Abstract

A rectangular negative branch off-axis hybrid resonator was coupled to a 10  kW class chemical oxygen-iodine laser. Resonator setup and alignment turned out to be straightforward. The extracted power was 6.6  kW and reached approximately 70% of the power for an optimized stable resonator. The divergence of the emitted laser beam in the unstable direction was lower than two times the diffraction limit. Experimentally measured margins for mirror misalignment were found in close agreement with numerical calculations.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Brederlow, E. Fill, and K. J. Witte, The High-Power Iodine Laser, Vol. 34 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 1983).
  2. D. J. Benard, W. E. McDermott, N. R. Pchelkin, and R. R. Bousek, "Efficient operation of a 100-W transverse-flow oxygen-iodine chemical laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 40-41 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Grünewald, J. Handke, W. O. Schall, and F. Duschek, "COIL fiber transmission for material cutting applications," in XIV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, K. M. Abramski, E. F. Plinski, and W. Wolinski, eds., Proc. SPIE 5120, 345-349 (2003).
  4. J. Handke, K. M. Grünewald, and F. Duschek, "Comparative studies on small signal gain and output power for COIL systems," in XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A. Lapucci and M. Ciofini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4184, 45-48 (2001).
  5. K. M. Grünewald, J. Handke, and F. Duschek, "Small signal gain and temperature profiles in supersonic COIL," in XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A. Lapucci and M. Ciofini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4184, 75-78 (2001).
  6. L. von Entress-Fürsteneck, K. Grünewald, J. Handke, W. L. Bohn, and W. O. Schall, "Investigation of power extraction for a Supersonic Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser," in Gas and Chemical Lasers and Intense Beam Applications, E.A.Dorko and J.L.Moler, eds., Proc. SPIE 3268, 82-87 (1998).
  7. A. E. Siegman, "Unstable optical resonators," Appl. Opt. 13, 353-367 (1974).
  8. Yu. A. Ananev, V. I. Kuprenyuk, and V. E. Sherstobitov, "Properties of unstable resonators with field rotation. I. Theoretical principles," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1105-1110 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. H. Paxton and W. P. Latham, Jr., "Unstable resonators with 90° beam rotation," Appl. Opt. 25, 2939-2946 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. P. Latham, Jr., A. H. Paxton, and G. C. Dente, "Laser with 90-degree beam rotation," in Optical Resonators, D. A. Holmes, ed., Proc. SPIE1224, 265-282 (1990).
  11. J. Yuqi, Y. Bailing, Z. Dazheng, S. Fengting, D. Liping, and Z. Qi, "Experimental investigation on a novel unstable resonator for chemical oxygen-iodine laser," in XII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A.S.Boreisho and G.A.Baranov, eds., Proc. SPIE 3574, 564-568 (1998).
  12. J. Yuqi, Y. Bailing, Z. Dazheng, S. Fengting, D. Liping, and Z. Qi, "Experimental investigation of an unstable ring resonator with 90-deg beam rotation for a chemical oxygen iodine laser," Appl. Opt. 38, 3249-3252 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Bailing, "Latest advances in COIL at Dalian," in XII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A.S.Boreisho and G.A.Baranov, eds., Proc. SPIE 3574, 281-289 (1998).
  14. P. E. Dyer and D. J. James, "Studies of a TEA CO2 laser with a cylindrical mirror unstable resonator," Opt. Commun. 15, 20-25 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. L. Bourne and P. E. Dyer, "A novel stable-unstable resonator for beam control of rare-gas halide lasers," Opt. Commun. 31, 193-196 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Hodgson, T. Haase, and H. Weber, "Improved resonator design for rod lasers and slab lasers," in High-Power Solid State Lasers and Applications, C. L. M. Ireland, ed., Proc. SPIE 1277, 70-84 (1990).
  17. K. Kuba, T. Yamamoto, and S. Yagi, "Improvement of slab laser beam divergence by using an off-axis unstable-stable resonator," Opt. Lett. 15, 121-123 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. F.Krupke and W. R. Sooy, "Properties of an unstable confocal resonator CO2 laser system," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 575-586 (1969).
  19. W. O. Schall, T. Hall, and J. Handke, "Unstable Resonator for COIL," in XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A.Lapucci and M.Ciofini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4184, 461-464 (2001).
  20. T. Hall, F. Duschek, K. Grünewald, J. Handke, and W. O. Schall, "Numerical studies on hybrid resonators for a medium sized COIL," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Laser, J.Kodymova, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 131-134 (2005).
  21. A. G. Fox and T. Li, "Resonant modes in a maser interferometer," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453 (1961).
  22. E. A. Sziklas and A. E. Siegman, "Mode calculations in unstable resonators with flowing saturable gain. 2: Fast Fourier transform method," Appl. Opt. 14, 1874-1889 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Th. Hall, "Numerical studies on hybrid resonators for a medium sized COIL," Opt. Eng. 44, 1-6 (2005).

1999 (1)

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

1979 (3)

O. L. Bourne and P. E. Dyer, "A novel stable-unstable resonator for beam control of rare-gas halide lasers," Opt. Commun. 31, 193-196 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Benard, W. E. McDermott, N. R. Pchelkin, and R. R. Bousek, "Efficient operation of a 100-W transverse-flow oxygen-iodine chemical laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 40-41 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Ananev, V. I. Kuprenyuk, and V. E. Sherstobitov, "Properties of unstable resonators with field rotation. I. Theoretical principles," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1105-1110 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

1961 (1)

A. G. Fox and T. Li, "Resonant modes in a maser interferometer," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453 (1961).

Ananev, Yu. A.

Yu. A. Ananev, V. I. Kuprenyuk, and V. E. Sherstobitov, "Properties of unstable resonators with field rotation. I. Theoretical principles," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1105-1110 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bailing, Y.

J. Yuqi, Y. Bailing, Z. Dazheng, S. Fengting, D. Liping, and Z. Qi, "Experimental investigation of an unstable ring resonator with 90-deg beam rotation for a chemical oxygen iodine laser," Appl. Opt. 38, 3249-3252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Yuqi, Y. Bailing, Z. Dazheng, S. Fengting, D. Liping, and Z. Qi, "Experimental investigation on a novel unstable resonator for chemical oxygen-iodine laser," in XII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A.S.Boreisho and G.A.Baranov, eds., Proc. SPIE 3574, 564-568 (1998).

Y. Bailing, "Latest advances in COIL at Dalian," in XII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A.S.Boreisho and G.A.Baranov, eds., Proc. SPIE 3574, 281-289 (1998).

Benard, D. J.

D. J. Benard, W. E. McDermott, N. R. Pchelkin, and R. R. Bousek, "Efficient operation of a 100-W transverse-flow oxygen-iodine chemical laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 40-41 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bohn, W. L.

L. von Entress-Fürsteneck, K. Grünewald, J. Handke, W. L. Bohn, and W. O. Schall, "Investigation of power extraction for a Supersonic Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser," in Gas and Chemical Lasers and Intense Beam Applications, E.A.Dorko and J.L.Moler, eds., Proc. SPIE 3268, 82-87 (1998).

Bourne, O. L.

O. L. Bourne and P. E. Dyer, "A novel stable-unstable resonator for beam control of rare-gas halide lasers," Opt. Commun. 31, 193-196 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bousek, R. R.

D. J. Benard, W. E. McDermott, N. R. Pchelkin, and R. R. Bousek, "Efficient operation of a 100-W transverse-flow oxygen-iodine chemical laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 40-41 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Brederlow, G.

G. Brederlow, E. Fill, and K. J. Witte, The High-Power Iodine Laser, Vol. 34 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 1983).

Dazheng, Z.

J. Yuqi, Y. Bailing, Z. Dazheng, S. Fengting, D. Liping, and Z. Qi, "Experimental investigation of an unstable ring resonator with 90-deg beam rotation for a chemical oxygen iodine laser," Appl. Opt. 38, 3249-3252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Yuqi, Y. Bailing, Z. Dazheng, S. Fengting, D. Liping, and Z. Qi, "Experimental investigation on a novel unstable resonator for chemical oxygen-iodine laser," in XII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A.S.Boreisho and G.A.Baranov, eds., Proc. SPIE 3574, 564-568 (1998).

Dente, G. C.

W. P. Latham, Jr., A. H. Paxton, and G. C. Dente, "Laser with 90-degree beam rotation," in Optical Resonators, D. A. Holmes, ed., Proc. SPIE1224, 265-282 (1990).

Duschek, F.

T. Hall, F. Duschek, K. Grünewald, J. Handke, and W. O. Schall, "Numerical studies on hybrid resonators for a medium sized COIL," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Laser, J.Kodymova, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 131-134 (2005).

K. Grünewald, J. Handke, W. O. Schall, and F. Duschek, "COIL fiber transmission for material cutting applications," in XIV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, K. M. Abramski, E. F. Plinski, and W. Wolinski, eds., Proc. SPIE 5120, 345-349 (2003).

J. Handke, K. M. Grünewald, and F. Duschek, "Comparative studies on small signal gain and output power for COIL systems," in XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A. Lapucci and M. Ciofini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4184, 45-48 (2001).

K. M. Grünewald, J. Handke, and F. Duschek, "Small signal gain and temperature profiles in supersonic COIL," in XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A. Lapucci and M. Ciofini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4184, 75-78 (2001).

Dyer, P. E.

O. L. Bourne and P. E. Dyer, "A novel stable-unstable resonator for beam control of rare-gas halide lasers," Opt. Commun. 31, 193-196 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Dyer and D. J. James, "Studies of a TEA CO2 laser with a cylindrical mirror unstable resonator," Opt. Commun. 15, 20-25 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Fengting, S.

J. Yuqi, Y. Bailing, Z. Dazheng, S. Fengting, D. Liping, and Z. Qi, "Experimental investigation of an unstable ring resonator with 90-deg beam rotation for a chemical oxygen iodine laser," Appl. Opt. 38, 3249-3252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Yuqi, Y. Bailing, Z. Dazheng, S. Fengting, D. Liping, and Z. Qi, "Experimental investigation on a novel unstable resonator for chemical oxygen-iodine laser," in XII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A.S.Boreisho and G.A.Baranov, eds., Proc. SPIE 3574, 564-568 (1998).

Fill, E.

G. Brederlow, E. Fill, and K. J. Witte, The High-Power Iodine Laser, Vol. 34 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 1983).

Fox, A. G.

A. G. Fox and T. Li, "Resonant modes in a maser interferometer," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453 (1961).

Grünewald, K.

T. Hall, F. Duschek, K. Grünewald, J. Handke, and W. O. Schall, "Numerical studies on hybrid resonators for a medium sized COIL," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Laser, J.Kodymova, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 131-134 (2005).

K. Grünewald, J. Handke, W. O. Schall, and F. Duschek, "COIL fiber transmission for material cutting applications," in XIV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, K. M. Abramski, E. F. Plinski, and W. Wolinski, eds., Proc. SPIE 5120, 345-349 (2003).

L. von Entress-Fürsteneck, K. Grünewald, J. Handke, W. L. Bohn, and W. O. Schall, "Investigation of power extraction for a Supersonic Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser," in Gas and Chemical Lasers and Intense Beam Applications, E.A.Dorko and J.L.Moler, eds., Proc. SPIE 3268, 82-87 (1998).

Grünewald, K. M.

K. M. Grünewald, J. Handke, and F. Duschek, "Small signal gain and temperature profiles in supersonic COIL," in XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A. Lapucci and M. Ciofini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4184, 75-78 (2001).

J. Handke, K. M. Grünewald, and F. Duschek, "Comparative studies on small signal gain and output power for COIL systems," in XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A. Lapucci and M. Ciofini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4184, 45-48 (2001).

Haase, T.

N. Hodgson, T. Haase, and H. Weber, "Improved resonator design for rod lasers and slab lasers," in High-Power Solid State Lasers and Applications, C. L. M. Ireland, ed., Proc. SPIE 1277, 70-84 (1990).

Hall, T.

W. O. Schall, T. Hall, and J. Handke, "Unstable Resonator for COIL," in XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A.Lapucci and M.Ciofini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4184, 461-464 (2001).

T. Hall, F. Duschek, K. Grünewald, J. Handke, and W. O. Schall, "Numerical studies on hybrid resonators for a medium sized COIL," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Laser, J.Kodymova, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 131-134 (2005).

Hall, Th.

Th. Hall, "Numerical studies on hybrid resonators for a medium sized COIL," Opt. Eng. 44, 1-6 (2005).

Handke, J.

T. Hall, F. Duschek, K. Grünewald, J. Handke, and W. O. Schall, "Numerical studies on hybrid resonators for a medium sized COIL," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Laser, J.Kodymova, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 131-134 (2005).

W. O. Schall, T. Hall, and J. Handke, "Unstable Resonator for COIL," in XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A.Lapucci and M.Ciofini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4184, 461-464 (2001).

K. M. Grünewald, J. Handke, and F. Duschek, "Small signal gain and temperature profiles in supersonic COIL," in XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A. Lapucci and M. Ciofini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4184, 75-78 (2001).

J. Handke, K. M. Grünewald, and F. Duschek, "Comparative studies on small signal gain and output power for COIL systems," in XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A. Lapucci and M. Ciofini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4184, 45-48 (2001).

L. von Entress-Fürsteneck, K. Grünewald, J. Handke, W. L. Bohn, and W. O. Schall, "Investigation of power extraction for a Supersonic Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser," in Gas and Chemical Lasers and Intense Beam Applications, E.A.Dorko and J.L.Moler, eds., Proc. SPIE 3268, 82-87 (1998).

K. Grünewald, J. Handke, W. O. Schall, and F. Duschek, "COIL fiber transmission for material cutting applications," in XIV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, K. M. Abramski, E. F. Plinski, and W. Wolinski, eds., Proc. SPIE 5120, 345-349 (2003).

Hodgson, N.

N. Hodgson, T. Haase, and H. Weber, "Improved resonator design for rod lasers and slab lasers," in High-Power Solid State Lasers and Applications, C. L. M. Ireland, ed., Proc. SPIE 1277, 70-84 (1990).

James, D. J.

P. E. Dyer and D. J. James, "Studies of a TEA CO2 laser with a cylindrical mirror unstable resonator," Opt. Commun. 15, 20-25 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

W. F.Krupke and W. R. Sooy, "Properties of an unstable confocal resonator CO2 laser system," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 575-586 (1969).

Kuba, K.

Kuprenyuk, V. I.

Yu. A. Ananev, V. I. Kuprenyuk, and V. E. Sherstobitov, "Properties of unstable resonators with field rotation. I. Theoretical principles," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1105-1110 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Latham, W. P.

A. H. Paxton and W. P. Latham, Jr., "Unstable resonators with 90° beam rotation," Appl. Opt. 25, 2939-2946 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Latham, Jr., A. H. Paxton, and G. C. Dente, "Laser with 90-degree beam rotation," in Optical Resonators, D. A. Holmes, ed., Proc. SPIE1224, 265-282 (1990).

Li, T.

A. G. Fox and T. Li, "Resonant modes in a maser interferometer," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453 (1961).

Liping, D.

J. Yuqi, Y. Bailing, Z. Dazheng, S. Fengting, D. Liping, and Z. Qi, "Experimental investigation of an unstable ring resonator with 90-deg beam rotation for a chemical oxygen iodine laser," Appl. Opt. 38, 3249-3252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Yuqi, Y. Bailing, Z. Dazheng, S. Fengting, D. Liping, and Z. Qi, "Experimental investigation on a novel unstable resonator for chemical oxygen-iodine laser," in XII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A.S.Boreisho and G.A.Baranov, eds., Proc. SPIE 3574, 564-568 (1998).

McDermott, W. E.

D. J. Benard, W. E. McDermott, N. R. Pchelkin, and R. R. Bousek, "Efficient operation of a 100-W transverse-flow oxygen-iodine chemical laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 40-41 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Paxton, A. H.

A. H. Paxton and W. P. Latham, Jr., "Unstable resonators with 90° beam rotation," Appl. Opt. 25, 2939-2946 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Latham, Jr., A. H. Paxton, and G. C. Dente, "Laser with 90-degree beam rotation," in Optical Resonators, D. A. Holmes, ed., Proc. SPIE1224, 265-282 (1990).

Pchelkin, N. R.

D. J. Benard, W. E. McDermott, N. R. Pchelkin, and R. R. Bousek, "Efficient operation of a 100-W transverse-flow oxygen-iodine chemical laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 40-41 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Qi, Z.

J. Yuqi, Y. Bailing, Z. Dazheng, S. Fengting, D. Liping, and Z. Qi, "Experimental investigation of an unstable ring resonator with 90-deg beam rotation for a chemical oxygen iodine laser," Appl. Opt. 38, 3249-3252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Yuqi, Y. Bailing, Z. Dazheng, S. Fengting, D. Liping, and Z. Qi, "Experimental investigation on a novel unstable resonator for chemical oxygen-iodine laser," in XII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A.S.Boreisho and G.A.Baranov, eds., Proc. SPIE 3574, 564-568 (1998).

Schall, W. O.

L. von Entress-Fürsteneck, K. Grünewald, J. Handke, W. L. Bohn, and W. O. Schall, "Investigation of power extraction for a Supersonic Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser," in Gas and Chemical Lasers and Intense Beam Applications, E.A.Dorko and J.L.Moler, eds., Proc. SPIE 3268, 82-87 (1998).

K. Grünewald, J. Handke, W. O. Schall, and F. Duschek, "COIL fiber transmission for material cutting applications," in XIV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, K. M. Abramski, E. F. Plinski, and W. Wolinski, eds., Proc. SPIE 5120, 345-349 (2003).

T. Hall, F. Duschek, K. Grünewald, J. Handke, and W. O. Schall, "Numerical studies on hybrid resonators for a medium sized COIL," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Laser, J.Kodymova, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 131-134 (2005).

W. O. Schall, T. Hall, and J. Handke, "Unstable Resonator for COIL," in XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A.Lapucci and M.Ciofini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4184, 461-464 (2001).

Sherstobitov, V. E.

Yu. A. Ananev, V. I. Kuprenyuk, and V. E. Sherstobitov, "Properties of unstable resonators with field rotation. I. Theoretical principles," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1105-1110 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

Sooy, W. R.

W. F.Krupke and W. R. Sooy, "Properties of an unstable confocal resonator CO2 laser system," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 575-586 (1969).

Sziklas, E. A.

von Entress-Fürsteneck, L.

L. von Entress-Fürsteneck, K. Grünewald, J. Handke, W. L. Bohn, and W. O. Schall, "Investigation of power extraction for a Supersonic Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser," in Gas and Chemical Lasers and Intense Beam Applications, E.A.Dorko and J.L.Moler, eds., Proc. SPIE 3268, 82-87 (1998).

Weber, H.

N. Hodgson, T. Haase, and H. Weber, "Improved resonator design for rod lasers and slab lasers," in High-Power Solid State Lasers and Applications, C. L. M. Ireland, ed., Proc. SPIE 1277, 70-84 (1990).

Witte, K. J.

G. Brederlow, E. Fill, and K. J. Witte, The High-Power Iodine Laser, Vol. 34 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 1983).

Yagi, S.

Yamamoto, T.

Yuqi, J.

J. Yuqi, Y. Bailing, Z. Dazheng, S. Fengting, D. Liping, and Z. Qi, "Experimental investigation of an unstable ring resonator with 90-deg beam rotation for a chemical oxygen iodine laser," Appl. Opt. 38, 3249-3252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Yuqi, Y. Bailing, Z. Dazheng, S. Fengting, D. Liping, and Z. Qi, "Experimental investigation on a novel unstable resonator for chemical oxygen-iodine laser," in XII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A.S.Boreisho and G.A.Baranov, eds., Proc. SPIE 3574, 564-568 (1998).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. J. Benard, W. E. McDermott, N. R. Pchelkin, and R. R. Bousek, "Efficient operation of a 100-W transverse-flow oxygen-iodine chemical laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 40-41 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

A. G. Fox and T. Li, "Resonant modes in a maser interferometer," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453 (1961).

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. E. Dyer and D. J. James, "Studies of a TEA CO2 laser with a cylindrical mirror unstable resonator," Opt. Commun. 15, 20-25 (1975).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Bourne and P. E. Dyer, "A novel stable-unstable resonator for beam control of rare-gas halide lasers," Opt. Commun. 31, 193-196 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optical Sciences (1)

G. Brederlow, E. Fill, and K. J. Witte, The High-Power Iodine Laser, Vol. 34 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 1983).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Yu. A. Ananev, V. I. Kuprenyuk, and V. E. Sherstobitov, "Properties of unstable resonators with field rotation. I. Theoretical principles," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1105-1110 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

W. P. Latham, Jr., A. H. Paxton, and G. C. Dente, "Laser with 90-degree beam rotation," in Optical Resonators, D. A. Holmes, ed., Proc. SPIE1224, 265-282 (1990).

J. Yuqi, Y. Bailing, Z. Dazheng, S. Fengting, D. Liping, and Z. Qi, "Experimental investigation on a novel unstable resonator for chemical oxygen-iodine laser," in XII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A.S.Boreisho and G.A.Baranov, eds., Proc. SPIE 3574, 564-568 (1998).

K. Grünewald, J. Handke, W. O. Schall, and F. Duschek, "COIL fiber transmission for material cutting applications," in XIV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, K. M. Abramski, E. F. Plinski, and W. Wolinski, eds., Proc. SPIE 5120, 345-349 (2003).

J. Handke, K. M. Grünewald, and F. Duschek, "Comparative studies on small signal gain and output power for COIL systems," in XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A. Lapucci and M. Ciofini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4184, 45-48 (2001).

K. M. Grünewald, J. Handke, and F. Duschek, "Small signal gain and temperature profiles in supersonic COIL," in XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A. Lapucci and M. Ciofini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4184, 75-78 (2001).

L. von Entress-Fürsteneck, K. Grünewald, J. Handke, W. L. Bohn, and W. O. Schall, "Investigation of power extraction for a Supersonic Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser," in Gas and Chemical Lasers and Intense Beam Applications, E.A.Dorko and J.L.Moler, eds., Proc. SPIE 3268, 82-87 (1998).

A. E. Siegman, "Unstable optical resonators," Appl. Opt. 13, 353-367 (1974).

W. F.Krupke and W. R. Sooy, "Properties of an unstable confocal resonator CO2 laser system," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 575-586 (1969).

W. O. Schall, T. Hall, and J. Handke, "Unstable Resonator for COIL," in XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, A.Lapucci and M.Ciofini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4184, 461-464 (2001).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of (a) a conventional circular symmetric unstable resonator for a flat duct geometry, (b) a positive branch confocal asymmetric hybrid resonator, (c) a negative branch confocal asymmetric hybrid resonator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometric relations for the negative branch confocal hybrid resonator in the unstable direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the output coupling and total coupling loss for angular misalignment in the unstable direction of the outcoupling mirror (upper graph) and the total reflector (lower graph) in the case of the negative branch unstable resonator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated effects of total reflector misalignment of the positive branch unstable resonator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated intensity distribution (a) in the plane of the outcoupling mirror (near field) and (b) in the far field of the laser beam.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated divergence full angle versus mirror tilt of the negative branch hybrid resonator in the unstable direction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

View into a mirror box.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Layout of the experimental setup.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured effect of angular tilt of the total reflector in the stable (o) and unstable directions (■).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated diffraction loss of the stable resonator part for misalignment of different outcoupling mirrors.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Power output history with the negative branch confocal unstable hybrid resonator.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Near-field intensity distribution from a mold of the burn pattern in PMMA in (a) stable and (b) unstable directions.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Far-field intensity distribution from a mold of the burn pattern in PMMA placed in the focus of a mirror with 10 m radius. The arrows indicate the unstable direction.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Experimentally determined beam divergence of the far-field [(o) stable, (■) unstable] directions.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Mirror Data for a Gain-Matched Hybrid Resonator

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Table 2 Mirror Data for Hybrid Resonators

Equations (3)

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I ( P 2 1 / 2 ) I ( P 2 3 / 2 ) + h ν .
O 2 ( Δ 1 ) + I ( P 2 3 / 2 ) O 2 ( 3 ) + I ( P 2 1 / 2 ) .
Cl 2 + H 2 O 2 + 2  KOH O 2 ( Δ 1 ) + 2 H 2 O + 2  KCl .

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