Abstract

In this study, titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were fabricated by cosputtering of a titanium (Ti) target and an aluminum (Al) slice in a smaller area by an ion-beam sputtering deposition method. The sputtered films were postannealed at 450°C. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra were categorized by their oxygen bonding variations, which include high-binding-energy oxygen, (HBO), bridging oxygen, low-binding-energy oxygen, and shifts of the binding energies (BEs) of oxygen (O) and Ti signals. The enhancement of HBO and higher BE shifts of the O 1s spectra as a function of cosputtered Al in the film imply the formation of an Al—O—Ti linkage. Corresponding changes in the Ti 2p spectra further confirm the modification of properties of the cosputtered film that results from the variation of the chemical bonding environment. An observed correlation between the chemical structure and optical absorption of the Al cosputtered films can be used to modify the optical properties of the film.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

K. E. McCarty and N. C. Bartelt, "Role of bulk thermal defects in the reconstruction dynamics of the TiO2 (110) surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 461041 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

E. McCafferty and J. P. Wightman: "An x-ray spectroscopy sputter profile study of the native air-formed oxide film on titanium," Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 92-100 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

P. W. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Tao, and C. Wang, "Thermal behavior of silver in ion-exchanged soda lime glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 2285-2293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Jobin, M. Taborelli, and P. Descouts, "Structural characterization of oxidized titanium surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5149-5155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. Löbl, M. Huppertz, and D. Mergel, "Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation," Thin Solid Film 251, 72-79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

N. S. Gluck, H. Sankur, J. Heuer, J. Denatale, and W. J. Gunning, "Microstructure and composition of composite SiO2/TiO2 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3037-3045 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (4)

1986 (3)

L. S. Hsu, R. Rujkorakam, J. R. Sites, and C. Y. She, "Thermally induced crystallization of amorphous-titanium films," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3475-3480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical thin films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969-2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Kalb, "Neutral ion beam sputter deposition of high-quality optical film," Opt. News 12(8), 13-17 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

J. R. Sites, H. Demiryont, and D. B. Kerwin, "Ion-beam sputter deposition of oxide films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 656 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Demiryont, "Optical properties of SiO2-TiO2 composite films," Appl. Opt. 24, 2647-2650 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

D. L. Griscom and E. J. Friebele, "Fundamental defect centers in glass: 29Si hyperfine structure of the nonbridging oxygen hole center and the peroxy radical in a-SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 24, 4896-4898 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

R. N. Castellano, M. R. Notis, and G. W. Simmons, "Composition and stress state of thin films deposited by ion beam sputtering," Vacuum 27, 109-117 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. D. Shannon, "Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides," Acta Crystallogr. A 32, 751-767 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. S. Berry, "Small free negative ions," Chem. Rev. 69, 533-542 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

P. Kofstad, "Thermogravimetric studies of the defect structure of rutile (TiO2)," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 1579-1586 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Albrand, G.

Allen, T. H.

Avrutsky, I.

Bartelt, N. C.

K. E. McCarty and N. C. Bartelt, "Role of bulk thermal defects in the reconstruction dynamics of the TiO2 (110) surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 461041 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, J. M.

Berry, R. S.

R. S. Berry, "Small free negative ions," Chem. Rev. 69, 533-542 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Borgagno, J. P.

Bossert, J.

K. Cai, M. Müller, J. Bossert, A. Rechtenbach, and K. D. Jandt, "Surface structure and composition of flat titanium thin films as a function of film thickness and evaporation rate," Appl. Surf. Sci. 250, 252-267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cai, K.

K. Cai, M. Müller, J. Bossert, A. Rechtenbach, and K. D. Jandt, "Surface structure and composition of flat titanium thin films as a function of film thickness and evaporation rate," Appl. Surf. Sci. 250, 252-267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carniglia, C. K.

Castellano, R. N.

R. N. Castellano, M. R. Notis, and G. W. Simmons, "Composition and stress state of thin films deposited by ion beam sputtering," Vacuum 27, 109-117 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chao, S.

Chow, R.

Davis, L.

C. Wagner, W. Riggs, L. Davis, J. Moulder, and G. Muilenberg, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer, 1979), pp. 66 and 124.

DeBar, J. I.

Demiryont, H.

H. Demiryont, "Optical properties of SiO2-TiO2 composite films," Appl. Opt. 24, 2647-2650 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Sites, H. Demiryont, and D. B. Kerwin, "Ion-beam sputter deposition of oxide films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 656 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Denatale, J.

N. S. Gluck, H. Sankur, J. Heuer, J. Denatale, and W. J. Gunning, "Microstructure and composition of composite SiO2/TiO2 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3037-3045 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Descouts, P.

M. Jobin, M. Taborelli, and P. Descouts, "Structural characterization of oxidized titanium surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5149-5155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Farabaugh, E. N.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical thin films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969-2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, A.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical thin films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969-2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

D. L. Griscom and E. J. Friebele, "Fundamental defect centers in glass: 29Si hyperfine structure of the nonbridging oxygen hole center and the peroxy radical in a-SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 24, 4896-4898 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gluck, N. S.

N. S. Gluck, H. Sankur, J. Heuer, J. Denatale, and W. J. Gunning, "Microstructure and composition of composite SiO2/TiO2 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3037-3045 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Griscom, D. L.

D. L. Griscom, "Self-trapped holes in amorphous silicon dioxide," Phys. Rev. B 40, 4224-4227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Griscom and E. J. Friebele, "Fundamental defect centers in glass: 29Si hyperfine structure of the nonbridging oxygen hole center and the peroxy radical in a-SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 24, 4896-4898 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

Gunning, W. J.

N. S. Gluck, H. Sankur, J. Heuer, J. Denatale, and W. J. Gunning, "Microstructure and composition of composite SiO2/TiO2 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3037-3045 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Haller, W. K.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical thin films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969-2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Heuer, J.

N. S. Gluck, H. Sankur, J. Heuer, J. Denatale, and W. J. Gunning, "Microstructure and composition of composite SiO2/TiO2 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3037-3045 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. C.

Hsu, L. S.

L. S. Hsu, R. Rujkorakam, J. R. Sites, and C. Y. She, "Thermally induced crystallization of amorphous-titanium films," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3475-3480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Huppertz, M.

P. Löbl, M. Huppertz, and D. Mergel, "Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation," Thin Solid Film 251, 72-79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jandt, K. D.

K. Cai, M. Müller, J. Bossert, A. Rechtenbach, and K. D. Jandt, "Surface structure and composition of flat titanium thin films as a function of film thickness and evaporation rate," Appl. Surf. Sci. 250, 252-267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jobin, M.

M. Jobin, M. Taborelli, and P. Descouts, "Structural characterization of oxidized titanium surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5149-5155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kalb, A.

A. Kalb, "Neutral ion beam sputter deposition of high-quality optical film," Opt. News 12(8), 13-17 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kerwin, D. B.

J. R. Sites, H. Demiryont, and D. B. Kerwin, "Ion-beam sputter deposition of oxide films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 656 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kofstad, P.

P. Kofstad, "Thermogravimetric studies of the defect structure of rutile (TiO2)," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 1579-1586 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M. R.

M. R. Kozlowski, "Damage-resistant laser coating," in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F.R.Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995), pp. 521-549.

Lazarides, B.

Lee, C. C.

Lide, D. R.

D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC, 1991).

Löbl, P.

P. Löbl, M. Huppertz, and D. Mergel, "Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation," Thin Solid Film 251, 72-79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCafferty, E.

E. McCafferty and J. P. Wightman: "An x-ray spectroscopy sputter profile study of the native air-formed oxide film on titanium," Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 92-100 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCarty, K. E.

K. E. McCarty and N. C. Bartelt, "Role of bulk thermal defects in the reconstruction dynamics of the TiO2 (110) surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 461041 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mergel, D.

P. Löbl, M. Huppertz, and D. Mergel, "Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation," Thin Solid Film 251, 72-79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moulder, J.

C. Wagner, W. Riggs, L. Davis, J. Moulder, and G. Muilenberg, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer, 1979), pp. 66 and 124.

Muilenberg, G.

C. Wagner, W. Riggs, L. Davis, J. Moulder, and G. Muilenberg, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer, 1979), pp. 66 and 124.

Müller, M.

K. Cai, M. Müller, J. Bossert, A. Rechtenbach, and K. D. Jandt, "Surface structure and composition of flat titanium thin films as a function of film thickness and evaporation rate," Appl. Surf. Sci. 250, 252-267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Notis, M. R.

R. N. Castellano, M. R. Notis, and G. W. Simmons, "Composition and stress state of thin films deposited by ion beam sputtering," Vacuum 27, 109-117 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

Pond, B. J.

Rabady, R.

Raj, T.

Rechtenbach, A.

K. Cai, M. Müller, J. Bossert, A. Rechtenbach, and K. D. Jandt, "Surface structure and composition of flat titanium thin films as a function of film thickness and evaporation rate," Appl. Surf. Sci. 250, 252-267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riggs, W.

C. Wagner, W. Riggs, L. Davis, J. Moulder, and G. Muilenberg, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer, 1979), pp. 66 and 124.

Rujkorakam, R.

L. S. Hsu, R. Rujkorakam, J. R. Sites, and C. Y. She, "Thermally induced crystallization of amorphous-titanium films," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3475-3480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Runkel, M.

Sanders, D. M.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical thin films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969-2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sankur, H.

N. S. Gluck, H. Sankur, J. Heuer, J. Denatale, and W. J. Gunning, "Microstructure and composition of composite SiO2/TiO2 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3037-3045 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Saxer, A.

Schnell, R. A.

Shannon, R. D.

R. D. Shannon, "Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides," Acta Crystallogr. A 32, 751-767 (1976).
[CrossRef]

She, C. Y.

L. S. Hsu, R. Rujkorakam, J. R. Sites, and C. Y. She, "Thermally induced crystallization of amorphous-titanium films," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3475-3480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, G. W.

R. N. Castellano, M. R. Notis, and G. W. Simmons, "Composition and stress state of thin films deposited by ion beam sputtering," Vacuum 27, 109-117 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sites, J. R.

L. S. Hsu, R. Rujkorakam, J. R. Sites, and C. Y. She, "Thermally induced crystallization of amorphous-titanium films," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3475-3480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Sites, H. Demiryont, and D. B. Kerwin, "Ion-beam sputter deposition of oxide films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 656 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stempniak, R. A.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical thin films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969-2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Taborelli, M.

M. Jobin, M. Taborelli, and P. Descouts, "Structural characterization of oxidized titanium surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5149-5155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y.

P. W. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Tao, and C. Wang, "Thermal behavior of silver in ion-exchanged soda lime glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 2285-2293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

Tuttle-Hart, T.

Wagner, C.

C. Wagner, W. Riggs, L. Davis, J. Moulder, and G. Muilenberg, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer, 1979), pp. 66 and 124.

Wang, C.

P. W. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Tao, and C. Wang, "Thermal behavior of silver in ion-exchanged soda lime glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 2285-2293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. W.

P. W. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Tao, and C. Wang, "Thermal behavior of silver in ion-exchanged soda lime glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 2285-2293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. H.

Wei, D. T.

Wightman:, J. P.

E. McCafferty and J. P. Wightman: "An x-ray spectroscopy sputter profile study of the native air-formed oxide film on titanium," Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 92-100 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

P. W. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Tao, and C. Wang, "Thermal behavior of silver in ion-exchanged soda lime glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 2285-2293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. A (1)

R. D. Shannon, "Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides," Acta Crystallogr. A 32, 751-767 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

K. Cai, M. Müller, J. Bossert, A. Rechtenbach, and K. D. Jandt, "Surface structure and composition of flat titanium thin films as a function of film thickness and evaporation rate," Appl. Surf. Sci. 250, 252-267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. McCafferty and J. P. Wightman: "An x-ray spectroscopy sputter profile study of the native air-formed oxide film on titanium," Appl. Surf. Sci. 143, 92-100 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

R. S. Berry, "Small free negative ions," Chem. Rev. 69, 533-542 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

P. W. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Tao, and C. Wang, "Thermal behavior of silver in ion-exchanged soda lime glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 2285-2293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. Jobin, M. Taborelli, and P. Descouts, "Structural characterization of oxidized titanium surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5149-5155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Gluck, H. Sankur, J. Heuer, J. Denatale, and W. J. Gunning, "Microstructure and composition of composite SiO2/TiO2 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3037-3045 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Hsu, R. Rujkorakam, J. R. Sites, and C. Y. She, "Thermally induced crystallization of amorphous-titanium films," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3475-3480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

P. Kofstad, "Thermogravimetric studies of the defect structure of rutile (TiO2)," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 1579-1586 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical thin films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 2969-2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Sites, H. Demiryont, and D. B. Kerwin, "Ion-beam sputter deposition of oxide films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 656 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. News (1)

A. Kalb, "Neutral ion beam sputter deposition of high-quality optical film," Opt. News 12(8), 13-17 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. L. Griscom and E. J. Friebele, "Fundamental defect centers in glass: 29Si hyperfine structure of the nonbridging oxygen hole center and the peroxy radical in a-SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 24, 4896-4898 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Griscom, "Self-trapped holes in amorphous silicon dioxide," Phys. Rev. B 40, 4224-4227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. E. McCarty and N. C. Bartelt, "Role of bulk thermal defects in the reconstruction dynamics of the TiO2 (110) surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 461041 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Film (1)

P. Löbl, M. Huppertz, and D. Mergel, "Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation," Thin Solid Film 251, 72-79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

R. N. Castellano, M. R. Notis, and G. W. Simmons, "Composition and stress state of thin films deposited by ion beam sputtering," Vacuum 27, 109-117 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC, 1991).

M. R. Kozlowski, "Damage-resistant laser coating," in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F.R.Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995), pp. 521-549.

C. Wagner, W. Riggs, L. Davis, J. Moulder, and G. Muilenberg, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer, 1979), pp. 66 and 124.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the IBSD system. OPM, optical monitor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) of the cosputtered specimens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Surface morphology and roughness of Al cosputtered films postannealed at 450 °C. (a) Data of an earlier study.[7]

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

XPS spectra of the cosputtered films at O 1s energy regions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

XPS spectra of the cosputtered films at Ti 2p 1∕2 and Ti 2p 3∕2 energy regions.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 XPS Data for O 1 s

Tables Icon

Table 2 XPS Data for Ti 2 p 1∕2 and 2 p 3∕2

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