Abstract

We analyze the performance of a multispectral system that works in the near- infrared (NIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum (NIR: 8001000  nm). The system, which uses a CCD camera as a sensor with five acquisition channels, is capable of reconstructing the NIR spectral reflectance curves for a wide range of samples with a high degree of accuracy. We carried out a study of the sources of error in the experimental system, developed a luminance adaptation model to remove the dependence of the captured images on the exposure time of the camera and the f-number of the objective lens, and performed reconstructions of the spectral reflectances of a set of 80 samples. We achieved the best results by using a 12-bit camera, considering a different luminance adaptation transform for each channel, and by using the pseudoinverse reconstruction method. Under these conditions, the system provided mean percentages of reconstruction higher than 99.8% and root-mean-square-error values lower than 0.17, and is therefore suitable for use as a spectrophotometric instrument.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, and M. Arjona, "Spectral-reflectance reconstruction in the near-infrared region by use of conventional charge-coupled-device camera measurements," Appl. Opt. 42, 1788-1797 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and F. M. Martínez-Verdú, "Illuminant influence on the reconstruction of near-infrared spectra," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 111-119 (2004).
  3. M. Arjona, M. Vilaseca, and J. Pujol, "Multispectral system for recovering near-infrared reflectance spectra," in Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 409-413.
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  9. J. Hardeberg and J. Gerhardt, "Characterization of an eight colorant inkjet system for spectral color reproduction," in Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 263-267.
  10. H. Kanazawa, M. Yamaguchi, H. Haneishi, and N. Ohyama, "Natural vision XML database," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1661-1664.
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2005 (1)

M. Vilaseca, M. Arjona, J. Pujol, and F. M. Martínez-Verdú, "Color visualization system for near-infrared multispectral images," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 246-255 (2005).

2004 (1)

M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and F. M. Martínez-Verdú, "Illuminant influence on the reconstruction of near-infrared spectra," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 111-119 (2004).

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, "Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 40, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. Hong, M. R. Luo, and P. A. Rhodes, "A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling," Color Res. Appl. 26, 76-84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Alexander, and C. D. Tran, "Near-infrared multispectral imaging technique for visualizing sequences of di- and tripeptides synthesized by solid phase combinatorial method," Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 939-945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

F. Imai, and R. S. Berns, "Comparative analysis of spectral reflectance reconstruction in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 280-287 (2000).

1999 (1)

P. G. Herzog, D. Knipp, H. Stiebig, and F. König, "Colorimetric characterization of novel multiple-channel sensors for imaging and metrology," J. Electron. Imaging 8, 342-353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Baronti, A. Casini, F. Lotti, and S. Porcinai, "Principal component analysis of visible and near-infrared multispectral images of works of arts," Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 39, 103-114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. Sharma, and H. J. Trussell, "Set theoretic estimation in color scanner characterization," J. Electron. Imaging 5, 479-489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. E. Healey, and R. Kondepudy, "Radiometric CCD camera calibration and noise estimation," IEEE Trans. Machine Intell. 16, 267-276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aitken, G.

F. Schmitt, G. Aitken, G. Alquié, H. Brettel, M. B. Chouikha, P. Colantoni, P. Cotte, J. Cupitt, C. de Deyne, D. Dupraz, C. Lahanier, H. Liang, R. Pilay, A. Ribés, and D. Saunders, "CRISATEL multispectral imaging system," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 463-468.

Alexander, T.

Alquié, G.

F. Schmitt, G. Aitken, G. Alquié, H. Brettel, M. B. Chouikha, P. Colantoni, P. Cotte, J. Cupitt, C. de Deyne, D. Dupraz, C. Lahanier, H. Liang, R. Pilay, A. Ribés, and D. Saunders, "CRISATEL multispectral imaging system," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 463-468.

Arjona, M.

M. Vilaseca, M. Arjona, J. Pujol, and F. M. Martínez-Verdú, "Color visualization system for near-infrared multispectral images," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 246-255 (2005).

M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and F. M. Martínez-Verdú, "Illuminant influence on the reconstruction of near-infrared spectra," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 111-119 (2004).

M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, and M. Arjona, "Spectral-reflectance reconstruction in the near-infrared region by use of conventional charge-coupled-device camera measurements," Appl. Opt. 42, 1788-1797 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Arjona, M. Vilaseca, and J. Pujol, "Multispectral system for recovering near-infrared reflectance spectra," in Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 409-413.

Baronti, S.

S. Baronti, A. Casini, F. Lotti, and S. Porcinai, "Principal component analysis of visible and near-infrared multispectral images of works of arts," Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 39, 103-114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berns, R.

R. Berns, "Rejuvenating the appearance of cultural heritage using color and imaging science techniques," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 369-374.

Berns, R. S.

F. Imai, and R. S. Berns, "Comparative analysis of spectral reflectance reconstruction in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 280-287 (2000).

F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, and R. S. Berns, "Comparative study of metrics for spectral match quality," in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2002) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 492-496.

Brettel, H.

Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, "Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 40, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Schmitt, G. Aitken, G. Alquié, H. Brettel, M. B. Chouikha, P. Colantoni, P. Cotte, J. Cupitt, C. de Deyne, D. Dupraz, C. Lahanier, H. Liang, R. Pilay, A. Ribés, and D. Saunders, "CRISATEL multispectral imaging system," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 463-468.

Burns, D. A.

D. A. Burns and E. W. Ciurczak, Handbook of Near-Infrared Analysis (Marcel Dekker, 2001).

Capilla, P.

F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, M. Vilaseca, and P. Capilla, "Reproduction model with luminance adaptation for digital cameras," in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 529-533.

Casini, A.

S. Baronti, A. Casini, F. Lotti, and S. Porcinai, "Principal component analysis of visible and near-infrared multispectral images of works of arts," Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 39, 103-114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chouikha, M. B.

F. Schmitt, G. Aitken, G. Alquié, H. Brettel, M. B. Chouikha, P. Colantoni, P. Cotte, J. Cupitt, C. de Deyne, D. Dupraz, C. Lahanier, H. Liang, R. Pilay, A. Ribés, and D. Saunders, "CRISATEL multispectral imaging system," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 463-468.

Ciurczak, E. W.

D. A. Burns and E. W. Ciurczak, Handbook of Near-Infrared Analysis (Marcel Dekker, 2001).

Colantoni, P.

F. Schmitt, G. Aitken, G. Alquié, H. Brettel, M. B. Chouikha, P. Colantoni, P. Cotte, J. Cupitt, C. de Deyne, D. Dupraz, C. Lahanier, H. Liang, R. Pilay, A. Ribés, and D. Saunders, "CRISATEL multispectral imaging system," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 463-468.

Cotte, P.

F. Schmitt, G. Aitken, G. Alquié, H. Brettel, M. B. Chouikha, P. Colantoni, P. Cotte, J. Cupitt, C. de Deyne, D. Dupraz, C. Lahanier, H. Liang, R. Pilay, A. Ribés, and D. Saunders, "CRISATEL multispectral imaging system," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 463-468.

Cupitt, J.

F. Schmitt, G. Aitken, G. Alquié, H. Brettel, M. B. Chouikha, P. Colantoni, P. Cotte, J. Cupitt, C. de Deyne, D. Dupraz, C. Lahanier, H. Liang, R. Pilay, A. Ribés, and D. Saunders, "CRISATEL multispectral imaging system," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 463-468.

de Deyne, C.

F. Schmitt, G. Aitken, G. Alquié, H. Brettel, M. B. Chouikha, P. Colantoni, P. Cotte, J. Cupitt, C. de Deyne, D. Dupraz, C. Lahanier, H. Liang, R. Pilay, A. Ribés, and D. Saunders, "CRISATEL multispectral imaging system," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 463-468.

Dupraz, D.

F. Schmitt, G. Aitken, G. Alquié, H. Brettel, M. B. Chouikha, P. Colantoni, P. Cotte, J. Cupitt, C. de Deyne, D. Dupraz, C. Lahanier, H. Liang, R. Pilay, A. Ribés, and D. Saunders, "CRISATEL multispectral imaging system," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 463-468.

Farrell, J. E.

P. M. Hubel, D. Sherman, and J. E. Farrell, "A comparison of methods of sensor spectral sensitivity estimation," in Proceedings of Second Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems and Applications (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1994), pp. 45-48.

Gerhardt, J.

J. Hardeberg and J. Gerhardt, "Characterization of an eight colorant inkjet system for spectral color reproduction," in Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 263-267.

Haneishi, H.

H. Kanazawa, M. Yamaguchi, H. Haneishi, and N. Ohyama, "Natural vision XML database," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1661-1664.

Hardeberg, J.

J. Hardeberg and J. Gerhardt, "Characterization of an eight colorant inkjet system for spectral color reproduction," in Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 263-267.

Hardeberg, J. Y.

J. Y. Hardeberg, "Acquisition and reproduction of color images: Colorimetric and multispectral approaches," Ph.D. thesis (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications, Paris, 1999).

Hardeberg, Y.

Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, "Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 40, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Healey, G. E.

G. E. Healey, and R. Kondepudy, "Radiometric CCD camera calibration and noise estimation," IEEE Trans. Machine Intell. 16, 267-276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Herzog, P. G.

P. G. Herzog, D. Knipp, H. Stiebig, and F. König, "Colorimetric characterization of novel multiple-channel sensors for imaging and metrology," J. Electron. Imaging 8, 342-353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hill, B.

B. Hill, "(R)evolution of color imaging systems," in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2002) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 473-479.

Holst, G. C.

G. C. Holst, CCD Arrays, Cameras, and Displays (SPIE Press, 1998).

Hong, G.

G. Hong, M. R. Luo, and P. A. Rhodes, "A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling," Color Res. Appl. 26, 76-84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hubel, P. M.

P. M. Hubel, D. Sherman, and J. E. Farrell, "A comparison of methods of sensor spectral sensitivity estimation," in Proceedings of Second Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems and Applications (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1994), pp. 45-48.

Imai, F.

F. Imai, and R. S. Berns, "Comparative analysis of spectral reflectance reconstruction in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 280-287 (2000).

Imai, F. H.

F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, and R. S. Berns, "Comparative study of metrics for spectral match quality," in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2002) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 492-496.

Kanazawa, H.

H. Kanazawa, M. Yamaguchi, H. Haneishi, and N. Ohyama, "Natural vision XML database," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1661-1664.

Knipp, D.

P. G. Herzog, D. Knipp, H. Stiebig, and F. König, "Colorimetric characterization of novel multiple-channel sensors for imaging and metrology," J. Electron. Imaging 8, 342-353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kondepudy, R.

G. E. Healey, and R. Kondepudy, "Radiometric CCD camera calibration and noise estimation," IEEE Trans. Machine Intell. 16, 267-276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

König, F.

P. G. Herzog, D. Knipp, H. Stiebig, and F. König, "Colorimetric characterization of novel multiple-channel sensors for imaging and metrology," J. Electron. Imaging 8, 342-353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. König, "Reconstruction of natural spectra from a color sensor using nonlinear estimation methods," in Proceedings of the IS&T Fiftieth Annual Conference (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1997), pp. 454-458.

Lahanier, C.

F. Schmitt, G. Aitken, G. Alquié, H. Brettel, M. B. Chouikha, P. Colantoni, P. Cotte, J. Cupitt, C. de Deyne, D. Dupraz, C. Lahanier, H. Liang, R. Pilay, A. Ribés, and D. Saunders, "CRISATEL multispectral imaging system," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 463-468.

Liang, H.

F. Schmitt, G. Aitken, G. Alquié, H. Brettel, M. B. Chouikha, P. Colantoni, P. Cotte, J. Cupitt, C. de Deyne, D. Dupraz, C. Lahanier, H. Liang, R. Pilay, A. Ribés, and D. Saunders, "CRISATEL multispectral imaging system," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 463-468.

Lotti, F.

S. Baronti, A. Casini, F. Lotti, and S. Porcinai, "Principal component analysis of visible and near-infrared multispectral images of works of arts," Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 39, 103-114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

G. Hong, M. R. Luo, and P. A. Rhodes, "A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling," Color Res. Appl. 26, 76-84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martínez-Verdú, F. M.

M. Vilaseca, M. Arjona, J. Pujol, and F. M. Martínez-Verdú, "Color visualization system for near-infrared multispectral images," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 246-255 (2005).

M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and F. M. Martínez-Verdú, "Illuminant influence on the reconstruction of near-infrared spectra," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 111-119 (2004).

F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, M. Vilaseca, and P. Capilla, "Reproduction model with luminance adaptation for digital cameras," in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 529-533.

Miyake, Y.

Y. Miyake, "Multispectral imaging: Past, present and future," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 477-479.

Ohyama, N.

H. Kanazawa, M. Yamaguchi, H. Haneishi, and N. Ohyama, "Natural vision XML database," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1661-1664.

Pilay, R.

F. Schmitt, G. Aitken, G. Alquié, H. Brettel, M. B. Chouikha, P. Colantoni, P. Cotte, J. Cupitt, C. de Deyne, D. Dupraz, C. Lahanier, H. Liang, R. Pilay, A. Ribés, and D. Saunders, "CRISATEL multispectral imaging system," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 463-468.

Porcinai, S.

S. Baronti, A. Casini, F. Lotti, and S. Porcinai, "Principal component analysis of visible and near-infrared multispectral images of works of arts," Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 39, 103-114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pujol, J.

M. Vilaseca, M. Arjona, J. Pujol, and F. M. Martínez-Verdú, "Color visualization system for near-infrared multispectral images," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 246-255 (2005).

M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and F. M. Martínez-Verdú, "Illuminant influence on the reconstruction of near-infrared spectra," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 111-119 (2004).

M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, and M. Arjona, "Spectral-reflectance reconstruction in the near-infrared region by use of conventional charge-coupled-device camera measurements," Appl. Opt. 42, 1788-1797 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Arjona, M. Vilaseca, and J. Pujol, "Multispectral system for recovering near-infrared reflectance spectra," in Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 409-413.

F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, M. Vilaseca, and P. Capilla, "Reproduction model with luminance adaptation for digital cameras," in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 529-533.

Rhodes, P. A.

G. Hong, M. R. Luo, and P. A. Rhodes, "A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling," Color Res. Appl. 26, 76-84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ribés, A.

F. Schmitt, G. Aitken, G. Alquié, H. Brettel, M. B. Chouikha, P. Colantoni, P. Cotte, J. Cupitt, C. de Deyne, D. Dupraz, C. Lahanier, H. Liang, R. Pilay, A. Ribés, and D. Saunders, "CRISATEL multispectral imaging system," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 463-468.

Rosen, M. R.

F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, and R. S. Berns, "Comparative study of metrics for spectral match quality," in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2002) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 492-496.

Saunders, D.

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P. M. Hubel, D. Sherman, and J. E. Farrell, "A comparison of methods of sensor spectral sensitivity estimation," in Proceedings of Second Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems and Applications (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1994), pp. 45-48.

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G. Sharma, and H. J. Trussell, "Set theoretic estimation in color scanner characterization," J. Electron. Imaging 5, 479-489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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J. A. S. Viggiano, "Metrics for evaluating spectral matches: A quantitative comparison," in Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2002) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 286-291.

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M. Vilaseca, M. Arjona, J. Pujol, and F. M. Martínez-Verdú, "Color visualization system for near-infrared multispectral images," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 246-255 (2005).

M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and F. M. Martínez-Verdú, "Illuminant influence on the reconstruction of near-infrared spectra," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 111-119 (2004).

M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, and M. Arjona, "Spectral-reflectance reconstruction in the near-infrared region by use of conventional charge-coupled-device camera measurements," Appl. Opt. 42, 1788-1797 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Arjona, M. Vilaseca, and J. Pujol, "Multispectral system for recovering near-infrared reflectance spectra," in Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 409-413.

F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, M. Vilaseca, and P. Capilla, "Reproduction model with luminance adaptation for digital cameras," in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 529-533.

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F. Imai, and R. S. Berns, "Comparative analysis of spectral reflectance reconstruction in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system," J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 280-287 (2000).

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M. J. Vrhel and H. J. Trussell, "Filter considerations in color correction," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 3, 147-161 (1994).

F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, and R. S. Berns, "Comparative study of metrics for spectral match quality," in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2002) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 492-496.

J. A. S. Viggiano, "Metrics for evaluating spectral matches: A quantitative comparison," in Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2002) (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 286-291.

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N. Tsumura, "Appearance reproduction and multi-spectral imaging," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernández-Andrés, eds., (AIC, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 119-123.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the NIR multispectral system:1, CCD camera; 2, automated zoom lens; 3, cutoff infrared and visible filters; 4, multispectral filters wheel; 5, halogen lamp; 6, sample support; 7, personal-computer unit and developed software interface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral radiance emitted by the halogen lamp in the NIR region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittance of the five multispectral filters in the NIR region. The corresponding peak wavelengths are F1, 800; F2, 860; F3, 890; F4, 960; and F5, 980 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmittance of the cutoff visible and infrared filters in the NIR region.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral sensitivity of the cameras used in the experimental setup: (a) Hamamatsu C7500-51 and (b) Photometrics Sensys KAF0400-G2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Luminance adaptation correction obtained for t exp = 20 ms and N* = 550 with type 1 transformation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Luminance adaptation correction obtained for t exp = 20 ms and N* = 550 with type 2 transformation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Quadratic regression between the slope value and the exposure time for type 1 transformations (N* = 550).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Quadratic regression between the slope value and the f-number position for type 1 transformations (t exp = 100 ms).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spectral reflectances in the NIR region of some analyzed samples measured with the telespectrophotometer.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectral reflectances in the NIR region of some of the 19 textile samples considered in the simulations measured with the telespectrophotometer.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Simulated results of reconstruction (mean P rec and RMSE) obtained for the 19 textile samples without noise being introduced.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Simulated results of reconstruction (mean P rec and RMSE) obtained for the 19 textile samples introducing quantization noise corresponding to (a) 8 bits and (b) 12 bits.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Simulated results of reconstruction (mean P rec and RMSE) obtained for the 19 textile samples when a proportional noise of 1% is introduced (and 0.5% in the case of the NLE method).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Experimental results of reconstruction (mean P rec and RMSE) obtained for the 19 textile samples with the 8-bit camera and the luminance adaptation model with (a) type 1 transformations and (b) type 2 transformations.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Experimental results of reconstruction (mean P rec and RMSE) obtained for the 19 textile samples with the 12-bit camera and the luminance adaptation model with (a) type-1 transformations and (b) type 2 transformations.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Experimental results of reconstruction (mean P rec and RMSE) obtained for the whole set of 80 samples with the 12-bit camera and the luminance adaptation model with type 2 transformations.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Measured and reconstructed spectral reflectances for some samples corresponding to an area of 0.5 cm in diameter, obtained with the 12-bit camera and the luminance adaptation model with type 2 transformations: (a) fabric, (b) plastic, and (c) red pepper.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Correction Parameters of the Luminance Adaptation Model Obtained for texp = 20 ms and N* = 550 with Transformations 1 and 2

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mean Signal-to-Noise Ratio Obtained for the 19 Textile Samples Corresponding to Each Channel with Different Errors Introduced

Tables Icon

Table 3 Mean, Maximum, and Minimum Values for Prec and RMSE, Obtained for the Whole Set of 80 Samples with the 12-bit Camera and the Luminance Adaptation Model with Transformations 2

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

X i = λ min λ max i ( λ ) r ( λ ) F i ( λ ) S ( λ ) d λ ,
Exposure   time   ( t exp ) : m = 1 / ( a + b t exp + ct exp 2 )
( N = constant ) ,
f - number   ( N * ) : m = 1 / ( a + b N * + c N * 2 )
( t exp = constant ) .
r ˜ = M T X = O r X O r         T ( X O r X O r         T ) 1 X ,
PSE : X O r = [ X 1 , 1 X 1 , p X 2 , 1 X 2 , p X m , 1 X m , p ] ,
NLE: X O r = [ 1 1 X 1 , 1 X 1 , p X 2 , 1 X 2 , p X 1 , 1           2 X 1 , p            2 X 2 , 1           2 X 2 , p             2 X 1 , 1 X 2 , 1 X 1 , p X 2 , p ] .
X = C r ,
r ̃ r M + α v r 1 + β v r 2 + γ v r 3 + δ v r 4 + + ξ v r q ,
q < n ,
P rec = [ 1 λ min λ max ( r r ˜ ) 2 λ min λ max ( r ) 2 ] × 100 ,
RMSE = [ 1 N λ λ min λ max ( r r ˜ ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
DL i = integer [ X i DL max ( X i ) max ] ,
SNR i = 10 log ( | DL i | 2 | DL noise   i | 2 ) ,
X i = X i + ε i ,
ε i = ( 0.02   rand 0 .01 ) X i .

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