Abstract

A number of planned space interferometry missions, including the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational wave detector, require a laser system with high-frequency stability over long time scales. A 1064  nm wavelength nonplanar ring oscillator (NPRO) laser stabilized to a resonant transition in molecular iodine is suitable for these missions, providing high-frequency stability at an absolute reference frequency. The iodine stabilized laser also offers low sensitivity to temperature and alignment fluctuations and allows frequency tuning. We have evaluated the noise performance of a NPRO laser stabilized to iodine using frequency modulation spectroscopy and have found an Allan standard deviation of 1014 over 100 s. Simplified optical configurations and the radiation hardness of the frequency-doubling crystals have also been investigated.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Danzmann, "LISA mission overview," Adv. Space Res. 25, 1129-1136 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Cash, "X-ray interferometry," Exp. Astron. 16, 91-139 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. B. Shaklan, L. Marchen, J. J. Green, and O. P. Lay, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph dynamics error budget," in Proc. SPIE 5905, 110-121 (2005).
  5. T. T. Hyde, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 590, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (internal communication, September 2005).
  6. M. Zhu and J. L. Hall, "Short and long term stability of optical oscillators," in Proceedings of the IEEE Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1992), pp. 44-55.
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, "Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544-549 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, "Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583-586 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Galzerano, C. Svelto, E. Bava, and F. Bertinetto, "High-frequency-stability diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers with the FM sidebands method and Doppler-free iodine lines at 532 nm," Appl. Opt. 38, 6962-6966 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Picard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, K. Nyholm, M. Merimaa, T. E. Ahola, P. Balling, P. Kren, and J. P. Wallerand, "Comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures," Appl. Opt. 42, 1019-1028 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia 40, 103-133 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Müller, P. McNamara, I. Thorpe, and J. Camp, "Laser frequency stabilization for LISA," NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212790 (2005).
  13. J. Ye and J. L. Hall, "Optical phase locking in the microradian domain: potential applications to NASA spaceborne optical measurements," Opt. Lett. 24, 1838-1840 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. U. Roth, M. Tröbs, T. Graf, J. E. Balmer, and H. P. Weber, "Proton and gamma radiation tests on nonlinear crystals," Appl. Opt. 41, 464-469 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. L. Barth, M. Xapsos, and C. Poivey, "The radiation environment for the LISA/Laser Interferometry Space Antenna," NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212791 (2005).

2005 (4)

S. B. Shaklan, L. Marchen, J. J. Green, and O. P. Lay, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph dynamics error budget," in Proc. SPIE 5905, 110-121 (2005).

T. T. Hyde, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 590, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (internal communication, September 2005).

G. Müller, P. McNamara, I. Thorpe, and J. Camp, "Laser frequency stabilization for LISA," NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212790 (2005).

J. L. Barth, M. Xapsos, and C. Poivey, "The radiation environment for the LISA/Laser Interferometry Space Antenna," NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212791 (2005).

2004 (1)

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia 40, 103-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Danzmann, "LISA mission overview," Adv. Space Res. 25, 1129-1136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, "Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544-549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, "Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583-586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye and J. L. Hall, "Optical phase locking in the microradian domain: potential applications to NASA spaceborne optical measurements," Opt. Lett. 24, 1838-1840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Galzerano, C. Svelto, E. Bava, and F. Bertinetto, "High-frequency-stability diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers with the FM sidebands method and Doppler-free iodine lines at 532 nm," Appl. Opt. 38, 6962-6966 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ahola, T. E.

Balling, P.

Balmer, J. E.

Barth, J. L.

J. L. Barth, M. Xapsos, and C. Poivey, "The radiation environment for the LISA/Laser Interferometry Space Antenna," NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212791 (2005).

Bava, E.

Bertinetto, F.

Camp, J.

G. Müller, P. McNamara, I. Thorpe, and J. Camp, "Laser frequency stabilization for LISA," NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212790 (2005).

Cash, W.

W. Cash, "X-ray interferometry," Exp. Astron. 16, 91-139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

K. Danzmann, "LISA mission overview," Adv. Space Res. 25, 1129-1136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ford, V. G.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Galzerano, G.

Graf, T.

Green, J. J.

S. B. Shaklan, L. Marchen, J. J. Green, and O. P. Lay, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph dynamics error budget," in Proc. SPIE 5905, 110-121 (2005).

Hall, J. L.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, "Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544-549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, "Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583-586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye and J. L. Hall, "Optical phase locking in the microradian domain: potential applications to NASA spaceborne optical measurements," Opt. Lett. 24, 1838-1840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu and J. L. Hall, "Short and long term stability of optical oscillators," in Proceedings of the IEEE Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1992), pp. 44-55.
[CrossRef]

Ho, T.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, F. L.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, "Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583-586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, D.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, T. T.

T. T. Hyde, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 590, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (internal communication, September 2005).

Kren, P.

Lay, O. P.

S. B. Shaklan, L. Marchen, J. J. Green, and O. P. Lay, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph dynamics error budget," in Proc. SPIE 5905, 110-121 (2005).

Lisman, P. D.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lowman, A. E.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L. S.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, "Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583-586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

Marchen, L.

S. B. Shaklan, L. Marchen, J. J. Green, and O. P. Lay, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph dynamics error budget," in Proc. SPIE 5905, 110-121 (2005).

McNamara, P.

G. Müller, P. McNamara, I. Thorpe, and J. Camp, "Laser frequency stabilization for LISA," NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212790 (2005).

Merimaa, M.

Müller, G.

G. Müller, P. McNamara, I. Thorpe, and J. Camp, "Laser frequency stabilization for LISA," NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212790 (2005).

Nyholm, K.

Pfister, O.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, "Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583-586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Picard, S.

Poivey, C.

J. L. Barth, M. Xapsos, and C. Poivey, "The radiation environment for the LISA/Laser Interferometry Space Antenna," NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212791 (2005).

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia 40, 103-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, L.

Roth, U.

Shaklan, S. B.

S. B. Shaklan, L. Marchen, J. J. Green, and O. P. Lay, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph dynamics error budget," in Proc. SPIE 5905, 110-121 (2005).

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, C.

Taubman, M.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, "Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583-586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, I.

G. Müller, P. McNamara, I. Thorpe, and J. Camp, "Laser frequency stabilization for LISA," NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212790 (2005).

Tiemann, B.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, "Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583-586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trauger, J. T.

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tröbs, M.

Wallerand, J. P.

Weber, H. P.

Xapsos, M.

J. L. Barth, M. Xapsos, and C. Poivey, "The radiation environment for the LISA/Laser Interferometry Space Antenna," NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212791 (2005).

Ye, J.

J. Ye and J. L. Hall, "Optical phase locking in the microradian domain: potential applications to NASA spaceborne optical measurements," Opt. Lett. 24, 1838-1840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, "Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583-586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, "Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544-549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

M. Zhu and J. L. Hall, "Short and long term stability of optical oscillators," in Proceedings of the IEEE Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1992), pp. 44-55.
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

K. Danzmann, "LISA mission overview," Adv. Space Res. 25, 1129-1136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Exp. Astron. (1)

W. Cash, "X-ray interferometry," Exp. Astron. 16, 91-139 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2)

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, "Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544-549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, "Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583-586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia 40, 103-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 590, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (1)

T. T. Hyde, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 590, Greenbelt, Md. 20771 (internal communication, September 2005).

NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212790 (1)

G. Müller, P. McNamara, I. Thorpe, and J. Camp, "Laser frequency stabilization for LISA," NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212790 (2005).

NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212791 (1)

J. L. Barth, M. Xapsos, and C. Poivey, "The radiation environment for the LISA/Laser Interferometry Space Antenna," NASA Technical Publication TP-2005-212791 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. B. Shaklan, L. Marchen, J. J. Green, and O. P. Lay, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph dynamics error budget," in Proc. SPIE 5905, 110-121 (2005).

V. G. Ford, P. D. Lisman, S. B. Shaklan, J. T. Trauger, T. Ho, D. Hoppe, and A. E. Lowman, "The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph: technology and mission design studies," in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1274-1283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Zhu and J. L. Hall, "Short and long term stability of optical oscillators," in Proceedings of the IEEE Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1992), pp. 44-55.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the iodine-stabilized laser system: FI, Faraday isolator; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; BS, nonpolarizing beam splitter; BD, beam dump; DM, dichroic mirror; EOM, electro-optic modulator; AOM, acousto-optic modulater; PPMgOLN, periodically poled magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Linear spectral density of the frequency noise of the two iodine systems and the mission requirement for LISA. The corresponding Allan standard deviation for a single system is also shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency noise with beams misaligned by 4 mrad at the iodine cell and noise with and without iodine temperature stabilization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simplified optical setup without modulators.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Frequency noise in the simplified configuration (no EOM, no AOM) with first harmonic demodulation and third harmonic demodulation. The noise of the full frequency modulation spectroscopy setup is also shown.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Light power at 532 nm generated in the doubling crystal before radiation, after 1011 protons∕cm2, 25 krad gamma radiation, 60 krad, 200 krad, 600 krad, and 1012 protons∕cm2. PP:MgOLN 1 was not exposed to gamma radiation.

Equations (1)

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