Abstract

A technique was developed to compute the radiance of the scene viewed by the optical receiver of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. The technique used the detection threshold and the false detection rate of the receiver to provide a passive radiometry measurement of Mars at the 1064  nm wavelength over a 2  nm bandwidth and subkilometer spatial resolution in addition to the altimetry and active radiometry measurements. The passive radiometry measurement is shown to have a 2% or better precision and has been stable over several Martian years. We describe the principle of operation of the instrument and its calibration and assess its performance from sample orbital measurements.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, "The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781-7797 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, and R. S. Afzal, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter: receiver model and performance analysis," Appl. Opt. 39, 2449-2460 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. S. Afzal, "Mars Observer Laser Altimeter: laser transmitter," Appl. Opt. 33, 3184-3188 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Ramos-Izquierdo, J. L. Bufton, and P. Hayes, "Optical system design and integration of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter," Appl. Opt. 33, 307-322 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. A. Albee, F. D. Palluconi, and R. E. Arvidson, "Mars Global Surveyor mission: overview and status," Science 279, 1671-1672 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. L. Albee, R. E. Arvidson, and F. D. Palluconi, "Overview of the Mars Global Surveyor mission," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,291-23,316 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. B. Ivanov and D. O. Muhleman, "Opacity of the Martian atmosphere from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4417-4420 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. T. Zuber and D. E. Smith, "Observations of the seasonal polar icecaps of Mars at 1064 nm," presented at the Third Mars Polar Science Conference, Alberta, Canada, 13-17 October 2003.
  11. S. Byrne, M. T. Zuber, and G. A. Neumann, "Interannual and seasonal behavior of Martian residual ice-cap albedo," Planet. Space Sci. (to be published).
  12. R.-R. Lu, S. Byrne, and M. T. Zuber, "Seasonal albedo changes on Mars from MOLA radiometry and TES: seeking an explanation for apparent summer snow," submitted to J. Geophys. Res.
  13. B. G. Bills, G. A. Neumann, D. E. Smith, and M. T. Zuber, "Improved estimate of tidal dissipation within Mars from MOLA observation of the shadow of Phobos," J. Geophys. Res. 110(E7), E07004 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Fröhlich and J. Lean, "Total solar irradiance variations: the construction of a composite and its comparison with models," in New Eyes to See Inside the Sun and Stars, F.L.Deubner, ed., International Astronomical Union Symposium 185 (Kluwer Academic, 1998), pp. 89-102.
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. S. Accetta and D. L. Shumaker, The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1993).
  16. B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Cambridge U. Press, 1993), Chap. 8.
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. I. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems (McGraw-Hill, 1962).
  18. P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, and J. Conradi, "Properties of avalanche photodiodes," RCA Rev. 35, 234-278 (1974).
  19. X. Sun, D. Reusser, H. Dautet, and J. B. Abshire, "Measurement of proton radiation damage of Si avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 44, 2160-2166 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. F. Bell III, "HST studies of Mars," in A Decade of Hubble Space Telescope Science, M.Livio, K.Noll, and M.Stiavelli, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 2003), pp. 1-24.
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. G. Bills, G. A. Neumann, D. E. Smith, and M. T. Zuber, "Improved estimate of tidal dissipation within Mars from MOLA observation of the shadow of Phobos," J. Geophys. Res. 110(E7), E07004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

A. L. Albee, R. E. Arvidson, and F. D. Palluconi, "Overview of the Mars Global Surveyor mission," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,291-23,316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (2)

A. A. Albee, F. D. Palluconi, and R. E. Arvidson, "Mars Global Surveyor mission: overview and status," Science 279, 1671-1672 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Ivanov and D. O. Muhleman, "Opacity of the Martian atmosphere from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4417-4420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

X. Sun, D. Reusser, H. Dautet, and J. B. Abshire, "Measurement of proton radiation damage of Si avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 44, 2160-2166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1992 (1)

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, "The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781-7797 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, and J. Conradi, "Properties of avalanche photodiodes," RCA Rev. 35, 234-278 (1974).

Abshire, J. B.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, and R. S. Afzal, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter: receiver model and performance analysis," Appl. Opt. 39, 2449-2460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, D. Reusser, H. Dautet, and J. B. Abshire, "Measurement of proton radiation damage of Si avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 44, 2160-2166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, "The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781-7797 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Accetta, J. S.

J. S. Accetta and D. L. Shumaker, The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1993).

Afzal, R. S.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, and R. S. Afzal, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter: receiver model and performance analysis," Appl. Opt. 39, 2449-2460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Afzal, "Mars Observer Laser Altimeter: laser transmitter," Appl. Opt. 33, 3184-3188 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aharonson, O.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Albee, A. A.

A. A. Albee, F. D. Palluconi, and R. E. Arvidson, "Mars Global Surveyor mission: overview and status," Science 279, 1671-1672 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albee, A. L.

A. L. Albee, R. E. Arvidson, and F. D. Palluconi, "Overview of the Mars Global Surveyor mission," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,291-23,316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arvidson, R. E.

A. L. Albee, R. E. Arvidson, and F. D. Palluconi, "Overview of the Mars Global Surveyor mission," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,291-23,316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Albee, F. D. Palluconi, and R. E. Arvidson, "Mars Global Surveyor mission: overview and status," Science 279, 1671-1672 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandfield, J. L.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Banerdt, W. B.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bell, J. F.

J. F. Bell III, "HST studies of Mars," in A Decade of Hubble Space Telescope Science, M.Livio, K.Noll, and M.Stiavelli, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 2003), pp. 1-24.
[CrossRef]

Bender, K.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bills, B. G.

B. G. Bills, G. A. Neumann, D. E. Smith, and M. T. Zuber, "Improved estimate of tidal dissipation within Mars from MOLA observation of the shadow of Phobos," J. Geophys. Res. 110(E7), E07004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bufton, J. L.

L. Ramos-Izquierdo, J. L. Bufton, and P. Hayes, "Optical system design and integration of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter," Appl. Opt. 33, 307-322 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, "The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781-7797 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, S.

S. Byrne, M. T. Zuber, and G. A. Neumann, "Interannual and seasonal behavior of Martian residual ice-cap albedo," Planet. Space Sci. (to be published).

R.-R. Lu, S. Byrne, and M. T. Zuber, "Seasonal albedo changes on Mars from MOLA radiometry and TES: seeking an explanation for apparent summer snow," submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Christensen, P. R.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clancy, R. T.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clark, R. L.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Conradi, J.

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, and J. Conradi, "Properties of avalanche photodiodes," RCA Rev. 35, 234-278 (1974).

Conrath, B. J.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dason, S.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dautet, H.

X. Sun, D. Reusser, H. Dautet, and J. B. Abshire, "Measurement of proton radiation damage of Si avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 44, 2160-2166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duxbury, T. C.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ford, P. G.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frey, H. V.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fröhlich, C.

C. Fröhlich and J. Lean, "Total solar irradiance variations: the construction of a composite and its comparison with models," in New Eyes to See Inside the Sun and Stars, F.L.Deubner, ed., International Astronomical Union Symposium 185 (Kluwer Academic, 1998), pp. 89-102.
[CrossRef]

Garvin, J. B.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, "The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781-7797 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Golombek, M. P.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gorelick, N.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Greene, E.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Greenfield, M.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, V. E.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hapke, B.

B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Cambridge U. Press, 1993), Chap. 8.
[CrossRef]

Hayes, P.

Head, J. W.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, "The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781-7797 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, A. B.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Ivanov and D. O. Muhleman, "Opacity of the Martian atmosphere from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4417-4420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jakosky, B. M.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, H. H.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmin, R. O.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lane, M. D.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lean, J.

C. Fröhlich and J. Lean, "Total solar irradiance variations: the construction of a composite and its comparison with models," in New Eyes to See Inside the Sun and Stars, F.L.Deubner, ed., International Astronomical Union Symposium 185 (Kluwer Academic, 1998), pp. 89-102.
[CrossRef]

Lemoine, F. G.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, R.-R.

R.-R. Lu, S. Byrne, and M. T. Zuber, "Seasonal albedo changes on Mars from MOLA radiometry and TES: seeking an explanation for apparent summer snow," submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Malin, M. C.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McGovern, P. J.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, R. J.

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, and J. Conradi, "Properties of avalanche photodiodes," RCA Rev. 35, 234-278 (1974).

Mehall, G. L.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mellon, M. T.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morris, R. V.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muhleman, D. O.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Ivanov and D. O. Muhleman, "Opacity of the Martian atmosphere from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4417-4420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, "The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781-7797 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Murray, K.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, G. A.

B. G. Bills, G. A. Neumann, D. E. Smith, and M. T. Zuber, "Improved estimate of tidal dissipation within Mars from MOLA observation of the shadow of Phobos," J. Geophys. Res. 110(E7), E07004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Byrne, M. T. Zuber, and G. A. Neumann, "Interannual and seasonal behavior of Martian residual ice-cap albedo," Planet. Space Sci. (to be published).

Palluconi, F. D.

A. L. Albee, R. E. Arvidson, and F. D. Palluconi, "Overview of the Mars Global Surveyor mission," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,291-23,316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Albee, F. D. Palluconi, and R. E. Arvidson, "Mars Global Surveyor mission: overview and status," Science 279, 1671-1672 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearl, J. C.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pettengill, G. H.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. J.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ramos-Izquierdo, L.

Reusser, D.

X. Sun, D. Reusser, H. Dautet, and J. B. Abshire, "Measurement of proton radiation damage of Si avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 44, 2160-2166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roush, T.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rowlands, D. D.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ruff, S. W.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shumaker, D. L.

J. S. Accetta and D. L. Shumaker, The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1993).

Silverman, S.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Skolnik, M. I.

M. I. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems (McGraw-Hill, 1962).

Smith, D. E.

B. G. Bills, G. A. Neumann, D. E. Smith, and M. T. Zuber, "Improved estimate of tidal dissipation within Mars from MOLA observation of the shadow of Phobos," J. Geophys. Res. 110(E7), E07004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, "The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781-7797 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber and D. E. Smith, "Observations of the seasonal polar icecaps of Mars at 1064 nm," presented at the Third Mars Polar Science Conference, Alberta, Canada, 13-17 October 2003.

Smith, M. D.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S. C.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, "The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781-7797 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Abshire, X. Sun, and R. S. Afzal, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter: receiver model and performance analysis," Appl. Opt. 39, 2449-2460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, D. Reusser, H. Dautet, and J. B. Abshire, "Measurement of proton radiation damage of Si avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 44, 2160-2166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Titus, T. N.

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Webb, P. P.

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, and J. Conradi, "Properties of avalanche photodiodes," RCA Rev. 35, 234-278 (1974).

Zuber, M. T.

B. G. Bills, G. A. Neumann, D. E. Smith, and M. T. Zuber, "Improved estimate of tidal dissipation within Mars from MOLA observation of the shadow of Phobos," J. Geophys. Res. 110(E7), E07004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, "The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781-7797 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber and D. E. Smith, "Observations of the seasonal polar icecaps of Mars at 1064 nm," presented at the Third Mars Polar Science Conference, Alberta, Canada, 13-17 October 2003.

S. Byrne, M. T. Zuber, and G. A. Neumann, "Interannual and seasonal behavior of Martian residual ice-cap albedo," Planet. Space Sci. (to be published).

R.-R. Lu, S. Byrne, and M. T. Zuber, "Seasonal albedo changes on Mars from MOLA radiometry and TES: seeking an explanation for apparent summer snow," submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Zwally, H. J.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. B. Ivanov and D. O. Muhleman, "Opacity of the Martian atmosphere from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) observations," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4417-4420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

X. Sun, D. Reusser, H. Dautet, and J. B. Abshire, "Measurement of proton radiation damage of Si avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 44, 2160-2166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

B. G. Bills, G. A. Neumann, D. E. Smith, and M. T. Zuber, "Improved estimate of tidal dissipation within Mars from MOLA observation of the shadow of Phobos," J. Geophys. Res. 110(E7), E07004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Albee, R. E. Arvidson, and F. D. Palluconi, "Overview of the Mars Global Surveyor mission," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,291-23,316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin, J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, G. H. Pettengill, R. J. Phillips, S. C. Solomon, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, M. P. Golombek, F. G. Lemoine, G. A. Neumann, D. D. Rowlands, O. Aharonson, P. G. Ford, A. B. Ivanov, P. J. McGovern, J. B. Abshire, R. S. Afzal, and X. Sun, "Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA): experiment summary after the first year of global mapping of Mars," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,689-23,722 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Christensen, J. L. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, H. H. Kieffer, T. N. Titus, M. C. Malin, R. V. Morris, M. D. Lane, R. L. Clark, B. M. Jakosky, M. T. Mellon, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, M. D. Smith, R. T. Clancy, R. O. Kuzmin, T. Roush, G. L. Mehall, N. Gorelick, K. Bender, K. Murray, S. Dason, E. Greene, S. Silverman, and M. Greenfield, "Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: investigation description and surface science results," J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23,823-23,871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, S. C. Solomon, D. O. Muhleman, J. W. Head, J. B. Garvin, J. B. Abshire, and J. L. Bufton, "The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7781-7797 (1992).
[CrossRef]

RCA Rev. (1)

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, and J. Conradi, "Properties of avalanche photodiodes," RCA Rev. 35, 234-278 (1974).

Science (1)

A. A. Albee, F. D. Palluconi, and R. E. Arvidson, "Mars Global Surveyor mission: overview and status," Science 279, 1671-1672 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

M. T. Zuber and D. E. Smith, "Observations of the seasonal polar icecaps of Mars at 1064 nm," presented at the Third Mars Polar Science Conference, Alberta, Canada, 13-17 October 2003.

S. Byrne, M. T. Zuber, and G. A. Neumann, "Interannual and seasonal behavior of Martian residual ice-cap albedo," Planet. Space Sci. (to be published).

R.-R. Lu, S. Byrne, and M. T. Zuber, "Seasonal albedo changes on Mars from MOLA radiometry and TES: seeking an explanation for apparent summer snow," submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

C. Fröhlich and J. Lean, "Total solar irradiance variations: the construction of a composite and its comparison with models," in New Eyes to See Inside the Sun and Stars, F.L.Deubner, ed., International Astronomical Union Symposium 185 (Kluwer Academic, 1998), pp. 89-102.
[CrossRef]

J. S. Accetta and D. L. Shumaker, The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 1993).

B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Cambridge U. Press, 1993), Chap. 8.
[CrossRef]

M. I. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems (McGraw-Hill, 1962).

J. F. Bell III, "HST studies of Mars," in A Decade of Hubble Space Telescope Science, M.Livio, K.Noll, and M.Stiavelli, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 2003), pp. 1-24.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MOLA measurement configuration and geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MOLA channel 2 (Ch2) false-alarm rate versus threshold setting measured with the MGS in orbit around Mars on 13 September 2001. The measurements were taken as the MGS flew from the dark side of Mars to the sunlit side. The prelaunch dark-noise measurements are also plotted for comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simplified MOLA block diagram.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of MOLA receiver model and the measured channel 2 false-alarm rate as a function of threshold levels and incident background light level.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

MOLA channel 2 false-alarm rate versus threshold levels for background light ranging from dark to 10 nW.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contour plot of relative error (standard deviation of the mean) in MOLA passive radiometry measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sample MOLA threshold and false-alarm count rates in normal ranging mode. Data taken on 29 June 2001 (orbit 20,316).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Mars radiance factor from MOLA channel 2 passive radiometry measurement and active radiometry measurement for the day side of orbit 20,316 on 29 June 2001. The difference in IF is caused by the backscattering and attenuation of dust in the atmosphere carried as part of a nascent dust storm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Images of Mars from the HST and by MOLA passive radiometry measurement. The HST image was taken by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) at 1044 ± 31 nm wavelength at a resolution of 20–30 km per pixel and a solar illumination angle of ∼3°. The MOLA measurement had an along-track spatial resolution of 3 km and orbit spacing of 3 km at the equator.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Average radiance factors of two 2.5° × 5° regions shown in Fig. 11 versus the seasonal longitude of the Sun (Ls , angular position of the planet in its orbit around the Sun with 0° chosen to be the northern vernal equinox). The data were collected from the commencement of the mapping phase, March 1999–December 2004.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Image of Mars made solely from the MOLA passive radiometry measurements over the same period as for Fig. 10.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Instrument Parameter Values Relevant for Passive Radiometry Measurements

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mars Global Surveyer Chronology and Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter Measurement Configurations

Equations (22)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P 0 = I M a r s Δ λ η r c v r π ( θ F O V 2 ) 2 A t e l ,
I / F = π I M a r s I 0 cos ( θ s ) .
N f a = T g / T f a ,
p fa = τ W / T fa .
p fa = y t p ( y ) d y ,
p ( y ) = p c ( y x ) p d ( x ) d x .
p d ( x ) =
1 ( 2 π G 2 F n ¯ e ) 1 / 2 { 1 + [ ( x G n e ) ( F 1 ) ] / G F n e } 3 / 2 × exp ( ( x G n ¯ e ) 2 2 G 2 F n ¯ e { 1 + [ ( x - G n e ) ( F 1 ) ] / GF n e } ) ,
F = k e f f G + ( 2 1 G ) ( 1 k e ff ) ,
x ¯ = G n ¯ e ,
σ d 2 = F G 2 n ¯ e .
n ¯ e = ( η A P D P 0 h c / λ + I d b q ) τ n ,
τ n = 1 2 B W n .
σ c 2 = ( I c 2 + 2 q I d s ) B W n ( τ n q ) 2 = ( I c 2 2 q 2 + I d s q ) τ n ,
p fa = 1 2 erfc ( y t x 2 σ c ) × exp ( ( x x ¯ ) 2 2 σ d 2 { 1 + [ ( x x ¯ ) ( F 1 ) G ] / σ d 2 } ) ( 2 π σ d 2 ) 1 / 2 { 1 + [ ( x x ¯ ) ( F 1 ) G ] / σ d 2 } 3 / 2  d x .
y th = ( τ n η d G h c / λ a thre R det ) v th ,
P 0 = ( 0.66 + 0.0097 T d ) f ( v th , N fa ) ,
Q = k 1 ( T d T m ) = k 2 ( T m T i ) ,
T ˙ d = Q k 1 ( T d T m ) c d ,
T ˙ m = k 1 ( T d T m ) k 2 ( T m T i ) c m ,
v eth = v th ( a 0 + a 1 T d ) ,
σ P = [ ( P 0 y th σ y th ) 2 + ( P 0 N fa σ N fa ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,

Metrics