Levin-like filter (+) estimators as a function of the number of shot-pair averaging (Mp ). The calculated theoretical squarer (dashed curve) and Cramer–Rao lower bound (solid curve) optical depths are calculated using the OFF- and ON-line mean CNRs in the same range.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental CO2 optical depth as a function of range. Linear fit weighted by optical-depth standard deviation (error bars) is displayed.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Absorption cross section of the nearest water-vapor line to the CO2 P10 line. (b) Relative error on CO2 mixing ratio as a function of frequency shift.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

In situ measurements at LMD∕IPSL on 12 December 2004: T, temperature; P, pressure; RH, relative humidity; V, wind velocity; DirV, wind direction.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Respective location of the HDIAL at LMD and CO2 in situ measurements at LSCE. The HDIAL beam direction (dashed curve) and wind direction at 15:00, 16:00, and 19:00 UT are shown.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) CO2 mixing ratio measurements by HDIAL for a 300 shot-pair averaging (+), 5 points sliding averaging (solid curve), and LSCE in situ routine measurements (dashed curve). (b) Statistical relative error on HDIAL CO2 measurements due to the slope retrieval technique only. (c) Radial wind velocity over the measurement area (m s−1). The air mass is coming from IPSL∕LSCE between the dashed curves, during 15:30 and 18:00 UT.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main Characteristics of the 2 μm Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spectroscopic Data for the CO2 Lines of Interest in 2 μm HDIAL Measurements and Potential Overlapping H2O Lines a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Estimate of the Various Error Sources Identified and Quantified in this Paper for the Retrieval of CO2 Mixing Ratio

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

CNR = P P B ,
σ 2 ( P ) =
i = 1 N σ 2 ( P i ) + 2 i = 1 N 1 j > i N ρ ( P i , P j ) σ ( P i ) σ ( P j ) N 2 ,
σ ( P ) P = 1 M p M t ( 1 + 1 CNR ) ,
M t = 1 + ( δ t R T c ) 2 ,
τ ( 0 , R ) = 1 2 ln ( P ( λ OFF , R ) P ( λ ON , R ) ) ,
σ ( τ ) τ = 1 2 τ σ 2 ( P OFF ) ( P OFF ) 2 + σ 2 ( P ON ) ( P ON ) 2 2 ρ ( P ON , P OFF ) σ ( P ON ) σ ( P OFF ) P ON P OFF ,
τ ( 0 , R ) = 0 R ρ CO 2 ( r ) n a ( r ) [ σ ˜ ON ( r ) σ ˜ OFF ( r ) ] d r ,
n a = P k T 1 1 + ρ W
ρ CO 2 ( r ) = 1 n a ( r ) [ σ ˜ ON ( r ) σ ˜ OFF ( r ) ] d τ ( 0 , r ) d r .
τ H 2 O ( 0 , R ) = 0 R ρ H 2 O ( r ) n a ( r ) [ σ ˜ ON - H 2 O ( r ) σ ˜ OFF - H 2 O ( r ) ] d r ,
ρ H 2 O = RH   P s ( T ) P ,
σ ( ρ ¯ CO ) ρ ¯ CO = ρ H 2 O ( σ ˜ ON - H 2 O σ ˜ OFF - H 2 O ) ρ ¯ ( σ ˜ ON σ ˜ OFF ) .
χ 2 ( a , b ) = i = 1 N R ( τ i a b R i σ ( τ i ) ) 2 ,
b = S S x y S x S y Δ .
ρ ¯ CO 2 ( R ) = 1 n a ( R ) [ σ ˜ ON ( R ) σ ˜ OFF ( R ) ] [ i = 1 N R 1 σ 2 ( τ i ) ] [ i = 1 N R R i τ i σ 2 ( τ i ) ] [ i = 1 N R R i σ 2 ( τ i ) ] [ i = 1 N R τ i σ 2 ( τ i ) ] [ i = 1 N R 1 σ 2 ( τ i ) ] [ i = 1 N R R i     2 σ 2 ( τ i ) ] [ i = 1 N R R i σ 2 ( τ i ) ] 2 ,
σ 2 ( b ) = S Δ ,
S = i = 1 N R 1 σ 2 ( τ i ) ,     S x = i = 1 N R R i σ 2 ( τ i ) , S y = i = 1 N R τ i σ 2 ( τ i ) ,     S x y = i = 1 N R R i τ i σ 2 ( τ i ) ,     S x x = i = 1 N R R i 2 σ 2 ( τ i ) ,    Δ = S S x x S x     2 .
σ ( ρ ¯ CO 2 ) = 1 n a ( R ) [ σ ˜ ON ( R ) σ ˜ OFF ( R ) ] × i = 1 N R 1 σ 2 ( τ i ) i = 1 N R 1 σ 2 ( τ i ) i = 1 N R R i     2 σ 2 ( τ i ) [ i = 1 N R R i σ 2 ( τ i ) ] 2 .
σ ( ρ ¯ co 2 ) / ρ ¯ co 2 ( % )

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