Abstract

Integral imaging is one of the promising three-dimensional display techniques and has many advantages. However, one disadvantage of integral imaging is the limited image depth. The image can be displayed only around the central depth plane. We propose a depth-enhanced integral imaging using multilayered display devices. We locate transparent display devices that use liquid crystal in parallel to each other and incorporate them into an integral imaging system. As a result, the proposed method has multiple central depth planes and permits the limitation of expressible depth to be overcome. The principle of the proposed method is explained, and some experimental results are presented.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Lippmann, "La photograhie integrale," Compt.-Rend. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).
  2. T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, "Gradient-index lens-array method based on real-time integral photography for three-dimensional images," Appl. Opt. 36, 1598-1603 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. C. Forman, N. Davies, and M. McCormick, "Continuous parallax in discrete pixilated integral three-dimensional displays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 411-420 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Lee, S. Jung, and J.-H. Park, "Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 818-820 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Jung, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing integral three-dimensional imaging by use of orthogonal polarization switching," Appl. Opt. 42, 2513-2520 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," in Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, J. Koshel, P. K. Manhart, and R. C. Juergens, eds., Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, "Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes," Opt. Lett. 26, 1481-1482 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, and B. Lee, "Enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system by use of double display devices," Appl. Opt. 42, 4186-4195 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate," Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," Jpn. J. Appl. Phy . 43, 5330-5336 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control," Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J.-S. Jang, F. Jin, and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional integral imaging with large depth of focus by use of real and virtual image fields," Opt. Lett. 28, 1421-1423 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S.-W, Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, "Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array," Opt. Eng. 41, 2572-2576 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification," Appl. Opt. 43, 4882-4895 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (6)

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control," Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification," Appl. Opt. 43, 4882-4895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," in Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, J. Koshel, P. K. Manhart, and R. C. Juergens, eds., Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," Jpn. J. Appl. Phy . 43, 5330-5336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

2002 (2)

S.-W, Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, "Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array," Opt. Eng. 41, 2572-2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, and J.-H. Park, "Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 818-820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

1997 (1)

1988 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, "La photograhie integrale," Compt.-Rend. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Arai, J.

Cho, S.-W.

Choi, H.

Davies, N.

Forman, M. C.

Hong, J.

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control," Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," Jpn. J. Appl. Phy . 43, 5330-5336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," in Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, J. Koshel, P. K. Manhart, and R. C. Juergens, eds., Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, H.

Jang, J.-S.

Javidi, B.

Jin, F.

Jung, S.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control," Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification," Appl. Opt. 43, 4882-4895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate," Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing integral three-dimensional imaging by use of orthogonal polarization switching," Appl. Opt. 42, 2513-2520 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lee, S. Jung, and J.-H. Park, "Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 818-820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-W, Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, "Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array," Opt. Eng. 41, 2572-2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, "Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes," Opt. Lett. 26, 1481-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," in Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, J. Koshel, P. K. Manhart, and R. C. Juergens, eds., Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

Lee, B.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," in Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, J. Koshel, P. K. Manhart, and R. C. Juergens, eds., Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," Jpn. J. Appl. Phy . 43, 5330-5336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification," Appl. Opt. 43, 4882-4895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control," Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate," Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, and B. Lee, "Enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system by use of double display devices," Appl. Opt. 42, 4186-4195 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing integral three-dimensional imaging by use of orthogonal polarization switching," Appl. Opt. 42, 2513-2520 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lee, S. Jung, and J.-H. Park, "Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 818-820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-W, Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, "Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array," Opt. Eng. 41, 2572-2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, "Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes," Opt. Lett. 26, 1481-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, "La photograhie integrale," Compt.-Rend. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

McCormick, M.

Min, S.-W

S.-W, Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, "Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array," Opt. Eng. 41, 2572-2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Min, S.-W.

Okano, F.

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).

Park, J.-H.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Layered-panel integral imaging without the translucent problem," Opt. Express 13, 5769-5776 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," Jpn. J. Appl. Phy . 43, 5330-5336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," in Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, J. Koshel, P. K. Manhart, and R. C. Juergens, eds., Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control," Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification," Appl. Opt. 43, 4882-4895 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate," Opt. Express 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing integral three-dimensional imaging by use of orthogonal polarization switching," Appl. Opt. 42, 2513-2520 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lee, S. Jung, and J.-H. Park, "Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 818-820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-W, Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, "Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array," Opt. Eng. 41, 2572-2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, "Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes," Opt. Lett. 26, 1481-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt. (7)

Compt.-Rend. Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Lippmann, "La photograhie integrale," Compt.-Rend. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Soc. Inf. Display (1)

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Display 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phy (1)

H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display," Jpn. J. Appl. Phy . 43, 5330-5336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S.-W, Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, "Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array," Opt. Eng. 41, 2572-2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Hong, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Analysis of image depth in integral imaging and its enhancement by correction to elemental images," in Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization VII, J. Koshel, P. K. Manhart, and R. C. Juergens, eds., Proc. SPIE 5524, 387-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Limitation of depth in integral imaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Concept of the multilayered integral imaging system: (a) all in real modes, (b) two central depth planes in real modes and one in virtual modes. Locations of the integrated images used in the experiments are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Calculated elemental images in the conventional method and (b) calculated expected elemental images in the proposed method.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Elemental images in the proposed method (a) using the time-multiplexing method and (b) using the white background method.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Experimental setup:multilayered display devices and a lens array.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Integrated images when the central depth is adjusted (a) at 80 mm behind the lens array, (b) 50 mm in front of lens array, and (c) 80 mm in front of lens array using the conventional method.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Integrated images observed from different viewing points using the proposed method with the white background method.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Integrated images using the proposed method with the expanded time-multiplexing method (a) mode 1, (b) mode 2, (c) mode 3, and (d) expected results obtained by combining the three modes.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) (a) Configuration using polarization sheets used in the experiments. (b) Configuration using reduced number of polarization sheets.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Elemental images using the white background method with less polarization sheets.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Integrated images observed from different viewpoints using the proposed method with two polarization sheets.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) (a) Configuration using three polarization sheets. (b) Integrated images using proposed methods when two, (c) three, and (d) four polarization sheets are used.

Equations (1)

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1 g + 1 l c = 1 f ,

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