Abstract

We report on the optical properties of Bragg mirrors and filters fabricated from photo-cross-linked standard optical polymers. The transmittance spectra of these devices in the visible to near-infrared spectral range were measured. We demonstrate efficient tuning of the filter peak of the polymer Bragg filters over several hundred nanometers by adding organic solvents to the surrounding atmosphere of the filter. This represents what we believe to be a novel tuning principle for Bragg filters relying on the use of polymeric materials.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Daleiden, V. Rangelow, S. Irmer, F. Römer, M. Strassner, C. Prott, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, "Record tuning range of InP-based multiple air-gap MOEMS filter," Electron. Lett. 38, 1270-1271 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Soda, K. Iga, C. Kitahara, and Y. Suematsu, "GaInAsP/InP surface emitting injection lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2329-2330 (1979).
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  5. K. Iga, S. Ishikawa, S. Ohkuochi, and T. Nishimura, "Room-temperature pulsed oscillations of GaAlAs/GaAs surface-emitting injection laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 348-350 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, "Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors," Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. Vogel and M. Berroth, "Tunable liquid crystal Fabry-Perot filters," in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, G.C.Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4944, 293-302 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Zhai, A. J. Nolte, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, "pH-gated porosity transitions of polyelectrolyte multilayers in confined geometries and their application to tunable Bragg reflectors," Macromolecules 37, 6113-6123 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. Hohlfeld and H. Zappe, "An all-dielectric tunable optical filter based on the thermo-optic effect," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 504-511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhai, A. J. Nolte, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, "pH-gated porosity transitions of polyelectrolyte multilayers in confined geometries and their application to tunable Bragg reflectors," Macromolecules 37, 6113-6123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Toomey, D. Freidank, and J. Rühe, "Swelling behavior of thin, surface-attached polymer networks," Macromolecules 37, 882-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

T. Russ, R. Brenn, and M. Geoghegan, "Equilibrium swelling of polystyrene networks by linear polystyrene," Macromolecules 36, 127-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Daleiden, V. Rangelow, S. Irmer, F. Römer, M. Strassner, C. Prott, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, "Record tuning range of InP-based multiple air-gap MOEMS filter," Electron. Lett. 38, 1270-1271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Strharsky and J. Wheatley, "Polymer optical interference filters," Opt. Photonics News 13, 34-40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (3)

I. D. Nikolow and C. D. Ivanov, "Optical plastic refractive measurements in the visible and the near-infrared regions," Appl. Opt. 39, 2067-2070 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, "Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors," Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Harada, K. Munakata, M. Itoh, N. Yoshikawa, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, "Spatial filtering using poled polymer etalon light modulators," Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 1351-1358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A dielectric omnidirectional reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

K. Iga, S. Ishikawa, S. Ohkuochi, and T. Nishimura, "Room-temperature pulsed oscillations of GaAlAs/GaAs surface-emitting injection laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 348-350 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. Debenham and G. D. Dew, "The refractive index of toluene in the visible spectral region," J. Phys. E 14, 544-545 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

H. Soda, K. Iga, C. Kitahara, and Y. Suematsu, "GaInAsP/InP surface emitting injection lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2329-2330 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Arregui, F. J.

Barclay, R. B.

D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berroth, M.

V. Vogel and M. Berroth, "Tunable liquid crystal Fabry-Perot filters," in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, G.C.Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4944, 293-302 (2003).

Bier, A.

D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon 1993).

Brenn, R.

T. Russ, R. Brenn, and M. Geoghegan, "Equilibrium swelling of polystyrene networks by linear polystyrene," Macromolecules 36, 127-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A dielectric omnidirectional reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R. O.

Cohen, R. E.

L. Zhai, A. J. Nolte, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, "pH-gated porosity transitions of polyelectrolyte multilayers in confined geometries and their application to tunable Bragg reflectors," Macromolecules 37, 6113-6123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K. L.

Daleiden, J.

J. Daleiden, V. Rangelow, S. Irmer, F. Römer, M. Strassner, C. Prott, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, "Record tuning range of InP-based multiple air-gap MOEMS filter," Electron. Lett. 38, 1270-1271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Debenham, M.

M. Debenham and G. D. Dew, "The refractive index of toluene in the visible spectral region," J. Phys. E 14, 544-545 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Deming, D.

D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dew, G. D.

M. Debenham and G. D. Dew, "The refractive index of toluene in the visible spectral region," J. Phys. E 14, 544-545 (1981).
[CrossRef]

DiCamillo, B.

D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A dielectric omnidirectional reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernández-Valdivielso, C.

Fink, Y.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A dielectric omnidirectional reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freidank, D.

R. Toomey, D. Freidank, and J. Rühe, "Swelling behavior of thin, surface-attached polymer networks," Macromolecules 37, 882-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geoghegan, M.

T. Russ, R. Brenn, and M. Geoghegan, "Equilibrium swelling of polystyrene networks by linear polystyrene," Macromolecules 36, 127-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, L. R.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, "Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors," Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenhouse, M. A.

D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harada, K.

K. Harada, K. Munakata, M. Itoh, N. Yoshikawa, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, "Spatial filtering using poled polymer etalon light modulators," Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 1351-1358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison-Wesley, 2002).

Henry, R.

D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hewagama, T.

D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hillmer, H.

J. Daleiden, V. Rangelow, S. Irmer, F. Römer, M. Strassner, C. Prott, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, "Record tuning range of InP-based multiple air-gap MOEMS filter," Electron. Lett. 38, 1270-1271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hohlfeld, D.

D. Hohlfeld and H. Zappe, "An all-dielectric tunable optical filter based on the thermo-optic effect," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 504-511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

K. Iga, S. Ishikawa, S. Ohkuochi, and T. Nishimura, "Room-temperature pulsed oscillations of GaAlAs/GaAs surface-emitting injection laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 348-350 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. Soda, K. Iga, C. Kitahara, and Y. Suematsu, "GaInAsP/InP surface emitting injection lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2329-2330 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Irmer, S.

J. Daleiden, V. Rangelow, S. Irmer, F. Römer, M. Strassner, C. Prott, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, "Record tuning range of InP-based multiple air-gap MOEMS filter," Electron. Lett. 38, 1270-1271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, S.

K. Iga, S. Ishikawa, S. Ohkuochi, and T. Nishimura, "Room-temperature pulsed oscillations of GaAlAs/GaAs surface-emitting injection laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 348-350 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

K. Harada, K. Munakata, M. Itoh, N. Yoshikawa, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, "Spatial filtering using poled polymer etalon light modulators," Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 1351-1358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, C. D.

Jacobson, M.

D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A dielectric omnidirectional reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitahara, C.

H. Soda, K. Iga, C. Kitahara, and Y. Suematsu, "GaInAsP/InP surface emitting injection lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2329-2330 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Matías, I. R.

Michel, J.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A dielectric omnidirectional reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mott, D. B.

D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Munakata, K.

K. Harada, K. Munakata, M. Itoh, N. Yoshikawa, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, "Spatial filtering using poled polymer etalon light modulators," Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 1351-1358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nevitt, T. J.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, "Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors," Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikolow, I. D.

Nishimura, T.

K. Iga, S. Ishikawa, S. Ohkuochi, and T. Nishimura, "Room-temperature pulsed oscillations of GaAlAs/GaAs surface-emitting injection laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 348-350 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, A. J.

L. Zhai, A. J. Nolte, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, "pH-gated porosity transitions of polyelectrolyte multilayers in confined geometries and their application to tunable Bragg reflectors," Macromolecules 37, 6113-6123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohkuochi, S.

K. Iga, S. Ishikawa, S. Ohkuochi, and T. Nishimura, "Room-temperature pulsed oscillations of GaAlAs/GaAs surface-emitting injection laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 348-350 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ouderkirk, A. J.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, "Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors," Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potter, K. S.

J. H. Simmons and K. S. Potter, Optical Materials (Academic, 2000).

Prott, C.

J. Daleiden, V. Rangelow, S. Irmer, F. Römer, M. Strassner, C. Prott, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, "Record tuning range of InP-based multiple air-gap MOEMS filter," Electron. Lett. 38, 1270-1271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quijada, M.

D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rangelow, V.

J. Daleiden, V. Rangelow, S. Irmer, F. Römer, M. Strassner, C. Prott, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, "Record tuning range of InP-based multiple air-gap MOEMS filter," Electron. Lett. 38, 1270-1271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Römer, F.

J. Daleiden, V. Rangelow, S. Irmer, F. Römer, M. Strassner, C. Prott, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, "Record tuning range of InP-based multiple air-gap MOEMS filter," Electron. Lett. 38, 1270-1271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rubner, M. F.

L. Zhai, A. J. Nolte, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, "pH-gated porosity transitions of polyelectrolyte multilayers in confined geometries and their application to tunable Bragg reflectors," Macromolecules 37, 6113-6123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rühe, J.

R. Toomey, D. Freidank, and J. Rühe, "Swelling behavior of thin, surface-attached polymer networks," Macromolecules 37, 882-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Russ, T.

T. Russ, R. Brenn, and M. Geoghegan, "Equilibrium swelling of polystyrene networks by linear polystyrene," Macromolecules 36, 127-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Satyapal, S.

D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schwinger, D. S.

D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. H.

J. H. Simmons and K. S. Potter, Optical Materials (Academic, 2000).

Soda, H.

H. Soda, K. Iga, C. Kitahara, and Y. Suematsu, "GaInAsP/InP surface emitting injection lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2329-2330 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Stover, C. A.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, "Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors," Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strassner, M.

J. Daleiden, V. Rangelow, S. Irmer, F. Römer, M. Strassner, C. Prott, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, "Record tuning range of InP-based multiple air-gap MOEMS filter," Electron. Lett. 38, 1270-1271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strharsky, R.

R. Strharsky and J. Wheatley, "Polymer optical interference filters," Opt. Photonics News 13, 34-40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suematsu, Y.

H. Soda, K. Iga, C. Kitahara, and Y. Suematsu, "GaInAsP/InP surface emitting injection lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2329-2330 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tarraf, A.

J. Daleiden, V. Rangelow, S. Irmer, F. Römer, M. Strassner, C. Prott, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, "Record tuning range of InP-based multiple air-gap MOEMS filter," Electron. Lett. 38, 1270-1271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E. L.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A dielectric omnidirectional reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toomey, R.

R. Toomey, D. Freidank, and J. Rühe, "Swelling behavior of thin, surface-attached polymer networks," Macromolecules 37, 882-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Umegaki, S.

K. Harada, K. Munakata, M. Itoh, N. Yoshikawa, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, "Spatial filtering using poled polymer etalon light modulators," Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 1351-1358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, V.

V. Vogel and M. Berroth, "Tunable liquid crystal Fabry-Perot filters," in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, G.C.Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4944, 293-302 (2003).

Weber, M. F.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, "Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors," Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wheatley, J.

R. Strharsky and J. Wheatley, "Polymer optical interference filters," Opt. Photonics News 13, 34-40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A dielectric omnidirectional reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wohlfarth, B.

C. Wohlfarth and B. Wohlfarth, Optical Constants: Refractive Indices of Organic Liquids, M.D.Lechner, ed., Vol. 38, Pt. B of Landolt-Börnstein: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, New Series, Group III (Springer, 1996).

Wohlfarth, C.

C. Wohlfarth and B. Wohlfarth, Optical Constants: Refractive Indices of Organic Liquids, M.D.Lechner, ed., Vol. 38, Pt. B of Landolt-Börnstein: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, New Series, Group III (Springer, 1996).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon 1993).

Yatagai, T.

K. Harada, K. Munakata, M. Itoh, N. Yoshikawa, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, "Spatial filtering using poled polymer etalon light modulators," Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 1351-1358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, N.

K. Harada, K. Munakata, M. Itoh, N. Yoshikawa, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, "Spatial filtering using poled polymer etalon light modulators," Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 1351-1358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zappe, H.

D. Hohlfeld and H. Zappe, "An all-dielectric tunable optical filter based on the thermo-optic effect," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 504-511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, L.

L. Zhai, A. J. Nolte, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, "pH-gated porosity transitions of polyelectrolyte multilayers in confined geometries and their application to tunable Bragg reflectors," Macromolecules 37, 6113-6123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Daleiden, V. Rangelow, S. Irmer, F. Römer, M. Strassner, C. Prott, A. Tarraf, and H. Hillmer, "Record tuning range of InP-based multiple air-gap MOEMS filter," Electron. Lett. 38, 1270-1271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

D. Hohlfeld and H. Zappe, "An all-dielectric tunable optical filter based on the thermo-optic effect," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 504-511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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T. Russ, R. Brenn, and M. Geoghegan, "Equilibrium swelling of polystyrene networks by linear polystyrene," Macromolecules 36, 127-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Toomey, D. Freidank, and J. Rühe, "Swelling behavior of thin, surface-attached polymer networks," Macromolecules 37, 882-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhai, A. J. Nolte, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, "pH-gated porosity transitions of polyelectrolyte multilayers in confined geometries and their application to tunable Bragg reflectors," Macromolecules 37, 6113-6123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photonics News (1)

R. Strharsky and J. Wheatley, "Polymer optical interference filters," Opt. Photonics News 13, 34-40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Harada, K. Munakata, M. Itoh, N. Yoshikawa, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, "Spatial filtering using poled polymer etalon light modulators," Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 1351-1358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. B. Mott, R. B. Barclay, A. Bier, T. C. Chen, B. DiCamillo, D. Deming, M. A. Greenhouse, R. Henry, T. Hewagama, M. Jacobson, M. Quijada, S. Satyapal, and D. S. Schwinger, "Micromachined tunable Fabry-Perot filters for infrared astronomy," in Instrument Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-based Telescopes, M. Iye and A. F. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE 4841, 578-585 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A dielectric omnidirectional reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, "Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors," Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

V. Vogel and M. Berroth, "Tunable liquid crystal Fabry-Perot filters," in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, G.C.Righini, ed., Proc. SPIE 4944, 293-302 (2003).

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison-Wesley, 2002).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon 1993).

J. H. Simmons and K. S. Potter, Optical Materials (Academic, 2000).

Schott North America Inc., B270 Superwhite Optical Properties.

C. Wohlfarth and B. Wohlfarth, Optical Constants: Refractive Indices of Organic Liquids, M.D.Lechner, ed., Vol. 38, Pt. B of Landolt-Börnstein: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, New Series, Group III (Springer, 1996).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated transmittance curves of Bragg mirrors and filters; the transmittance of the Bragg filter is centered in the stop band of the mirror. Simulation for a Fabry–Perot (layer sequence 2H), a Bragg mirror [layer sequence (HL)16H], and a Bragg filter [layer sequence (HL)16–2H–(LH)16]. The nomenclature explained in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive indices of the materials used in simulation and experiments. Data are compiled from Refs. 16, 18, and 19.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental reflectance curves for Bragg mirrors consisting of 4, 8, 12, and 16 layer pairs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the reflectance maximum of the Bragg mirrors with simulated values.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental and theoretical transmittance characteristics of a Bragg filter with layer sequence [substrate–(HL)8–2H–(LH)8H].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured transmittance characteristics of a Bragg filter at increasing partial pressure of acetone. The swelling degree was calculated from the spectra. The filter peak shifts to higher wavelengths but the filter characteristic becomes less pronounced at increasing solvent partial pressure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated transmittance spectra of a Bragg filter at the same swelling degrees as in Fig. 6 upon swelling in acetone; compare with the experimental results in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Shift of the peak wavelength of a Bragg filter upon diffusion of solvent in a sealed vessel. The superimposed modulation with a period of 24 h is due to temperature variation in the laboratory. The exponential rise time constant as obtained by curve fitting is 21.7 h. The shift back to the initial filter peak wavelength was caused by a fast exchange of the atmosphere within the vessel.

Equations (2)

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λ m = 2 n c L m .
α = d ext d 0 .

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