Abstract

The foreign-broadened continuum of water vapor in the ν2 band (57.7  μm, 13002000cm-1) is important for satellite-based retrievals of water vapor in the upper troposphere, where temperatures are below 25°C. Continuum coefficients have previously been measured mostly at or above +23°C. We present continuum coefficients in the ν2 band retrieved from measurements made in Antarctica at temperatures near 30°C: atmospheric transmission at South Pole Station and atmospheric emission at Dome C. The continuum coefficients derived from these measurements are generally in agreement with the widely used Mlawer, Tobin–Clough, Kneizys, Davies continuum. Differences are at most 30%, corresponding to a 6% relative error in retrieved upper-tropospheric humidity.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (3)

V. P. Walden, M. S. Town, B. Halter, and J. W. V. Storey, "First measurements of the infrared sky brightness at Dome C, Antarctica," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 300-308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Aristidi, K. Agabi, E. Fossat, J. Vernin, T. Travouillon, J. S. Lawrence, C. Meyer, J. W. V. Storey, B. Halter, W. L. Roth, and V. Walden, "An analysis of temperatures and wind speeds above Dome C, Antarctica," Astron. Astrophys. 430, 739-746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes. Short communication," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 91, 233-244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Hudson, M. S. Town, V. P. Walden, and S. G. Warren, "Temperature, humidity, and pressure response of radiosondes at low temperatures," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 825-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, S. A. Clough, P. D. Brown, R. G. Ellingson, E. J. Mlawer, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, W. L. Smith, and M. W. Shephard, "The QME AERI LBLRTM: a closure experiment for downwelling high spectral resolution infrared radiance," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2657-2675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. A. Ringer, J. M. Edwards, and A. Slingo, "Simulation of satellite channel radiances in the Met Office Unified Model," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 129, 1169-1190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

E. J. Dlugokencky, B. P. Walter, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, and E. Kasischke, "Measurements of an anomalous global methane increase during 1998," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 499-502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

Q. Ma and R. H. Tipping, "The density matrix of H2O-N2 in the coordinate representation: a Monte Carlo calculation of the far-wing lineshape," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 574-584 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, and T. Wehr, "An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-μm band: a report from the first GVAP workshop," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Deist, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA Ice Station: water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 μm," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2081-2092 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

V. P. Walden, S. G. Warren, and F. J. Murcray, "Measurements of the downward longwave radiation spectrum over the Antarctic plateau and comparisons to a line-by-line radiative transfer model for clear skies," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3825-3846 (1998), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yashino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, N. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Han, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, P. D. Brown, and S. A. Clough, "Infrared spectral measurements in the tropical Pacific atmosphere," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4353-4356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (3)

1991 (1)

P. C. Novelli, J. E. Elkins, and L. P. Steele, "The development and evaluation of a gravimetric reference scale for measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 13109-13121 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, "Line shape and the water vapor continuum," Atmos. Res. 23, 229-241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1967 (1)

1958 (1)

A. Jensen, "Correction of radiosonde measurements for lag error," Geophysica 6, 275-279 (1958).

Abrams, M. C.

Agabi, K.

E. Aristidi, K. Agabi, E. Fossat, J. Vernin, T. Travouillon, J. S. Lawrence, C. Meyer, J. W. V. Storey, B. Halter, W. L. Roth, and V. Walden, "An analysis of temperatures and wind speeds above Dome C, Antarctica," Astron. Astrophys. 430, 739-746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alt, R. L.

D. E. Burch and R. L. Alt, "Continuum absorption by H2O in the 700-1200 cm−1 windows," Rep. AFGL-TR-84-0128 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1984).

Aristidi, E.

E. Aristidi, K. Agabi, E. Fossat, J. Vernin, T. Travouillon, J. S. Lawrence, C. Meyer, J. W. V. Storey, B. Halter, W. L. Roth, and V. Walden, "An analysis of temperatures and wind speeds above Dome C, Antarctica," Astron. Astrophys. 430, 739-746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Auwera, J. V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bates, J.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, and T. Wehr, "An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-μm band: a report from the first GVAP workshop," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benedict, W. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch,R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, and J. S. Garing, "AFCRL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation," Rep. AFCRL-TR-730096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., 1973).

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Best, F. A.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Deist, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA Ice Station: water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 μm," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2081-2092 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, 2003).

Boukabara, S.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes. Short communication," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 91, 233-244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, R. E.

V. P. Walden, S. G. Warren, J. D. Spinhirne, A. Heymsfield, R. E. Brandt, P. Rowe, M. S. Town, S. Hudson, and R. M. Jones, "The South Pole Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE)," in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, 2001), pp. 297-299.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yashino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, N. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, and M. A. H. Smith, "The HITRAN database: 1986 edition," Appl. Opt. 26, 4058-4097 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, P. D.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes. Short communication," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 91, 233-244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, S. A. Clough, P. D. Brown, R. G. Ellingson, E. J. Mlawer, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, W. L. Smith, and M. W. Shephard, "The QME AERI LBLRTM: a closure experiment for downwelling high spectral resolution infrared radiance," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2657-2675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Deist, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA Ice Station: water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 μm," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2081-2092 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, P. D. Brown, and S. A. Clough, "Infrared spectral measurements in the tropical Pacific atmosphere," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4353-4356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Buijs, H.

Burch, D. E.

D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, and R. R. Patty, "Absorption of infrared radiation by CO2 and H2O. Experimental techniques," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 885-895 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Burch, "Continuum absorption by H2O," Rep. AFGL-TR-81-0300 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1982).

D. E. Burch and R. L. Alt, "Continuum absorption by H2O in the 700-1200 cm−1 windows," Rep. AFGL-TR-84-0128 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1984).

D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, and F. J. Gates, "Continuum absorption by H2O between 300 and 825 cm−1," Rep. AFCRL-TR-740377 (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1974).

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch,R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, and J. S. Garing, "AFCRL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation," Rep. AFCRL-TR-730096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., 1973).

Cady-Pereira, K.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes. Short communication," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 91, 233-244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Calfee, R. F.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch,R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, and J. S. Garing, "AFCRL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation," Rep. AFCRL-TR-730096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., 1973).

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yashino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, N. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, and M. A. H. Smith, "The HITRAN database: 1986 edition," Appl. Opt. 26, 4058-4097 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yashino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, N. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Churnside, J. H.

Y. Han, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, P. D. Brown, and S. A. Clough, "Infrared spectral measurements in the tropical Pacific atmosphere," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4353-4356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ciganovich, N. C.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes. Short communication," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 91, 233-244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, S. A. Clough, P. D. Brown, R. G. Ellingson, E. J. Mlawer, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, W. L. Smith, and M. W. Shephard, "The QME AERI LBLRTM: a closure experiment for downwelling high spectral resolution infrared radiance," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2657-2675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Deist, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA Ice Station: water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 μm," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2081-2092 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, P. D. Brown, and S. A. Clough, "Infrared spectral measurements in the tropical Pacific atmosphere," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4353-4356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, "Line shape and the water vapor continuum," Atmos. Res. 23, 229-241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch,R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, and J. S. Garing, "AFCRL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation," Rep. AFCRL-TR-730096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., 1973).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davies, R. Gamache, and R. Tipping, "Theoretical line shape for H2O vapor: application to the continuum," in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A.Deepak, T.D.Wilkerson, and L.H.Ruhnke, eds. (Academic, 1980), pp. 25-46.

S. A. Clough, Radiation & Climate Group, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, 131 Hartwell Ave., Lexington, Mass. 02421 (personal communication, 2004).

E. J. Mlawer, S. A. Clough, and D. C. Tobin, "The MT_CKD water vapor continuum:a revised perspective including collision induced effects," presented at the Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry (ASSFTS) Workshop, Bad Wildbad (Black Forest), Germany, 8-10 October 2003.

Conway, T. J.

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, D. R. Kitzis, K. A. Masarie, and N. Zhang, "Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the NOAA/CMDL global air sampling network," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831-22855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yashino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, N. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davies, R. W.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, "Line shape and the water vapor continuum," Atmos. Res. 23, 229-241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davies, R. Gamache, and R. Tipping, "Theoretical line shape for H2O vapor: application to the continuum," in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A.Deepak, T.D.Wilkerson, and L.H.Ruhnke, eds. (Academic, 1980), pp. 25-46.

de Souza-Machado, S.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, and T. Wehr, "An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-μm band: a report from the first GVAP workshop," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dedecker, R. G.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Deist, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA Ice Station: water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 μm," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2081-2092 (1999).
[CrossRef]

deHaseth, J. A.

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. deHaseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley, 1986).

Delamere, J. S.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes. Short communication," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 91, 233-244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dirkx, T. P.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dlugokencky, E. J.

E. J. Dlugokencky, B. P. Walter, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, and E. Kasischke, "Measurements of an anomalous global methane increase during 1998," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 499-502 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yashino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, N. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, J. M.

M. A. Ringer, J. M. Edwards, and A. Slingo, "Simulation of satellite channel radiances in the Met Office Unified Model," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 129, 1169-1190 (2003).
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Elkins, J. E.

P. C. Novelli, J. E. Elkins, and L. P. Steele, "The development and evaluation of a gravimetric reference scale for measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 13109-13121 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ellingson, B.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, and T. Wehr, "An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-μm band: a report from the first GVAP workshop," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ellingson, R. G.

D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, S. A. Clough, P. D. Brown, R. G. Ellingson, E. J. Mlawer, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, W. L. Smith, and M. W. Shephard, "The QME AERI LBLRTM: a closure experiment for downwelling high spectral resolution infrared radiance," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2657-2675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Deist, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA Ice Station: water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 μm," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2081-2092 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ellington, S. C.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Engelen, R.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, and T. Wehr, "An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-μm band: a report from the first GVAP workshop," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feltz, W. F.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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Lawrence, J. S.

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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yashino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, N. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yashino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, N. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
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McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yashino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, N. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
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R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch,R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, and J. S. Garing, "AFCRL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation," Rep. AFCRL-TR-730096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., 1973).

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, and J. S. Garing, "Optical properties of the atmosphere," 3rd ed. AFCRL-72-0497 (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1972), p. 108.

Meyer, C.

E. Aristidi, K. Agabi, E. Fossat, J. Vernin, T. Travouillon, J. S. Lawrence, C. Meyer, J. W. V. Storey, B. Halter, W. L. Roth, and V. Walden, "An analysis of temperatures and wind speeds above Dome C, Antarctica," Astron. Astrophys. 430, 739-746 (2005).
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S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes. Short communication," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 91, 233-244 (2005).
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D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, S. A. Clough, P. D. Brown, R. G. Ellingson, E. J. Mlawer, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, W. L. Smith, and M. W. Shephard, "The QME AERI LBLRTM: a closure experiment for downwelling high spectral resolution infrared radiance," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2657-2675 (2004).
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D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Deist, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA Ice Station: water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 μm," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2081-2092 (1999).
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E. J. Mlawer, S. A. Clough, and D. C. Tobin, "The MT_CKD water vapor continuum:a revised perspective including collision induced effects," presented at the Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectrometry (ASSFTS) Workshop, Bad Wildbad (Black Forest), Germany, 8-10 October 2003.

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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yashino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, N. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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P. C. Novelli, J. E. Elkins, and L. P. Steele, "The development and evaluation of a gravimetric reference scale for measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 13109-13121 (1991).
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Patty, R. R.

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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yashino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, N. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
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Poynter, R. L.

Randel, D.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, and T. Wehr, "An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-μm band: a report from the first GVAP workshop," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797-808 (2000).
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B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, and T. Wehr, "An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-μm band: a report from the first GVAP workshop," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797-808 (2000).
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D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, S. A. Clough, P. D. Brown, R. G. Ellingson, E. J. Mlawer, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, W. L. Smith, and M. W. Shephard, "The QME AERI LBLRTM: a closure experiment for downwelling high spectral resolution infrared radiance," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2657-2675 (2004).
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R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part II: Instrument performance," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1777-1789 (2004).
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R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
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D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Deist, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA Ice Station: water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 μm," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2081-2092 (1999).
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J. M. Theriault, P. L. Roney, D. St. Germain, H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, and W. L. Smith, "Analysis of the FASCODE model and its H2O continuum based on long-path atmospheric transmission measurements in the 4.5-11.5 μm region," Appl. Opt. 33, 323-333 (1994).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yashino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, N. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, and M. A. H. Smith, "The HITRAN database: 1986 edition," Appl. Opt. 26, 4058-4097 (1987).
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P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, 2003).

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E. Aristidi, K. Agabi, E. Fossat, J. Vernin, T. Travouillon, J. S. Lawrence, C. Meyer, J. W. V. Storey, B. Halter, W. L. Roth, and V. Walden, "An analysis of temperatures and wind speeds above Dome C, Antarctica," Astron. Astrophys. 430, 739-746 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yashino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, N. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, and M. A. H. Smith, "The HITRAN database: 1986 edition," Appl. Opt. 26, 4058-4097 (1987).
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R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch,R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, and J. S. Garing, "AFCRL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation," Rep. AFCRL-TR-730096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., 1973).

Rowe, P.

V. P. Walden, S. G. Warren, J. D. Spinhirne, A. Heymsfield, R. E. Brandt, P. Rowe, M. S. Town, S. Hudson, and R. M. Jones, "The South Pole Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE)," in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography (American Meteorological Society, 2001), pp. 297-299.

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P. M. Rowe, "Measurements of the foreign-broadened continuum of water vapor in the 6.3 micron band at −30 Celsius," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Washington, Seattle, 2004).

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B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, and T. Wehr, "An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-μm band: a report from the first GVAP workshop," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797-808 (2000).
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Saunders, R.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, and T. Wehr, "An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-μm band: a report from the first GVAP workshop," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797-808 (2000).
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Schindler, R. A.

Schmetz, J.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, and T. Wehr, "An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-μm band: a report from the first GVAP workshop," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797-808 (2000).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yashino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, N. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665-710 (1998).
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Schwarzkopf, D.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, and T. Wehr, "An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-μm band: a report from the first GVAP workshop," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797-808 (2000).
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Scott, N.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, and T. Wehr, "An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-μm band: a report from the first GVAP workshop," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797-808 (2000).
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Selby, J. E. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, and J. S. Garing, "Optical properties of the atmosphere," 3rd ed. AFCRL-72-0497 (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1972), p. 108.

Shaw, J. A.

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Shephard, M. W.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes. Short communication," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 91, 233-244 (2005).
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D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, S. A. Clough, P. D. Brown, R. G. Ellingson, E. J. Mlawer, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, W. L. Smith, and M. W. Shephard, "The QME AERI LBLRTM: a closure experiment for downwelling high spectral resolution infrared radiance," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2657-2675 (2004).
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Shippert, T. R.

D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, S. A. Clough, P. D. Brown, R. G. Ellingson, E. J. Mlawer, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, W. L. Smith, and M. W. Shephard, "The QME AERI LBLRTM: a closure experiment for downwelling high spectral resolution infrared radiance," J. Atmos. Sci. 61, 2657-2675 (2004).
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Short, J. F.

R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, N. C. Ciganovich, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, S. C. Ellington, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, W. L. Smith, J. F. Short, and D. C. Tobin, "Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Part I: Instrument design," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 1763-1776 (2004).
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Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
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E. Aristidi, K. Agabi, E. Fossat, J. Vernin, T. Travouillon, J. S. Lawrence, C. Meyer, J. W. V. Storey, B. Halter, W. L. Roth, and V. Walden, "An analysis of temperatures and wind speeds above Dome C, Antarctica," Astron. Astrophys. 430, 739-746 (2005).
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V. P. Walden, M. S. Town, B. Halter, and J. W. V. Storey, "First measurements of the infrared sky brightness at Dome C, Antarctica," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 300-308 (2005).
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V. P. Walden, S. G. Warren, and F. J. Murcray, "Measurements of the downward longwave radiation spectrum over the Antarctic plateau and comparisons to a line-by-line radiative transfer model for clear skies," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3825-3846 (1998), and references therein.
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T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, D. R. Kitzis, K. A. Masarie, and N. Zhang, "Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the NOAA/CMDL global air sampling network," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831-22855 (1994).
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B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, and T. Wehr, "An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-μm band: a report from the first GVAP workshop," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797-808 (2000).
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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temperature and water-vapor profiles for the PAERI measurements of 15 January (afternoon) and 12 December 2003 (midnight) at Dome C. ppmv, parts per million by volume.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calibrated downwelling radiance spectra measured by the PAERI on 15 January 2003 (afternoon) and 12 December 2003 (midnight). Both spectra were measured at Dome C in the vertical (zenith) direction. The radiance from 400 to 1800 cm−1 was measured using the channel 1 detector and the radiance from 1750 to 2200 cm−1 was measured using the channel 2 detector. The inset shows an expanded view of the water-vapor ν2 band. The arrows indicate microwindows, as described in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Continuum weighting function for PAERI data sets of 15 January 2003 and 12 December 2003 for 1 deg bins. The continuum weighting functions at other wavenumbers used to infer continuum coefficients look similar.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Uncertainty in the spectrum measured by the PAERI on 15 January 2003 (afternoon): (a) combined uncertainty and (b)–(d) contributing uncertainties. Where the uncertainty differs for the two detectors, the uncertainty for the channel 2 detector is shown as a gray curve.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Uncertainty in simulated radiances for the PAERI measurement of 15 January 2003: (a) combined uncertainty and (b)–(d) most important contributing sources of uncertainty. The magnitudes of the uncertainties in each variable are indicated.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Continuum coefficients inferred from the PAERI measurement from the afternoon on 15 January 2003 (−32 °C) for both detector channels. The CU is 10−22 cm2 molecule−1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Continuum coefficients inferred from the PAERI measurements using the afternoon spectrum from 15 January 2003 (−32 °C) and the midnight spectrum from 12 December 2003 (−28 °C) in the (a) low-wavenumber and (b) high-wavenumber wings of the ν2 band for both detector channels.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic of the SPT experiment (not to scale). The wall separates the inside and outside of the building. The optical element at position A is the secondary beam splitter. A flat mirror was placed at position B for tests, but was removed for measurements. The sample is the open atmosphere between the near and far retroreflectors (short and long paths). The near retroreflector is removed when the far retroreflector is in use.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Example of a (a) short-path signal and (b) long-path signal measured by the SPT in January 2000. Spectral features due to H2O and CO2 are labeled in (b).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Magnitudes of the ratios of long-path to short-path signals. The optical path traveled by the light between the two retroreflectors (two way) is indicated in each panel. The return signals generally decrease with path length because of divergence of the beam. For shorter optical paths [(a) and (b)], the ratio is approximately constant in the nearly transparent regions where absorption features are weak (800–1100 cm−1, 2200 cm−1, etc.), but for longer optical paths [(c)–(e)] the ratio increases with wavenumber from 500 cm−1 to ∼1200 cm−1.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Transmittance measured by the SPT at the South Pole on 5 January 2000 for an optical path difference of 197 m at −29 °C (black curve). Measured transmittances below zero and greater than one are nonphysical but occur because of the finite spectral resolution. The dashed curve shows the transmittance of the MT-CKD continuum through this path length, simulated with the LBLRTM. The horizontal dotted lines signify transmittances of zero and unity.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Uncertainties in the transmittances measured by the SPT on 5 January 2000, caused by instrumental sources of error. The sources of uncertainty, labeled on the figure, are described in the text.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Uncertainty in the simulated transmittance: (a) the combined uncertainty and (b)–(d) the most important contributing sources of error. The magnitudes of the uncertainties in each variable are indicated. W.V., water vapor.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Continuum coefficient at −29 °C from the 5 January 2000 SPT measurement. Data points have been averaged over bins of ∼10 cm−1 in the wings and at the center. The MT-CKD continuum coefficient is shown for reference.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Foreign-broadened continuum coefficients of water vapor at −30 °C retrieved from the PAERI and SPT measurements. A hand-drawn smooth curve through the data points is shown. Also shown for reference is the MT-CKD continuum.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Comparison of foreign-broadened continuum coefficients retrieved in this work with the results of Theriault et al.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Comparison of foreign-broadened continuum coefficients retrieved in this work with the results of Tobin et al.: (a) on a log scale in units of cm2 molecule−1 and (b) on a linear scale in units of CU.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Parameters for Emission Spectra

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of Parameters for Transmission Measurement (5 January 2000)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Root-mean-square Deviation between the Measured Results and the Hand-drawn Curve in Fig. 15

Tables Icon

Table 4 Foreign-broadened Continuum Coefficients of Water Vapor at −30 °C (243 K) from a Fit to Measurements Made with the PAERI and SPT at Temperatures between −28 and −32 °C, Including the Multipliers of the MT-CKD Continuum

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k = C f ( ρ f ρ o ) + C s ( ρ s ρ o ) + k local ,
C f = ν tanh [ h c ν / ( 2 k b T ) ] C f o ,
C f ¯ = w i C f , i w i .
w i = 1 ε i , c 2 + ε i , r 2 ,
ε c 2 w i ε i , c 2 w i ,
ε r 2 = w i 2 ε i , r 2 ( w i ) 2 .
σ S S 2 = S S 2 S S 2 .
( ΔI ) 2 = ( d I d S S ) 2 σ S S 2 + ( d I d S H ) 2 σ S H 2 + ( d I d S A ) 2 σ S A 2 ,
NESR = Δ I 2 N a .
S L ( ν ) S S ( ν ) = ( 1 b L ) S 0 ( ν ˜ ) t L ( ν ˜ ) e i ϕ ( ν ˜ ) L ( ν , ν ˜ ) d ν ˜ ( 1 b S ) S 0 ( ν ˜ ) t S ( ν ˜ ) e i ϕ ( ν ˜ ) L ( ν , ν ˜ ) d ν ˜ ,
S L ( ν ) S S ( ν ) ( 1 b L ) t L ( ν ˜ ) L ( ν , ν ˜ ) d ν ˜ ( 1 b S ) t S ( ν ˜ ) L ( ν , ν ˜ ) d ν ˜ .
( 1 b S ) ( 1 b S ) S L ( ν ) S S ( ν ) t L ( ν ˜ ) L ( ν , ν ˜ ) d ν ˜ t S ( ν ˜ ) L ( ν , ν ˜ ) d ν ˜ .
( 1 b S ) ( 1 - b L ) S L ( ν ) S S ( ν ) t L c ( ν ) t S c ( ν ) [ t L ( ν ˜ ) L ( ν , ν ˜ ) d ν ˜ t S ( ν ˜ ) L ( ν , ν ˜ ) d ν ˜ ] .
t L       c ( ν ) t S       c ( ν ) = exp [ Δ C f ( ν ) ( ρ f ρ o ) ρ s Δ Z ] ,
Δ C f ( ν ) ρ o ρ f ρ Δ Z × ln { ( 1 b S ) ( 1 b L ) S L ( ν ) S S ( ν ) [ t S ( ν ˜ ) L ( ν , ν ˜ ) d ν ˜ t L ( ν ˜ ) L ( ν , ν ˜ ) d ν ˜ ] } .

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