Abstract

A flat panel, compact virtual image projection display is presented. It is based on a light- guided optical configuration that includes three linear holographic gratings recorded on one planar transparent substrate so as to obtain a magnified virtual image for a small input display. The principles of the projection display, unique design, and procedures for experimentally recording an actual planar configuration are presented, along with evaluation results. The results reveal that a field of view of ±8° can be readily achieved at a distance of 36  cm, making such planar configurations attractive for head-up displays.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Wood and M. Hayford, "Holographic and classical head-up display technology for commercial and fighter aircraft," in Holographic Optics: Design and Applications, I.Cindrich, ed., Proc. SPIE 0883, 36-52 (1988).
  2. R. L. Fisher, "Design methods for a holographic head-up display curved combiner," Opt. Eng. 28, 616-621 (1989).
  3. S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, "Integrated micro-optical imaging system with a high interconnection capacity fabricated in planar optics," Appl. Opt. 36, 4729-4735 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Friesem and Y. Amitai, "Planar diffractive elements for compact optics," in Trends in Optics, A. Consortini, ed. (Academic, 1997), pp. 125-144.
  5. W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, and K. M. Baker, "Physical optics analysis of the performance of a holographic projection system," in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology,Proc. SPIE 2404, 1236-1240 (1995).
  6. Y. Amitai, S. Reinhorn, and A. A. Friesem, "Visor display design based on planar holographic optics," Appl. Opt. 34, 1352-1356 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. Gurwich, V. Weiss, L. Eisen, M. Meyklyar, and A. A. Friesem, "Design and experiments of planar optical light guides for virtual image displays," Proc. SPIE 5182, 212-221 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, "Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief grating," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385-1392 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Shechter, Y. Amitai, and A. A. Friesem, "Compact beam expander with linear gratings," Appl. Opt. 41, 1236-1240 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

I. Gurwich, V. Weiss, L. Eisen, M. Meyklyar, and A. A. Friesem, "Design and experiments of planar optical light guides for virtual image displays," Proc. SPIE 5182, 212-221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, and K. M. Baker, "Physical optics analysis of the performance of a holographic projection system," in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology,Proc. SPIE 2404, 1236-1240 (1995).

Y. Amitai, S. Reinhorn, and A. A. Friesem, "Visor display design based on planar holographic optics," Appl. Opt. 34, 1352-1356 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

R. L. Fisher, "Design methods for a holographic head-up display curved combiner," Opt. Eng. 28, 616-621 (1989).

1982 (1)

Amitai, Y.

Baker, K. M.

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, and K. M. Baker, "Physical optics analysis of the performance of a holographic projection system," in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology,Proc. SPIE 2404, 1236-1240 (1995).

Eisen, L.

I. Gurwich, V. Weiss, L. Eisen, M. Meyklyar, and A. A. Friesem, "Design and experiments of planar optical light guides for virtual image displays," Proc. SPIE 5182, 212-221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, R. L.

R. L. Fisher, "Design methods for a holographic head-up display curved combiner," Opt. Eng. 28, 616-621 (1989).

Friesem, A.

A. Friesem and Y. Amitai, "Planar diffractive elements for compact optics," in Trends in Optics, A. Consortini, ed. (Academic, 1997), pp. 125-144.

Friesem, A. A.

Gaylord, T. K.

Gurwich, I.

I. Gurwich, V. Weiss, L. Eisen, M. Meyklyar, and A. A. Friesem, "Design and experiments of planar optical light guides for virtual image displays," Proc. SPIE 5182, 212-221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hayford, M.

R. Wood and M. Hayford, "Holographic and classical head-up display technology for commercial and fighter aircraft," in Holographic Optics: Design and Applications, I.Cindrich, ed., Proc. SPIE 0883, 36-52 (1988).

Jahns, J.

Jiang, W.

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, and K. M. Baker, "Physical optics analysis of the performance of a holographic projection system," in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology,Proc. SPIE 2404, 1236-1240 (1995).

Meyklyar, M.

I. Gurwich, V. Weiss, L. Eisen, M. Meyklyar, and A. A. Friesem, "Design and experiments of planar optical light guides for virtual image displays," Proc. SPIE 5182, 212-221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, G.

Reinhorn, S.

Shealy, D. L.

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, and K. M. Baker, "Physical optics analysis of the performance of a holographic projection system," in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology,Proc. SPIE 2404, 1236-1240 (1995).

Shechter, R.

Sinzinger, S.

Weiss, V.

I. Gurwich, V. Weiss, L. Eisen, M. Meyklyar, and A. A. Friesem, "Design and experiments of planar optical light guides for virtual image displays," Proc. SPIE 5182, 212-221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wood, R.

R. Wood and M. Hayford, "Holographic and classical head-up display technology for commercial and fighter aircraft," in Holographic Optics: Design and Applications, I.Cindrich, ed., Proc. SPIE 0883, 36-52 (1988).

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. L. Fisher, "Design methods for a holographic head-up display curved combiner," Opt. Eng. 28, 616-621 (1989).

Proc. SPIE (2)

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, and K. M. Baker, "Physical optics analysis of the performance of a holographic projection system," in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology,Proc. SPIE 2404, 1236-1240 (1995).

I. Gurwich, V. Weiss, L. Eisen, M. Meyklyar, and A. A. Friesem, "Design and experiments of planar optical light guides for virtual image displays," Proc. SPIE 5182, 212-221 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. Wood and M. Hayford, "Holographic and classical head-up display technology for commercial and fighter aircraft," in Holographic Optics: Design and Applications, I.Cindrich, ed., Proc. SPIE 0883, 36-52 (1988).

A. Friesem and Y. Amitai, "Planar diffractive elements for compact optics," in Trends in Optics, A. Consortini, ed. (Academic, 1997), pp. 125-144.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic planar light guiding configuration. Light trapping in a virtual display system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image output pupil magnification principle. IDS, input display source; CL, collimating lens; H 1, input coupling grating; H 3, output decoupling grating; GS, glass substrate; V, viewer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geometry and ray propagation of the light-guiding configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated diffraction efficiency as a function of groove depth for different incidence angles on HG H 1 with sinusoidal surface relief grating profile and grooves slanted at 17°. The incident light is TE polarized.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geometry, showing the various local reflections and diffractions in HG H 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated local groove depth, local diffraction efficiency, and local light power as a function of the number of bounces for HG H3 with sinusoidal surface relief grating and grooves slanted at 17°. The calculations are optimized for reflection mode and TE polarization. (a) Local depth of groove; (b) local diffraction efficiency; (c) local light power distribution.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated and experimental diffraction efficiency as function of input incident angle for HG H 1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated and experimental local diffraction efficiency (DE) for HG H 2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated and experimental local diffraction efficiency (DE) for HG H 3 at the center of the field of view.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimentally measured relative output light power distribution as a function of location on HG H 3 for three different incident angles at HG H 1. (a) θinc = 0°; (b) θinc = −8°; (c) θinc = 8°.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental output imagery as viewed through HG H 3. The thickness of the light-guiding substrate was 3 mm.

Equations (13)

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Φ 1 = 2 π λ ( n sub sin θ diff ) x ,
Φ 2 = Φ 1 + 2 π λ ( n sub sin θ diff ) y = 2 π λ ( n sub sin θ diff x + n sub sin θ diff y ) = 2 π λ 2 2 n sub sin θ diff ( 2 2 x + 2 2 y ) + 2 π λ 2 2     n sub sin θ diff ( 2 2 x + 2 2 y ) .
Φ 3 = 2 π λ ( n sub sin θ diff ) y .
Φ 1 + Φ 2 + Φ 3 = 0.
n sub sin θ diff , j = n i sin θ inc + j λ Λ x ,
n sub sin θ diff, j n i .
sin θ inc j λ Λ x n i 1.
Λ x = λ 1 + sin ( θ inc ) .
I diff               ( m + 1 ) = I inc           ( m + 1 ) η m + 1 = I inc           ( m ) ( 1 η m ) η m + 1 = I diff             ( m ) η m ( 1 η m ) η m + 1 ,
η m = η 1 1 ( m 1 ) η 1 ,
η 1 = 1 M .
I loss I inc = m = 1 M [ 1 η 1 ( m 1 ) η 1 ] ,
Err = n = 1 N j = 1 J n [ I diff             ( i , β n ) I ¯ diff           ( β n ) ] 2 min ,

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