Abstract

A photopolarimeter based on two different kinds of diffraction gratings (a two-grating photopolarimeter) has been developed for real-time measurements of the four elements of the Stokes vector. The main elements of the device are a pure polarization grating and an ordinary transmission grating, both recorded by means of holographic techniques in thin films of organic materials. The first one consists of a diffraction grating recorded by two interfering opposite circularly polarized beams in a Langmuir–Blodgett film of an azo-compound material. The second component is a grating recorded by two interfering parallel circularly polarized beams in a thin film of a photosensitive polymer. Both gratings offer long time stability and good diffraction efficiency. Four photodiodes collect the first-order diffracted beams from these gratings, the output signals of which are read through an analog-to-digital converter by a PC. The optical alignment of the device is easy and the calibration is realized in a one-step procedure.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I. M. Elminyawi, and F. G. Grosz, "Construction, calibration and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 84-88 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. M. A. Azzam, A. M. El-Saba, and M. A. G. Abushagur, "Spectrophotopolarimeter based on multiple reflections in a coated dielectric slab," Thin Solid Films 53, 313-314 (1998).
  3. T. Todorov and L. Nikolova, "Spectrophotopolarimeter: fast simultaneous real-time measurement of light parameters," Opt. Lett. 17, 358-359 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. L. Nikolova, M. Ivanov, T. Todorov, and S. Stoyanov, "Spectrophotopolarimeter: a simplified version for real time measurement at selected wavelengths," Bulg. J. Phys. 20, 46-54 (1993).
  5. E. Masetti and A. Krasilnikova, "Development and test of a new grating-polarimeter and its application in ellipsometric measurements," Thin Solid Films 455, 138-142 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosentive Langmuir Blodget films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2107-2109 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, M. Ivanov, F. Andruzzi, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Polarization holographic grating in side-chain azobenzene polyesters with linear and circular photoanisotropy," Appl. Opt. 35, 3835-3840 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. I. Naydenova, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. C. R. Holme, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesterers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1257-1265 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, and S. G. Yudin, "Diffractive device for polarimetric and interferometric applications," Italian patent TO2001A000205 (8 March 2001).
  10. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir-Blodgett films for polarimetric applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1157-1161 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, M. Watanabe, R. Afune, and S. Ushioda, "Surface anisotropy of polyimide film irradiated with linearly polarized ultraviolet light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1832-1834 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland, 1979).

2004 (1)

E. Masetti and A. Krasilnikova, "Development and test of a new grating-polarimeter and its application in ellipsometric measurements," Thin Solid Films 455, 138-142 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosentive Langmuir Blodget films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2107-2109 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, M. Watanabe, R. Afune, and S. Ushioda, "Surface anisotropy of polyimide film irradiated with linearly polarized ultraviolet light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1832-1834 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. M. A. Azzam, A. M. El-Saba, and M. A. G. Abushagur, "Spectrophotopolarimeter based on multiple reflections in a coated dielectric slab," Thin Solid Films 53, 313-314 (1998).

I. Naydenova, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. C. R. Holme, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesterers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1257-1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

L. Nikolova, M. Ivanov, T. Todorov, and S. Stoyanov, "Spectrophotopolarimeter: a simplified version for real time measurement at selected wavelengths," Bulg. J. Phys. 20, 46-54 (1993).

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

R. M. A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I. M. Elminyawi, and F. G. Grosz, "Construction, calibration and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 84-88 (1988).
[Crossref]

Abushagur, M. A. G.

R. M. A. Azzam, A. M. El-Saba, and M. A. G. Abushagur, "Spectrophotopolarimeter based on multiple reflections in a coated dielectric slab," Thin Solid Films 53, 313-314 (1998).

Afune, R.

K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, M. Watanabe, R. Afune, and S. Ushioda, "Surface anisotropy of polyimide film irradiated with linearly polarized ultraviolet light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1832-1834 (1998).
[Crossref]

Andruzzi, F.

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, A. M. El-Saba, and M. A. G. Abushagur, "Spectrophotopolarimeter based on multiple reflections in a coated dielectric slab," Thin Solid Films 53, 313-314 (1998).

R. M. A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I. M. Elminyawi, and F. G. Grosz, "Construction, calibration and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 84-88 (1988).
[Crossref]

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland, 1979).

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland, 1979).

Blinov, L. M.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir-Blodgett films for polarimetric applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1157-1161 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosentive Langmuir Blodget films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2107-2109 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, and S. G. Yudin, "Diffractive device for polarimetric and interferometric applications," Italian patent TO2001A000205 (8 March 2001).

Cipparrone, G.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir-Blodgett films for polarimetric applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1157-1161 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosentive Langmuir Blodget films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2107-2109 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, and S. G. Yudin, "Diffractive device for polarimetric and interferometric applications," Italian patent TO2001A000205 (8 March 2001).

Elminyawi, I. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I. M. Elminyawi, and F. G. Grosz, "Construction, calibration and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 84-88 (1988).
[Crossref]

El-Saba, A. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, A. M. El-Saba, and M. A. G. Abushagur, "Spectrophotopolarimeter based on multiple reflections in a coated dielectric slab," Thin Solid Films 53, 313-314 (1998).

Grosz, F. G.

R. M. A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I. M. Elminyawi, and F. G. Grosz, "Construction, calibration and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 84-88 (1988).
[Crossref]

Holme, N. C. R.

Hvilsted, S.

Ivanov, M.

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, M. Ivanov, F. Andruzzi, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Polarization holographic grating in side-chain azobenzene polyesters with linear and circular photoanisotropy," Appl. Opt. 35, 3835-3840 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Nikolova, M. Ivanov, T. Todorov, and S. Stoyanov, "Spectrophotopolarimeter: a simplified version for real time measurement at selected wavelengths," Bulg. J. Phys. 20, 46-54 (1993).

Krasilnikova, A.

E. Masetti and A. Krasilnikova, "Development and test of a new grating-polarimeter and its application in ellipsometric measurements," Thin Solid Films 455, 138-142 (2004).
[Crossref]

Masetti, E.

E. Masetti and A. Krasilnikova, "Development and test of a new grating-polarimeter and its application in ellipsometric measurements," Thin Solid Films 455, 138-142 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. M. A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I. M. Elminyawi, and F. G. Grosz, "Construction, calibration and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 84-88 (1988).
[Crossref]

Mazzulla, A.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir-Blodgett films for polarimetric applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1157-1161 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosentive Langmuir Blodget films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2107-2109 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, and S. G. Yudin, "Diffractive device for polarimetric and interferometric applications," Italian patent TO2001A000205 (8 March 2001).

Naydenova, I.

Nikolova, L.

Palto, S. P.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosentive Langmuir Blodget films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2107-2109 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, and S. G. Yudin, "Diffractive device for polarimetric and interferometric applications," Italian patent TO2001A000205 (8 March 2001).

Ramanujam, P. S.

Sakamoto, K.

K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, M. Watanabe, R. Afune, and S. Ushioda, "Surface anisotropy of polyimide film irradiated with linearly polarized ultraviolet light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1832-1834 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stoyanov, S.

L. Nikolova, M. Ivanov, T. Todorov, and S. Stoyanov, "Spectrophotopolarimeter: a simplified version for real time measurement at selected wavelengths," Bulg. J. Phys. 20, 46-54 (1993).

Todorov, T.

Usami, K.

K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, M. Watanabe, R. Afune, and S. Ushioda, "Surface anisotropy of polyimide film irradiated with linearly polarized ultraviolet light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1832-1834 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ushioda, S.

K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, M. Watanabe, R. Afune, and S. Ushioda, "Surface anisotropy of polyimide film irradiated with linearly polarized ultraviolet light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1832-1834 (1998).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, M. Watanabe, R. Afune, and S. Ushioda, "Surface anisotropy of polyimide film irradiated with linearly polarized ultraviolet light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1832-1834 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yudin, S. G.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosentive Langmuir Blodget films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2107-2109 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, and S. G. Yudin, "Diffractive device for polarimetric and interferometric applications," Italian patent TO2001A000205 (8 March 2001).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosentive Langmuir Blodget films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2107-2109 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Sakamoto, K. Usami, M. Watanabe, R. Afune, and S. Ushioda, "Surface anisotropy of polyimide film irradiated with linearly polarized ultraviolet light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1832-1834 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bulg. J. Phys. (1)

L. Nikolova, M. Ivanov, T. Todorov, and S. Stoyanov, "Spectrophotopolarimeter: a simplified version for real time measurement at selected wavelengths," Bulg. J. Phys. 20, 46-54 (1993).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. M. A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I. M. Elminyawi, and F. G. Grosz, "Construction, calibration and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 84-88 (1988).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (2)

R. M. A. Azzam, A. M. El-Saba, and M. A. G. Abushagur, "Spectrophotopolarimeter based on multiple reflections in a coated dielectric slab," Thin Solid Films 53, 313-314 (1998).

E. Masetti and A. Krasilnikova, "Development and test of a new grating-polarimeter and its application in ellipsometric measurements," Thin Solid Films 455, 138-142 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. M. Blinov, S. P. Palto, and S. G. Yudin, "Diffractive device for polarimetric and interferometric applications," Italian patent TO2001A000205 (8 March 2001).

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland, 1979).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarization analyses of the normalized intensities of the incident, transmitted, and diffracted beams: (a) incident (circles) and zero-order (squares) beams, (b) +1 order, and (c) −1 order for circular incident polarization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of the TGP. I 0, incident beams; I 1I 4, diffracted beams; PG, polarization grating; IG, intensity grating; P and P 45°, polarizers; Ph1–Ph4, photodiodes; PC, personal computer with acquisition system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stokes parameters as a function of the quarter-wave plate rotation angle α. Continuous curves are the theory and circles are the data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison between data (circles) and theory (curve) of the ellipticity e as a function of the quarter-wave plate rotation angle α.

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E = | E x E y exp ( i θ ) | ,
i 1 = E L 2 k 1 = E x 2 + E y 2 + 2 E x E y sin θ 2 k 1 ,
i 2 = E R 2 k 2 = E x     2 + E y     2 - 2 E x E y sin θ 2 k 2 ,
i 3 = E x     2 + E y     2 + 2 E x E y cos θ 2 k 3 ,
i 4 = E x     2 k 4 ,
i 1 = S 0 + S 3 2 k 1 ,
i 2 = S 0 S 3 2 k 2 ,
i 3 = S 0 + S 2 2 k 3 ,
i 4 = S 0 + S 1 2 k 4 .
S 0 = k 1 i 1 + k 2 i 2 ,
S 1 = 2 k 4 i 4 k 1 i 1 k 2 i 2 ,
S 2 = 2 k 3 i 3 k 1 i 1 k 2 i 2 ,
S 3 = k 1 i 1 k 2 i 2 .
k 1 = i 0 2 i 1 ,
k 2 = i 0 2 i 2 ,
k 3 = i 0 2 i 3 ,
k 4 = i 0 i 4 .
e = tan [ 1 2 arcsin ( i 2 i 1 i 2 + i 1 ) ] .
S 0 = 1 ,
S 1 = 1 2 + 1 2 cos ( 4 α ) ,
S 2 = 1 2 sin ( 4 α ) ,
S 3 = sin ( 2 α ) ,
e = tan { 1 2 arcsin [ sin ( 2 α ) ] } .

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