Abstract

We analyze in detail the apparent violation of the reciprocity law that occurs for an interline CCD array owing to its responsivity that varies with exposure time, and we investigate other parameters having an influence on this variation, such as the numerical aperture of the system or the illumination wavelength. The variation can be explained from a qualitative point of view by the charge leakage that occurs from the sense region to the register region during readout time. This change of the responsivity can be avoided either by using a synchronized external shutter or by limiting the numerical aperture while keeping relatively high exposure times. A detailed characterization for each particular CCD model must be carried out if it is to be employed in low-uncertainty radiometric measurements.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. J. P. Theuwissen, "Fundamentals of solid-state imaging," in Solid-State Imaging with Charge-Coupled Devices (Kluwer Academic, 1995), pp. 131-156.
  2. T. Seelemann, Manager Camera Group, LaVision GmbH, Anna-Vandenhoeck-Ring 19, D-37081, Goettingen, Germany (personal communication, 2004).
  3. J. R. Janesick, "Linearity," in Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices (SPIE Press, 2001), pp. 117-120.
  4. F. Martinez Verdu, "Diseño de un colorimetro triestimulo a partir de una camara CCD-RGB," Ph.D. dissertation (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 2001).
  5. A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Experimental results on integration time-irradiance nonequivalence on a CCD Camera," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernandez-Andres, eds. (Granada, Spain, 2005), pp. 1283-1286.
  6. H. J. Deeg and Z. Ninkov, "Characterization of a large-format charge-coupled device," Opt. Eng. 34, 43-49 (1995).
  7. International Lighting Vocabulary, Publication CIE 17.4 (International Commission on Illumination, 1987).
  8. J. Campos, "Radiometric calibration of charge-coupled-device video cameras," Metrologia 37, 459-464 (2000).
  9. S. Lowenthal and D. Joyeux, "Speckle removal by a slowly moving diffuser associated with a motionless diffuser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 847-851 (1971).
  10. E. Schröder, "Elimination of granulation in laser beam projections by means of moving diffusers," Opt. Commun. 3, 68-72 (1970).
  11. A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Flat field correction algorithm for CCD radiometric calibration using integrating spheres," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernandez-Andres, eds. (Granada, Spain, 2005), pp. 1183-1185.
  12. A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Reduccion del ruido en CCD," in Resumenes de la VII Reunion Nacional de Optica, Universidad de Cantabria (Santander, 2003), p. 151.
  13. J. Furukawa, I. Hiroto, Y. Takamura, T. Wada, Y. Keigo, A. Izumi, K. Nishibori, R. Tatebe, S. Kitayama, M. Shimura, and H. Matsui, "A 1/3 inch 380k pixel (effective) IT-CCD image sensor," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-38, 595-600 (1992).

Campos, J.

J. Campos, "Radiometric calibration of charge-coupled-device video cameras," Metrologia 37, 459-464 (2000).

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Flat field correction algorithm for CCD radiometric calibration using integrating spheres," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernandez-Andres, eds. (Granada, Spain, 2005), pp. 1183-1185.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Reduccion del ruido en CCD," in Resumenes de la VII Reunion Nacional de Optica, Universidad de Cantabria (Santander, 2003), p. 151.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Experimental results on integration time-irradiance nonequivalence on a CCD Camera," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernandez-Andres, eds. (Granada, Spain, 2005), pp. 1283-1286.

Deeg, H. J.

H. J. Deeg and Z. Ninkov, "Characterization of a large-format charge-coupled device," Opt. Eng. 34, 43-49 (1995).

Ferrero, A.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Experimental results on integration time-irradiance nonequivalence on a CCD Camera," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernandez-Andres, eds. (Granada, Spain, 2005), pp. 1283-1286.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Flat field correction algorithm for CCD radiometric calibration using integrating spheres," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernandez-Andres, eds. (Granada, Spain, 2005), pp. 1183-1185.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Reduccion del ruido en CCD," in Resumenes de la VII Reunion Nacional de Optica, Universidad de Cantabria (Santander, 2003), p. 151.

Furukawa, J.

J. Furukawa, I. Hiroto, Y. Takamura, T. Wada, Y. Keigo, A. Izumi, K. Nishibori, R. Tatebe, S. Kitayama, M. Shimura, and H. Matsui, "A 1/3 inch 380k pixel (effective) IT-CCD image sensor," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-38, 595-600 (1992).

Hiroto, I.

J. Furukawa, I. Hiroto, Y. Takamura, T. Wada, Y. Keigo, A. Izumi, K. Nishibori, R. Tatebe, S. Kitayama, M. Shimura, and H. Matsui, "A 1/3 inch 380k pixel (effective) IT-CCD image sensor," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-38, 595-600 (1992).

Izumi, A.

J. Furukawa, I. Hiroto, Y. Takamura, T. Wada, Y. Keigo, A. Izumi, K. Nishibori, R. Tatebe, S. Kitayama, M. Shimura, and H. Matsui, "A 1/3 inch 380k pixel (effective) IT-CCD image sensor," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-38, 595-600 (1992).

Janesick, J. R.

J. R. Janesick, "Linearity," in Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices (SPIE Press, 2001), pp. 117-120.

Joyeux, D.

S. Lowenthal and D. Joyeux, "Speckle removal by a slowly moving diffuser associated with a motionless diffuser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 847-851 (1971).

Keigo, Y.

J. Furukawa, I. Hiroto, Y. Takamura, T. Wada, Y. Keigo, A. Izumi, K. Nishibori, R. Tatebe, S. Kitayama, M. Shimura, and H. Matsui, "A 1/3 inch 380k pixel (effective) IT-CCD image sensor," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-38, 595-600 (1992).

Kitayama, S.

J. Furukawa, I. Hiroto, Y. Takamura, T. Wada, Y. Keigo, A. Izumi, K. Nishibori, R. Tatebe, S. Kitayama, M. Shimura, and H. Matsui, "A 1/3 inch 380k pixel (effective) IT-CCD image sensor," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-38, 595-600 (1992).

Lowenthal, S.

S. Lowenthal and D. Joyeux, "Speckle removal by a slowly moving diffuser associated with a motionless diffuser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 847-851 (1971).

Matsui, H.

J. Furukawa, I. Hiroto, Y. Takamura, T. Wada, Y. Keigo, A. Izumi, K. Nishibori, R. Tatebe, S. Kitayama, M. Shimura, and H. Matsui, "A 1/3 inch 380k pixel (effective) IT-CCD image sensor," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-38, 595-600 (1992).

Ninkov, Z.

H. J. Deeg and Z. Ninkov, "Characterization of a large-format charge-coupled device," Opt. Eng. 34, 43-49 (1995).

Nishibori, K.

J. Furukawa, I. Hiroto, Y. Takamura, T. Wada, Y. Keigo, A. Izumi, K. Nishibori, R. Tatebe, S. Kitayama, M. Shimura, and H. Matsui, "A 1/3 inch 380k pixel (effective) IT-CCD image sensor," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-38, 595-600 (1992).

Pons, A.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Experimental results on integration time-irradiance nonequivalence on a CCD Camera," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernandez-Andres, eds. (Granada, Spain, 2005), pp. 1283-1286.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Flat field correction algorithm for CCD radiometric calibration using integrating spheres," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernandez-Andres, eds. (Granada, Spain, 2005), pp. 1183-1185.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Reduccion del ruido en CCD," in Resumenes de la VII Reunion Nacional de Optica, Universidad de Cantabria (Santander, 2003), p. 151.

Schröder, E.

E. Schröder, "Elimination of granulation in laser beam projections by means of moving diffusers," Opt. Commun. 3, 68-72 (1970).

Seelemann, T.

T. Seelemann, Manager Camera Group, LaVision GmbH, Anna-Vandenhoeck-Ring 19, D-37081, Goettingen, Germany (personal communication, 2004).

Shimura, M.

J. Furukawa, I. Hiroto, Y. Takamura, T. Wada, Y. Keigo, A. Izumi, K. Nishibori, R. Tatebe, S. Kitayama, M. Shimura, and H. Matsui, "A 1/3 inch 380k pixel (effective) IT-CCD image sensor," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-38, 595-600 (1992).

Takamura, Y.

J. Furukawa, I. Hiroto, Y. Takamura, T. Wada, Y. Keigo, A. Izumi, K. Nishibori, R. Tatebe, S. Kitayama, M. Shimura, and H. Matsui, "A 1/3 inch 380k pixel (effective) IT-CCD image sensor," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-38, 595-600 (1992).

Tatebe, R.

J. Furukawa, I. Hiroto, Y. Takamura, T. Wada, Y. Keigo, A. Izumi, K. Nishibori, R. Tatebe, S. Kitayama, M. Shimura, and H. Matsui, "A 1/3 inch 380k pixel (effective) IT-CCD image sensor," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-38, 595-600 (1992).

Theuwissen, A. J. P.

A. J. P. Theuwissen, "Fundamentals of solid-state imaging," in Solid-State Imaging with Charge-Coupled Devices (Kluwer Academic, 1995), pp. 131-156.

Verdu, F. Martinez

F. Martinez Verdu, "Diseño de un colorimetro triestimulo a partir de una camara CCD-RGB," Ph.D. dissertation (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 2001).

Wada, T.

J. Furukawa, I. Hiroto, Y. Takamura, T. Wada, Y. Keigo, A. Izumi, K. Nishibori, R. Tatebe, S. Kitayama, M. Shimura, and H. Matsui, "A 1/3 inch 380k pixel (effective) IT-CCD image sensor," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-38, 595-600 (1992).

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (1)

J. Furukawa, I. Hiroto, Y. Takamura, T. Wada, Y. Keigo, A. Izumi, K. Nishibori, R. Tatebe, S. Kitayama, M. Shimura, and H. Matsui, "A 1/3 inch 380k pixel (effective) IT-CCD image sensor," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. CE-38, 595-600 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

S. Lowenthal and D. Joyeux, "Speckle removal by a slowly moving diffuser associated with a motionless diffuser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 847-851 (1971).

Metrologia (1)

J. Campos, "Radiometric calibration of charge-coupled-device video cameras," Metrologia 37, 459-464 (2000).

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Schröder, "Elimination of granulation in laser beam projections by means of moving diffusers," Opt. Commun. 3, 68-72 (1970).

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. J. Deeg and Z. Ninkov, "Characterization of a large-format charge-coupled device," Opt. Eng. 34, 43-49 (1995).

Other (8)

International Lighting Vocabulary, Publication CIE 17.4 (International Commission on Illumination, 1987).

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Flat field correction algorithm for CCD radiometric calibration using integrating spheres," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernandez-Andres, eds. (Granada, Spain, 2005), pp. 1183-1185.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Reduccion del ruido en CCD," in Resumenes de la VII Reunion Nacional de Optica, Universidad de Cantabria (Santander, 2003), p. 151.

A. J. P. Theuwissen, "Fundamentals of solid-state imaging," in Solid-State Imaging with Charge-Coupled Devices (Kluwer Academic, 1995), pp. 131-156.

T. Seelemann, Manager Camera Group, LaVision GmbH, Anna-Vandenhoeck-Ring 19, D-37081, Goettingen, Germany (personal communication, 2004).

J. R. Janesick, "Linearity," in Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices (SPIE Press, 2001), pp. 117-120.

F. Martinez Verdu, "Diseño de un colorimetro triestimulo a partir de una camara CCD-RGB," Ph.D. dissertation (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 2001).

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Experimental results on integration time-irradiance nonequivalence on a CCD Camera," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association, J.L.Nieves and J.Hernandez-Andres, eds. (Granada, Spain, 2005), pp. 1283-1286.

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