Abstract

Three electro-optical modes of nematic liquid crystal (LC) were investigated as applications for LC shutters: the waveguide mode (TN), optical mode interference (OMI), and supertwist nematic (STN). The characteristics of the three modes under dynamic driving were simulated by solving the Ericksen–Leslie hydrodynamic equations numerically. Prototypes of the three types of LC were fabricated for verification. The experimental data show good coincidence with the simulation results. Among the three LC modes, the OMI was found to have the greatest potential for LC shutter applications. The prototype that used the OMI mode showed high contrast, fast response times, low power consumption owing to the pseudomemory effect under an optimal driving scheme, and a low optical retardation of the LC cell.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Lipton and A. Berman, "Push-pull liquid crystal modulator for electronic stereoscopic display," in Proc. SPIE 902, 31-44 (1988).
  2. B. Lee, S. Jung, and J. H. Park, "Three-dimensional integral imaging using LCD and LC polarization switcher," in Asian Symposium on Information Display (2004), pp. 109-113.
  3. G. A. Lester, J. Watts, and D. Wilmington, "Ferroelectric liquid crystal device for a single camera stereoscopic endoscope system," Electron. Lett. 33, 857-858 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. J. Haven, "Reinventing the color wheel," Inf. Disp. 7, 11-15 (1991).
  5. H. Molsen and H. S. Kitzerow, "Bistability in polymer-dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 710-716 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Jakli, L. C. Chien, D. Kruerke, H. Sawade, and G. Heppke, "Light shutters from antiferroelectric liquid crystals of bent-shaped molecules," Liq. Cryst. 29, 377-381 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Gotoh and H. Murai, "Preparation and characteristics of new reverse mode film of polymer dispersed liquid crystal type," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 392-394 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. L. West and R. O. Crawford, "Characterization of polymer dispersed liquid-crystal shutters by ultraviolet/visible and infrared absorption spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3785-3790 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, J. Lanzo, and G. Chidichimo, "A method to produce reverse-mode polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3945-3947 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Rough surfaces for orientation control in reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal films," Liq. Cryst. 27, 917-920 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Morphology and electro-optical properties of reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 27, 1337-1341 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, "Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3102-3104 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. L. West, R. B. Akins, J. Francl, and J. W. Doane, "Cholesteric/polymer dispersed light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1471-1473 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Ren and S. T. Wu, "Reflective reversed-mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light switches," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 797-800 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, "In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3609-3611 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Xu and D. K. Yang, "Dual frequency cholesteric light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 720-722 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Higa, H. Aoki, A. Mawatari, and H. Okimoto, "A high-speed and high-contrast liquid-crystal shutter array using dual-frequency addressed birefringence mode," in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 89, 25-28 (1989).
  18. G. H. Kim, S. Enomoto, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, "Application of photosensitive polyimides as alignment layer to optical switching devices of a nematic liquid crystal," Liq. Cryst. 28, 271-277 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Belyaev, N. Malimonenko, and A. Miroshin. "High-contrast and fast nematic liquid crystal shutter for projection displays," in Proc. SPIE 2650, 106-109 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. Scheffer, "The 'Iron law' 25 years later STN displays," Inf. Disp. 14, 12-16 (1998).
  21. G. V. Simonenko, S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, and V. Chigrinov, "Dynamics of fast nematic shutters," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 873-875.
  22. S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. Zhukov, G. Simonenko, and V. Ezhov, "Dynamic STN-display with high contrast ratio and fast response time close to AM-LCD," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 437-440.
  23. S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. D. Zhukov, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, "Low power LC shutter with high contrast ratio and fast response time," in IDW'04 Digest (2004), pp. 87-90.
  24. F. M. Leslie, "Some consitutive equations for anisotropic fluids," Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 19, 357-370 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  25. V. G. Chigrinov, Liquid Crystal Devices: Physics and Applications (Artech House, 1999).
  26. D. W. Berreman, "Liquid-crystal twist cell dynamics with backflow," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3746-3751 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  27. C. Z. Van Doorn, "Dynamic behavior of twisted nematic liquid-crystal layers in switched fields," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3738-3745 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. Qian and P. Sheng, "Generalized hydrodynamic equations for nematic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. E 58, 7475-7485 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  29. V. G. Chigrinov, Y. Podyachev, G. Simonenko, and D. Yakovlev, "The optimization of LCD electrooptical behavior using MOUSE-LCD software," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol . Sect. B: Nonlinear Opt. 351, 17-25 (2000).
    [Crossref]

2004 (2)

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, "In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3609-3611 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. D. Zhukov, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, "Low power LC shutter with high contrast ratio and fast response time," in IDW'04 Digest (2004), pp. 87-90.

2002 (4)

G. V. Simonenko, S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, and V. Chigrinov, "Dynamics of fast nematic shutters," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 873-875.

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. Zhukov, G. Simonenko, and V. Ezhov, "Dynamic STN-display with high contrast ratio and fast response time close to AM-LCD," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 437-440.

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, "Reflective reversed-mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light switches," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 797-800 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Jakli, L. C. Chien, D. Kruerke, H. Sawade, and G. Heppke, "Light shutters from antiferroelectric liquid crystals of bent-shaped molecules," Liq. Cryst. 29, 377-381 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. H. Kim, S. Enomoto, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, "Application of photosensitive polyimides as alignment layer to optical switching devices of a nematic liquid crystal," Liq. Cryst. 28, 271-277 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Rough surfaces for orientation control in reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal films," Liq. Cryst. 27, 917-920 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Morphology and electro-optical properties of reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 27, 1337-1341 (2000).
[Crossref]

V. G. Chigrinov, Y. Podyachev, G. Simonenko, and D. Yakovlev, "The optimization of LCD electrooptical behavior using MOUSE-LCD software," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol . Sect. B: Nonlinear Opt. 351, 17-25 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, J. Lanzo, and G. Chidichimo, "A method to produce reverse-mode polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3945-3947 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

T. Scheffer, "The 'Iron law' 25 years later STN displays," Inf. Disp. 14, 12-16 (1998).

T. Qian and P. Sheng, "Generalized hydrodynamic equations for nematic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. E 58, 7475-7485 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. A. Lester, J. Watts, and D. Wilmington, "Ferroelectric liquid crystal device for a single camera stereoscopic endoscope system," Electron. Lett. 33, 857-858 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

S. Belyaev, N. Malimonenko, and A. Miroshin. "High-contrast and fast nematic liquid crystal shutter for projection displays," in Proc. SPIE 2650, 106-109 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Xu and D. K. Yang, "Dual frequency cholesteric light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 720-722 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

J. L. West, R. B. Akins, J. Francl, and J. W. Doane, "Cholesteric/polymer dispersed light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1471-1473 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Molsen and H. S. Kitzerow, "Bistability in polymer-dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 710-716 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, "Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3102-3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (3)

T. Gotoh and H. Murai, "Preparation and characteristics of new reverse mode film of polymer dispersed liquid crystal type," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 392-394 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. L. West and R. O. Crawford, "Characterization of polymer dispersed liquid-crystal shutters by ultraviolet/visible and infrared absorption spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3785-3790 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. J. Haven, "Reinventing the color wheel," Inf. Disp. 7, 11-15 (1991).

1989 (1)

M. Higa, H. Aoki, A. Mawatari, and H. Okimoto, "A high-speed and high-contrast liquid-crystal shutter array using dual-frequency addressed birefringence mode," in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 89, 25-28 (1989).

1988 (1)

L. Lipton and A. Berman, "Push-pull liquid crystal modulator for electronic stereoscopic display," in Proc. SPIE 902, 31-44 (1988).

1975 (2)

D. W. Berreman, "Liquid-crystal twist cell dynamics with backflow," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3746-3751 (1975).
[Crossref]

C. Z. Van Doorn, "Dynamic behavior of twisted nematic liquid-crystal layers in switched fields," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3738-3745 (1975).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

F. M. Leslie, "Some consitutive equations for anisotropic fluids," Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 19, 357-370 (1966).
[Crossref]

Akins, R. B.

J. L. West, R. B. Akins, J. Francl, and J. W. Doane, "Cholesteric/polymer dispersed light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1471-1473 (1993).
[Crossref]

Aoki, H.

M. Higa, H. Aoki, A. Mawatari, and H. Okimoto, "A high-speed and high-contrast liquid-crystal shutter array using dual-frequency addressed birefringence mode," in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 89, 25-28 (1989).

Belyaev, S.

S. Belyaev, N. Malimonenko, and A. Miroshin. "High-contrast and fast nematic liquid crystal shutter for projection displays," in Proc. SPIE 2650, 106-109 (1996).
[Crossref]

Berman, A.

L. Lipton and A. Berman, "Push-pull liquid crystal modulator for electronic stereoscopic display," in Proc. SPIE 902, 31-44 (1988).

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, "Liquid-crystal twist cell dynamics with backflow," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3746-3751 (1975).
[Crossref]

Brezhnev, V. A.

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. D. Zhukov, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, "Low power LC shutter with high contrast ratio and fast response time," in IDW'04 Digest (2004), pp. 87-90.

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. Zhukov, G. Simonenko, and V. Ezhov, "Dynamic STN-display with high contrast ratio and fast response time close to AM-LCD," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 437-440.

G. V. Simonenko, S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, and V. Chigrinov, "Dynamics of fast nematic shutters," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 873-875.

Chidichimo, G.

M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Rough surfaces for orientation control in reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal films," Liq. Cryst. 27, 917-920 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Morphology and electro-optical properties of reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 27, 1337-1341 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, J. Lanzo, and G. Chidichimo, "A method to produce reverse-mode polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3945-3947 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chien, L. C.

A. Jakli, L. C. Chien, D. Kruerke, H. Sawade, and G. Heppke, "Light shutters from antiferroelectric liquid crystals of bent-shaped molecules," Liq. Cryst. 29, 377-381 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, "Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3102-3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V.

G. V. Simonenko, S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, and V. Chigrinov, "Dynamics of fast nematic shutters," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 873-875.

Chigrinov, V. G.

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. D. Zhukov, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, "Low power LC shutter with high contrast ratio and fast response time," in IDW'04 Digest (2004), pp. 87-90.

V. G. Chigrinov, Y. Podyachev, G. Simonenko, and D. Yakovlev, "The optimization of LCD electrooptical behavior using MOUSE-LCD software," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol . Sect. B: Nonlinear Opt. 351, 17-25 (2000).
[Crossref]

V. G. Chigrinov, Liquid Crystal Devices: Physics and Applications (Artech House, 1999).

Crawford, R. O.

J. L. West and R. O. Crawford, "Characterization of polymer dispersed liquid-crystal shutters by ultraviolet/visible and infrared absorption spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3785-3790 (1991).
[Crossref]

Cupelli, D.

M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Rough surfaces for orientation control in reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal films," Liq. Cryst. 27, 917-920 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Morphology and electro-optical properties of reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 27, 1337-1341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Doane, J. W.

J. L. West, R. B. Akins, J. Francl, and J. W. Doane, "Cholesteric/polymer dispersed light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1471-1473 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, "Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3102-3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Enomoto, S.

G. H. Kim, S. Enomoto, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, "Application of photosensitive polyimides as alignment layer to optical switching devices of a nematic liquid crystal," Liq. Cryst. 28, 271-277 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ezhov, V.

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. Zhukov, G. Simonenko, and V. Ezhov, "Dynamic STN-display with high contrast ratio and fast response time close to AM-LCD," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 437-440.

Fan, Y. H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, "In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3609-3611 (2004).
[Crossref]

Filpo, G. D.

M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Morphology and electro-optical properties of reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 27, 1337-1341 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Rough surfaces for orientation control in reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal films," Liq. Cryst. 27, 917-920 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, J. Lanzo, and G. Chidichimo, "A method to produce reverse-mode polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3945-3947 (1999).
[Crossref]

Francl, J.

J. L. West, R. B. Akins, J. Francl, and J. W. Doane, "Cholesteric/polymer dispersed light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1471-1473 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gorfinkel, B. I.

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. D. Zhukov, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, "Low power LC shutter with high contrast ratio and fast response time," in IDW'04 Digest (2004), pp. 87-90.

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. Zhukov, G. Simonenko, and V. Ezhov, "Dynamic STN-display with high contrast ratio and fast response time close to AM-LCD," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 437-440.

Gotoh, T.

T. Gotoh and H. Murai, "Preparation and characteristics of new reverse mode film of polymer dispersed liquid crystal type," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 392-394 (1991).
[Crossref]

Haven, T. J.

T. J. Haven, "Reinventing the color wheel," Inf. Disp. 7, 11-15 (1991).

Heppke, G.

A. Jakli, L. C. Chien, D. Kruerke, H. Sawade, and G. Heppke, "Light shutters from antiferroelectric liquid crystals of bent-shaped molecules," Liq. Cryst. 29, 377-381 (2002).
[Crossref]

Higa, M.

M. Higa, H. Aoki, A. Mawatari, and H. Okimoto, "A high-speed and high-contrast liquid-crystal shutter array using dual-frequency addressed birefringence mode," in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 89, 25-28 (1989).

Ikeda, T.

G. H. Kim, S. Enomoto, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, "Application of photosensitive polyimides as alignment layer to optical switching devices of a nematic liquid crystal," Liq. Cryst. 28, 271-277 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jakli, A.

A. Jakli, L. C. Chien, D. Kruerke, H. Sawade, and G. Heppke, "Light shutters from antiferroelectric liquid crystals of bent-shaped molecules," Liq. Cryst. 29, 377-381 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jung, S.

B. Lee, S. Jung, and J. H. Park, "Three-dimensional integral imaging using LCD and LC polarization switcher," in Asian Symposium on Information Display (2004), pp. 109-113.

Kanazawa, A.

G. H. Kim, S. Enomoto, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, "Application of photosensitive polyimides as alignment layer to optical switching devices of a nematic liquid crystal," Liq. Cryst. 28, 271-277 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, G. H.

G. H. Kim, S. Enomoto, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, "Application of photosensitive polyimides as alignment layer to optical switching devices of a nematic liquid crystal," Liq. Cryst. 28, 271-277 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kitzerow, H. S.

H. Molsen and H. S. Kitzerow, "Bistability in polymer-dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 710-716 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kruerke, D.

A. Jakli, L. C. Chien, D. Kruerke, H. Sawade, and G. Heppke, "Light shutters from antiferroelectric liquid crystals of bent-shaped molecules," Liq. Cryst. 29, 377-381 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H. S.

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. D. Zhukov, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, "Low power LC shutter with high contrast ratio and fast response time," in IDW'04 Digest (2004), pp. 87-90.

Lanzo, J.

F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, J. Lanzo, and G. Chidichimo, "A method to produce reverse-mode polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3945-3947 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

B. Lee, S. Jung, and J. H. Park, "Three-dimensional integral imaging using LCD and LC polarization switcher," in Asian Symposium on Information Display (2004), pp. 109-113.

Leslie, F. M.

F. M. Leslie, "Some consitutive equations for anisotropic fluids," Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 19, 357-370 (1966).
[Crossref]

Lester, G. A.

G. A. Lester, J. Watts, and D. Wilmington, "Ferroelectric liquid crystal device for a single camera stereoscopic endoscope system," Electron. Lett. 33, 857-858 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, "In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3609-3611 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lipton, L.

L. Lipton and A. Berman, "Push-pull liquid crystal modulator for electronic stereoscopic display," in Proc. SPIE 902, 31-44 (1988).

Macchione, M.

M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Rough surfaces for orientation control in reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal films," Liq. Cryst. 27, 917-920 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Morphology and electro-optical properties of reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 27, 1337-1341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Malimonenko, N.

S. Belyaev, N. Malimonenko, and A. Miroshin. "High-contrast and fast nematic liquid crystal shutter for projection displays," in Proc. SPIE 2650, 106-109 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mawatari, A.

M. Higa, H. Aoki, A. Mawatari, and H. Okimoto, "A high-speed and high-contrast liquid-crystal shutter array using dual-frequency addressed birefringence mode," in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 89, 25-28 (1989).

Miroshin., A.

S. Belyaev, N. Malimonenko, and A. Miroshin. "High-contrast and fast nematic liquid crystal shutter for projection displays," in Proc. SPIE 2650, 106-109 (1996).
[Crossref]

Molsen, H.

H. Molsen and H. S. Kitzerow, "Bistability in polymer-dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 710-716 (1993).
[Crossref]

Murai, H.

T. Gotoh and H. Murai, "Preparation and characteristics of new reverse mode film of polymer dispersed liquid crystal type," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 392-394 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nicoletta, F. P.

M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Morphology and electro-optical properties of reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 27, 1337-1341 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Rough surfaces for orientation control in reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal films," Liq. Cryst. 27, 917-920 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, J. Lanzo, and G. Chidichimo, "A method to produce reverse-mode polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3945-3947 (1999).
[Crossref]

Okimoto, H.

M. Higa, H. Aoki, A. Mawatari, and H. Okimoto, "A high-speed and high-contrast liquid-crystal shutter array using dual-frequency addressed birefringence mode," in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 89, 25-28 (1989).

Park, J. H.

B. Lee, S. Jung, and J. H. Park, "Three-dimensional integral imaging using LCD and LC polarization switcher," in Asian Symposium on Information Display (2004), pp. 109-113.

Park, L.-S.

G. H. Kim, S. Enomoto, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, "Application of photosensitive polyimides as alignment layer to optical switching devices of a nematic liquid crystal," Liq. Cryst. 28, 271-277 (2001).
[Crossref]

Podyachev, Y.

V. G. Chigrinov, Y. Podyachev, G. Simonenko, and D. Yakovlev, "The optimization of LCD electrooptical behavior using MOUSE-LCD software," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol . Sect. B: Nonlinear Opt. 351, 17-25 (2000).
[Crossref]

Qian, T.

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H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, "In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3609-3611 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, "Reflective reversed-mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light switches," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 797-800 (2002).
[Crossref]

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A. Jakli, L. C. Chien, D. Kruerke, H. Sawade, and G. Heppke, "Light shutters from antiferroelectric liquid crystals of bent-shaped molecules," Liq. Cryst. 29, 377-381 (2002).
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T. Scheffer, "The 'Iron law' 25 years later STN displays," Inf. Disp. 14, 12-16 (1998).

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T. Qian and P. Sheng, "Generalized hydrodynamic equations for nematic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. E 58, 7475-7485 (1998).
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G. H. Kim, S. Enomoto, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, "Application of photosensitive polyimides as alignment layer to optical switching devices of a nematic liquid crystal," Liq. Cryst. 28, 271-277 (2001).
[Crossref]

Simonenko, G.

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. Zhukov, G. Simonenko, and V. Ezhov, "Dynamic STN-display with high contrast ratio and fast response time close to AM-LCD," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 437-440.

V. G. Chigrinov, Y. Podyachev, G. Simonenko, and D. Yakovlev, "The optimization of LCD electrooptical behavior using MOUSE-LCD software," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol . Sect. B: Nonlinear Opt. 351, 17-25 (2000).
[Crossref]

Simonenko, G. V.

G. V. Simonenko, S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, and V. Chigrinov, "Dynamics of fast nematic shutters," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 873-875.

Studentsov, S. A.

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. D. Zhukov, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, "Low power LC shutter with high contrast ratio and fast response time," in IDW'04 Digest (2004), pp. 87-90.

G. V. Simonenko, S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, and V. Chigrinov, "Dynamics of fast nematic shutters," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 873-875.

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. Zhukov, G. Simonenko, and V. Ezhov, "Dynamic STN-display with high contrast ratio and fast response time close to AM-LCD," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 437-440.

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C. Z. Van Doorn, "Dynamic behavior of twisted nematic liquid-crystal layers in switched fields," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3738-3745 (1975).
[Crossref]

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G. A. Lester, J. Watts, and D. Wilmington, "Ferroelectric liquid crystal device for a single camera stereoscopic endoscope system," Electron. Lett. 33, 857-858 (1997).
[Crossref]

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J. L. West, R. B. Akins, J. Francl, and J. W. Doane, "Cholesteric/polymer dispersed light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1471-1473 (1993).
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[Crossref]

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G. A. Lester, J. Watts, and D. Wilmington, "Ferroelectric liquid crystal device for a single camera stereoscopic endoscope system," Electron. Lett. 33, 857-858 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, "In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3609-3611 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, "Reflective reversed-mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light switches," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 797-800 (2002).
[Crossref]

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M. Xu and D. K. Yang, "Dual frequency cholesteric light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 720-722 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, D.

V. G. Chigrinov, Y. Podyachev, G. Simonenko, and D. Yakovlev, "The optimization of LCD electrooptical behavior using MOUSE-LCD software," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol . Sect. B: Nonlinear Opt. 351, 17-25 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. K.

M. Xu and D. K. Yang, "Dual frequency cholesteric light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 720-722 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, "Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3102-3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zhukov, N.

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. Zhukov, G. Simonenko, and V. Ezhov, "Dynamic STN-display with high contrast ratio and fast response time close to AM-LCD," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 437-440.

Zhukov, N. D.

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. D. Zhukov, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, "Low power LC shutter with high contrast ratio and fast response time," in IDW'04 Digest (2004), pp. 87-90.

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[Crossref]

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, "Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3102-3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. L. West, R. B. Akins, J. Francl, and J. W. Doane, "Cholesteric/polymer dispersed light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1471-1473 (1993).
[Crossref]

F. P. Nicoletta, G. D. Filpo, J. Lanzo, and G. Chidichimo, "A method to produce reverse-mode polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3945-3947 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Xu and D. K. Yang, "Dual frequency cholesteric light shutters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 720-722 (1996).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. A. Lester, J. Watts, and D. Wilmington, "Ferroelectric liquid crystal device for a single camera stereoscopic endoscope system," Electron. Lett. 33, 857-858 (1997).
[Crossref]

Inf. Disp. (2)

T. J. Haven, "Reinventing the color wheel," Inf. Disp. 7, 11-15 (1991).

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J. Appl. Phys. (6)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, "Reflective reversed-mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light switches," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 797-800 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, "In-plane switching liquid crystal gel for polarization-independent light switch," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3609-3611 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (4)

M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Rough surfaces for orientation control in reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystal films," Liq. Cryst. 27, 917-920 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Macchione, D. Cupelli, G. D. Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, "Morphology and electro-optical properties of reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals," Liq. Cryst. 27, 1337-1341 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Jakli, L. C. Chien, D. Kruerke, H. Sawade, and G. Heppke, "Light shutters from antiferroelectric liquid crystals of bent-shaped molecules," Liq. Cryst. 29, 377-381 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. H. Kim, S. Enomoto, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, "Application of photosensitive polyimides as alignment layer to optical switching devices of a nematic liquid crystal," Liq. Cryst. 28, 271-277 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol (1)

V. G. Chigrinov, Y. Podyachev, G. Simonenko, and D. Yakovlev, "The optimization of LCD electrooptical behavior using MOUSE-LCD software," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol . Sect. B: Nonlinear Opt. 351, 17-25 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

T. Qian and P. Sheng, "Generalized hydrodynamic equations for nematic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. E 58, 7475-7485 (1998).
[Crossref]

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S. Belyaev, N. Malimonenko, and A. Miroshin. "High-contrast and fast nematic liquid crystal shutter for projection displays," in Proc. SPIE 2650, 106-109 (1996).
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M. Higa, H. Aoki, A. Mawatari, and H. Okimoto, "A high-speed and high-contrast liquid-crystal shutter array using dual-frequency addressed birefringence mode," in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 89, 25-28 (1989).

Other (5)

B. Lee, S. Jung, and J. H. Park, "Three-dimensional integral imaging using LCD and LC polarization switcher," in Asian Symposium on Information Display (2004), pp. 109-113.

V. G. Chigrinov, Liquid Crystal Devices: Physics and Applications (Artech House, 1999).

G. V. Simonenko, S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, and V. Chigrinov, "Dynamics of fast nematic shutters," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 873-875.

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. Zhukov, G. Simonenko, and V. Ezhov, "Dynamic STN-display with high contrast ratio and fast response time close to AM-LCD," in Eurodisplay 2002 Digest (2002), pp. 437-440.

S. A. Studentsov, V. A. Brezhnev, B. I. Gorfinkel, N. D. Zhukov, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, "Low power LC shutter with high contrast ratio and fast response time," in IDW'04 Digest (2004), pp. 87-90.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Orientation of the director of the three electro-optical modes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Schematic diagram of experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated transmission of various modes in dynamic driving scheme: (a) 90° TN, (b) 270° STN, (c) 180° OMI.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Measured response of various modes in the dynamic driving scheme [(a)–(c) driving voltage of 28 V, (d) driving voltage of 40 V; pulse interval of 20 ms, pulse duration of 160 μs]: (a) 90° TN, (b) 270° STN, (c) 180° OMI, (d) 180° OMI at 40 V of time; 5 ms∕div.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Pseudomemory effect under dynamic driving for 180° OMI from (a) simulation and (b) experiment. Time of 5 ms∕div, voltage (upper trace) of 20 V∕div, voltage (lower trace) of 100 mV∕div.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameter Values Used in Calculation and Experiment (cgs Units)

Equations (10)

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t ( ρ v i ) + j ( ρ v i v j + p δ i , j σ j i       d σ j i       f σ ji ) = 0 ,
I d 2 n i / d t 2 = h i + h i + γ n i ,
z σ zx = 0 ,
z σ zy = 0 ,
h i + h i + γ n i = 0.
σ ji = α 1 n j n i n μ n ν A μν + α 4 A j i + α 5 n j n μ A μ i + α 6 n i n μ A μ j + α 2 n j N i + α 3 n i N j ,
h i = F d n i + k F d ( k n i ) F E n i ,
h i = γ 1 N i γ 2 n k A k i ,
F d = 1 2 K 11 ( n ) 2 + 1 2 K 22 ( n × n q O ) 2 + 1 2 K 33 ( n × × n ) 2 ,
F E = 1 8 π E D .

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