Abstract

What we believe to be a new optical approach for the identification of mines and explosives by analyzing the surface materials and not only bulk is developed. A conventional manually operated mine prodder is upgraded by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In situ and real-time information of materials that are in front of the prodder are obtained during the demining process in order to optimize the security aspects and the speed of demining. A Cr4+:Nd3+:YAG microchip laser is used as a seed laser for an ytterbium-fiber amplifier to generate high-power laser pulses at 1064  nm with pulse powers up to Ep=1  mJ, a repetition rate of frep.=220  kHz and a pulse duration of tp=620  ps. The recorded LIBS signals are analyzed by applying neural networks for the data analysis.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. R. T. Wainner, R. S. Harmon, A. W. Miziolek, K. L. McNesby, and P. D. French, "Analysis of environmental lead contamination: comparison of LIBS field and laboratory instruments," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 777-793 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. C. De Lucia, Jr., R. S. Harmon, K. L. McNesby, R. J. Winkler, Jr., and A. W. Miziolek, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of energetic materials," Appl. Opt. 42, 6148-6152 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Krausharr, I. Mönch, L. Peter, and V. Sturm, "Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry—applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 637-649 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Geiser, C. Romano, C. Bohling, U. Willer, W. Schade, M. Reich, and A. Tünnermann, "A pulsed laser-source for MIR-LIDAR," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), Paper CTu 57.
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  26. S. Kaski, J. Kangas, and T. Kohonen, "Bibliography of self-organizing map (SOM) papers: 1981-1997," Neural Computing Surveys 1, 102-350 (1998).
  27. A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

V. Sturm, J. Vrenegor, R. Noll, and M. Hemmerlin, "Bulk analysis of steel samples with surface scale layers by enhanced laser ablation and LIBS analysis of C, P, S, Al, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Mo," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 451-456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

F. C. De Lucia, Jr., R. S. Harmon, K. L. McNesby, R. J. Winkler, Jr., and A. W. Miziolek, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of energetic materials," Appl. Opt. 42, 6148-6152 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sturm and R. Noll, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of gas mixtures of air, CO2, N2, and C3H8 for simultaneous C, H, O, and N measurement," Appl. Opt. 42, 6221-6225 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Oja, S. Kaski, and T. Kohonen, "Bibliography of self-organizing map (SOM) papers: 1998-2001 addennum," Neural Computing Surveys 3, 1-156 (2003).

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, T. Schreibner, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, and A. Tünnermann, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 11, 818-823 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Limpert, S. Höfer, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, "100 W average power high energy nanosecond fiber amplifier," Appl. Phys. B 75, 477-479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (8)

T. Voss, D. Scheel, and W. Schade, "A microchip-laser-pumped DFB-polymer-dye laser," Appl. Phys. B 73, 105-109 (2001).

S. Höfer, A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, H.-R. Müller, and I. Freitag, "Single-frequency master-oscillator fiber power amplifier system emitting 20 W of power," Opt. Lett. 26, 1326-1328 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, A. Liem, T. Gabler, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, and H.-R, Müller, "High-average-power picosecond Yb-doped fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 26, 1849-1851 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Wainner, R. S. Harmon, A. W. Miziolek, K. L. McNesby, and P. D. French, "Analysis of environmental lead contamination: comparison of LIBS field and laboratory instruments," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 777-793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Bublitz, C. Dölle, W. Schade, A. Hartmann, and R. Horn, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for soil diagnostics," Eur. J. Soil Sci. 52, 305-312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Krausharr, I. Mönch, L. Peter, and V. Sturm, "Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry—applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 637-649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Altmann, "Neue Technologien für die Minensuche," Phys. Unserer Zeit 32, 26-32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Furusawa, A. Malinowski, J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilson, and D. J. Richardson, "Cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber laser with holey inner and outer cladding," Opt. Express 9, 714-720 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Reuter and S. Dierkes, "Analysing epileptic events online by neural nets, special preprocessing-methods included," Biomedic. Soft-Comput. Human Sci. 5, 61-66 (2000).

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049-1056 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. J. Zayhowski, "Ultraviolet generation with passively Q-switched microchip lasers," Opt. Lett. 21, 588-590 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Vadillo, S. Palanco, M. D. Romero, and J. J. Laserna, "Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) in surface analysis," Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 355, 909-912 (1996).

1995 (1)

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, and R. Noll, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel samples using multiple Q-switch Nd:YAG laser pulses," J. Phys. D 28, 2181-2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. Barnhard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, "Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817-1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Akchurin, M. Sh.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alshits, V. I.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Altmann, J.

J. Altmann, "Neue Technologien für die Minensuche," Phys. Unserer Zeit 32, 26-32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bagayev, S. N.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnhard, C.

C. Barnhard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, "Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817-1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bette, H.

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Krausharr, I. Mönch, L. Peter, and V. Sturm, "Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry—applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 637-649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bohling, C.

P. Geiser, C. Romano, C. Bohling, U. Willer, W. Schade, M. Reich, and A. Tünnermann, "A pulsed laser-source for MIR-LIDAR," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), Paper CTu 57.

Braun, B.

Brysch, A.

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Krausharr, I. Mönch, L. Peter, and V. Sturm, "Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry—applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 637-649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bublitz, J.

J. Bublitz, C. Dölle, W. Schade, A. Hartmann, and R. Horn, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for soil diagnostics," Eur. J. Soil Sci. 52, 305-312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Schade, G. Holl, A. Holl, and J. Bublitz, European Patent EP 1 443 319 A1 (2004).

Chrostowski, J.

C. Barnhard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, "Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817-1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Couris, S.

Daniel, R. G.

De Lucia, F. C.

Dierkes, S.

M. Reuter and S. Dierkes, "Analysing epileptic events online by neural nets, special preprocessing-methods included," Biomedic. Soft-Comput. Human Sci. 5, 61-66 (2000).

Dölle, C.

J. Bublitz, C. Dölle, W. Schade, A. Hartmann, and R. Horn, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for soil diagnostics," Eur. J. Soil Sci. 52, 305-312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faulian, K.

C. Romano, S. Gräser, K. Faulian, W. Schade, and G. Holl, "Application of LIBS Spectroscopy for Remote Bulk Detection of Explosives," in Detection of Bulk Explosives,H.Schubert and A.Kuznetsov, eds., NATO Science Series (Kluwer Academic, 2004), pp. 167-173.

Fernandes, J.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, R.

Fotakis, C.

Freitag, I.

French, P. D.

R. T. Wainner, R. S. Harmon, A. W. Miziolek, K. L. McNesby, and P. D. French, "Analysis of environmental lead contamination: comparison of LIBS field and laboratory instruments," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 777-793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, K.

Gabler, T.

Gabler, V.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geiser, P.

P. Geiser, C. Romano, C. Bohling, U. Willer, W. Schade, M. Reich, and A. Tünnermann, "A pulsed laser-source for MIR-LIDAR," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), Paper CTu 57.

Gini, E.

Gräser, S.

C. Romano, S. Gräser, K. Faulian, W. Schade, and G. Holl, "Application of LIBS Spectroscopy for Remote Bulk Detection of Explosives," in Detection of Bulk Explosives,H.Schubert and A.Kuznetsov, eds., NATO Science Series (Kluwer Academic, 2004), pp. 167-173.

Hanna, D. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049-1056 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, R. S.

F. C. De Lucia, Jr., R. S. Harmon, K. L. McNesby, R. J. Winkler, Jr., and A. W. Miziolek, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of energetic materials," Appl. Opt. 42, 6148-6152 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Wainner, R. S. Harmon, A. W. Miziolek, K. L. McNesby, and P. D. French, "Analysis of environmental lead contamination: comparison of LIBS field and laboratory instruments," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 777-793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, A.

J. Bublitz, C. Dölle, W. Schade, A. Hartmann, and R. Horn, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for soil diagnostics," Eur. J. Soil Sci. 52, 305-312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hatziapostolou, A.

Hemmerlin, M.

V. Sturm, J. Vrenegor, R. Noll, and M. Hemmerlin, "Bulk analysis of steel samples with surface scale layers by enhanced laser ablation and LIBS analysis of C, P, S, Al, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Mo," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 451-456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Höfer, S.

J. Limpert, S. Höfer, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, "100 W average power high energy nanosecond fiber amplifier," Appl. Phys. B 75, 477-479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Höfer, A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, H.-R. Müller, and I. Freitag, "Single-frequency master-oscillator fiber power amplifier system emitting 20 W of power," Opt. Lett. 26, 1326-1328 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Holl, A.

W. Schade, G. Holl, A. Holl, and J. Bublitz, European Patent EP 1 443 319 A1 (2004).

Holl, G.

W. Schade, G. Holl, A. Holl, and J. Bublitz, European Patent EP 1 443 319 A1 (2004).

C. Romano, S. Gräser, K. Faulian, W. Schade, and G. Holl, "Application of LIBS Spectroscopy for Remote Bulk Detection of Explosives," in Detection of Bulk Explosives,H.Schubert and A.Kuznetsov, eds., NATO Science Series (Kluwer Academic, 2004), pp. 167-173.

Horn, R.

J. Bublitz, C. Dölle, W. Schade, A. Hartmann, and R. Horn, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for soil diagnostics," Eur. J. Soil Sci. 52, 305-312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jetschke, S.

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kangas, J.

S. Kaski, J. Kangas, and T. Kohonen, "Bibliography of self-organizing map (SOM) papers: 1981-1997," Neural Computing Surveys 1, 102-350 (1998).

Kaski, S.

M. Oja, S. Kaski, and T. Kohonen, "Bibliography of self-organizing map (SOM) papers: 1998-2001 addennum," Neural Computing Surveys 3, 1-156 (2003).

S. Kaski, J. Kangas, and T. Kohonen, "Bibliography of self-organizing map (SOM) papers: 1981-1997," Neural Computing Surveys 1, 102-350 (1998).

Kavehrad, M.

C. Barnhard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, "Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817-1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

Knoke, S.

J. Limpert, S. Höfer, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, "100 W average power high energy nanosecond fiber amplifier," Appl. Phys. B 75, 477-479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kohonen, T.

M. Oja, S. Kaski, and T. Kohonen, "Bibliography of self-organizing map (SOM) papers: 1998-2001 addennum," Neural Computing Surveys 3, 1-156 (2003).

S. Kaski, J. Kangas, and T. Kohonen, "Bibliography of self-organizing map (SOM) papers: 1981-1997," Neural Computing Surveys 1, 102-350 (1998).

Krause, H.

Krausharr, M.

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Krausharr, I. Mönch, L. Peter, and V. Sturm, "Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry—applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 637-649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. E.

Larrauri, E.

Laserna, J. J.

J. M. Vadillo, S. Palanco, M. D. Romero, and J. J. Laserna, "Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) in surface analysis," Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 355, 909-912 (1996).

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

Lu, J.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, A.

Mavromanolakis, A.

McNesby, K. L.

Miguel, R.

Miziolek, A. W.

Mönch, I.

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Krausharr, I. Mönch, L. Peter, and V. Sturm, "Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry—applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 637-649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Sattmann, I. Mönch, H. Krause, R. Noll, S. Couris, A. Hatziapostolou, A. Mavromanolakis, C. Fotakis, E. Larrauri, and R. Miguel, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for polymer identification," Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 456-461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Moser, M.

Müller, H.-R

Müller, H.-R.

Musha, M.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Myslinski, P.

C. Barnhard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, "Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817-1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nilson, J.

Nilsson, J.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049-1056 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R.

V. Sturm, J. Vrenegor, R. Noll, and M. Hemmerlin, "Bulk analysis of steel samples with surface scale layers by enhanced laser ablation and LIBS analysis of C, P, S, Al, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Mo," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 451-456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Sturm and R. Noll, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of gas mixtures of air, CO2, N2, and C3H8 for simultaneous C, H, O, and N measurement," Appl. Opt. 42, 6221-6225 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Krausharr, I. Mönch, L. Peter, and V. Sturm, "Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry—applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 637-649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Sattmann, I. Mönch, H. Krause, R. Noll, S. Couris, A. Hatziapostolou, A. Mavromanolakis, C. Fotakis, E. Larrauri, and R. Miguel, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for polymer identification," Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 456-461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, and R. Noll, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel samples using multiple Q-switch Nd:YAG laser pulses," J. Phys. D 28, 2181-2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

Oja, M.

M. Oja, S. Kaski, and T. Kohonen, "Bibliography of self-organizing map (SOM) papers: 1998-2001 addennum," Neural Computing Surveys 3, 1-156 (2003).

Palanco, S.

J. M. Vadillo, S. Palanco, M. D. Romero, and J. J. Laserna, "Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) in surface analysis," Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 355, 909-912 (1996).

Paschotta, R.

Peter, L.

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Krausharr, I. Mönch, L. Peter, and V. Sturm, "Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry—applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 637-649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Price, J. H. V.

Reich, M.

P. Geiser, C. Romano, C. Bohling, U. Willer, W. Schade, M. Reich, and A. Tünnermann, "A pulsed laser-source for MIR-LIDAR," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), Paper CTu 57.

Reuter, M.

M. Reuter and S. Dierkes, "Analysing epileptic events online by neural nets, special preprocessing-methods included," Biomedic. Soft-Comput. Human Sci. 5, 61-66 (2000).

M. Reuter, "Computing with Activities," in Computational Intelligence-LNCS 2206 (Springer, 2001), pp. 174-184.

Richardson, D. J.

Romano, C.

P. Geiser, C. Romano, C. Bohling, U. Willer, W. Schade, M. Reich, and A. Tünnermann, "A pulsed laser-source for MIR-LIDAR," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), Paper CTu 57.

C. Romano, S. Gräser, K. Faulian, W. Schade, and G. Holl, "Application of LIBS Spectroscopy for Remote Bulk Detection of Explosives," in Detection of Bulk Explosives,H.Schubert and A.Kuznetsov, eds., NATO Science Series (Kluwer Academic, 2004), pp. 167-173.

Romero, M. D.

J. M. Vadillo, S. Palanco, M. D. Romero, and J. J. Laserna, "Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) in surface analysis," Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 355, 909-912 (1996).

Sahu, J. K.

Sattmann, R.

Schade, W.

J. Bublitz, C. Dölle, W. Schade, A. Hartmann, and R. Horn, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for soil diagnostics," Eur. J. Soil Sci. 52, 305-312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Voss, D. Scheel, and W. Schade, "A microchip-laser-pumped DFB-polymer-dye laser," Appl. Phys. B 73, 105-109 (2001).

W. Schade, G. Holl, A. Holl, and J. Bublitz, European Patent EP 1 443 319 A1 (2004).

C. Romano, S. Gräser, K. Faulian, W. Schade, and G. Holl, "Application of LIBS Spectroscopy for Remote Bulk Detection of Explosives," in Detection of Bulk Explosives,H.Schubert and A.Kuznetsov, eds., NATO Science Series (Kluwer Academic, 2004), pp. 167-173.

P. Geiser, C. Romano, C. Bohling, U. Willer, W. Schade, M. Reich, and A. Tünnermann, "A pulsed laser-source for MIR-LIDAR," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), Paper CTu 57.

Scheel, D.

T. Voss, D. Scheel, and W. Schade, "A microchip-laser-pumped DFB-polymer-dye laser," Appl. Phys. B 73, 105-109 (2001).

Schreibner, T.

Shirakawa, A.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spühler, G. J.

Stankov, K.

K. Stankov, Alphalas GmbH Göttingen (personal communication, 2002).

Sturm, V.

V. Sturm, J. Vrenegor, R. Noll, and M. Hemmerlin, "Bulk analysis of steel samples with surface scale layers by enhanced laser ablation and LIBS analysis of C, P, S, Al, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Mo," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 451-456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Sturm and R. Noll, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of gas mixtures of air, CO2, N2, and C3H8 for simultaneous C, H, O, and N measurement," Appl. Opt. 42, 6221-6225 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Krausharr, I. Mönch, L. Peter, and V. Sturm, "Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry—applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 637-649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, and R. Noll, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel samples using multiple Q-switch Nd:YAG laser pulses," J. Phys. D 28, 2181-2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takaichi, K.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049-1056 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Limpert, T. Schreibner, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, and A. Tünnermann, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 11, 818-823 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, S. Höfer, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, "100 W average power high energy nanosecond fiber amplifier," Appl. Phys. B 75, 477-479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, A. Liem, T. Gabler, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, and H.-R, Müller, "High-average-power picosecond Yb-doped fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 26, 1849-1851 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Höfer, A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, H.-R. Müller, and I. Freitag, "Single-frequency master-oscillator fiber power amplifier system emitting 20 W of power," Opt. Lett. 26, 1326-1328 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Geiser, C. Romano, C. Bohling, U. Willer, W. Schade, M. Reich, and A. Tünnermann, "A pulsed laser-source for MIR-LIDAR," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), Paper CTu 57.

Ueda, K.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uematsu, T.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Unger, S.

Vadillo, J. M.

J. M. Vadillo, S. Palanco, M. D. Romero, and J. J. Laserna, "Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) in surface analysis," Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 355, 909-912 (1996).

Voelckel, H.

J. Limpert, S. Höfer, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, "100 W average power high energy nanosecond fiber amplifier," Appl. Phys. B 75, 477-479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Voss, T.

T. Voss, D. Scheel, and W. Schade, "A microchip-laser-pumped DFB-polymer-dye laser," Appl. Phys. B 73, 105-109 (2001).

Vrenegor, J.

V. Sturm, J. Vrenegor, R. Noll, and M. Hemmerlin, "Bulk analysis of steel samples with surface scale layers by enhanced laser ablation and LIBS analysis of C, P, S, Al, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Mo," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 451-456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wainner, R. T.

R. T. Wainner, R. S. Harmon, A. W. Miziolek, K. L. McNesby, and P. D. French, "Analysis of environmental lead contamination: comparison of LIBS field and laboratory instruments," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 777-793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Willer, U.

P. Geiser, C. Romano, C. Bohling, U. Willer, W. Schade, M. Reich, and A. Tünnermann, "A pulsed laser-source for MIR-LIDAR," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), Paper CTu 57.

Winkler, R. J.

Yagi, H.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yangitani, T.

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zayhowski, J. J.

Zellmer, H.

Zhang, G.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. Limpert, S. Höfer, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, "100 W average power high energy nanosecond fiber amplifier," Appl. Phys. B 75, 477-479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Voss, D. Scheel, and W. Schade, "A microchip-laser-pumped DFB-polymer-dye laser," Appl. Phys. B 73, 105-109 (2001).

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biomedic. Soft-Comput. Human Sci. (1)

M. Reuter and S. Dierkes, "Analysing epileptic events online by neural nets, special preprocessing-methods included," Biomedic. Soft-Comput. Human Sci. 5, 61-66 (2000).

Crystallogr. Rep. (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, M. Sh. Akchurin, V. I. Alshits, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, J. Lu, T. Uematsu, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, V. Gabler, H. J. Eichler, H. Yagi, T. Yangitani, S. N. Bagayev, J. Fernandes, and R. Balda, "New data on the physical properties of Y3Al5O12-based nanocrystalline laser ceramics," Crystallogr. Rep. 48, 515-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Soil Sci. (1)

J. Bublitz, C. Dölle, W. Schade, A. Hartmann, and R. Horn, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for soil diagnostics," Eur. J. Soil Sci. 52, 305-312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. (1)

J. M. Vadillo, S. Palanco, M. D. Romero, and J. J. Laserna, "Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) in surface analysis," Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 355, 909-912 (1996).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049-1056 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Barnhard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, "Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817-1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (1)

V. Sturm, J. Vrenegor, R. Noll, and M. Hemmerlin, "Bulk analysis of steel samples with surface scale layers by enhanced laser ablation and LIBS analysis of C, P, S, Al, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Mo," J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 451-456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, and R. Noll, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of steel samples using multiple Q-switch Nd:YAG laser pulses," J. Phys. D 28, 2181-2187 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neural Computing Surveys (2)

M. Oja, S. Kaski, and T. Kohonen, "Bibliography of self-organizing map (SOM) papers: 1998-2001 addennum," Neural Computing Surveys 3, 1-156 (2003).

S. Kaski, J. Kangas, and T. Kohonen, "Bibliography of self-organizing map (SOM) papers: 1981-1997," Neural Computing Surveys 1, 102-350 (1998).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Unserer Zeit (1)

J. Altmann, "Neue Technologien für die Minensuche," Phys. Unserer Zeit 32, 26-32 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta (2)

R. T. Wainner, R. S. Harmon, A. W. Miziolek, K. L. McNesby, and P. D. French, "Analysis of environmental lead contamination: comparison of LIBS field and laboratory instruments," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 777-793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Krausharr, I. Mönch, L. Peter, and V. Sturm, "Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry—applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 637-649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

C. Romano, S. Gräser, K. Faulian, W. Schade, and G. Holl, "Application of LIBS Spectroscopy for Remote Bulk Detection of Explosives," in Detection of Bulk Explosives,H.Schubert and A.Kuznetsov, eds., NATO Science Series (Kluwer Academic, 2004), pp. 167-173.

W. Schade, G. Holl, A. Holl, and J. Bublitz, European Patent EP 1 443 319 A1 (2004).

K. Stankov, Alphalas GmbH Göttingen (personal communication, 2002).

P. Geiser, C. Romano, C. Bohling, U. Willer, W. Schade, M. Reich, and A. Tünnermann, "A pulsed laser-source for MIR-LIDAR," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), Paper CTu 57.

M. Reuter, "Computing with Activities," in Computational Intelligence-LNCS 2206 (Springer, 2001), pp. 174-184.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LIBS basics. (a) At time t = 0 a short and high power laser pulse ignites a plasma on the surface of the sample. (b) The emission of the plasma is collected via optical fibers and guided to a detection system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-resolved LIBS intensity spectra after laser excitation at 1064 nm and Ep = 5 mJ. The shown spectra are the average of five single shot spectra. (a) TNT (explosive) spectrum between 225 and 475 nm. (b) Polyamide (PA) spectrum between 225 and 475 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LIBS intensity spectra and plasma emission decay times for different spectral lines of energetic and no energetic materials. The spectra are measured in single shot operation mode, the excitation was at 1064 nm, Ep = 100 mJ. (a), (b) Plastic mine casing; (c), (d) explosive TNT; (e), (f) explosive hexogen. The given uncertainties represent the standard deviation of ten individual measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Yb-fiber amplifier with Cr4+:Nd3+:YAG-microchip laser as seed laser. (b) Drilling holes into a plastic mine casing. (c) Dependency of the microchip laser repetition rate on the diode pump laser current. (d) Dependency of the output power at 1064 nm of the fiber amplifier on the pump power at 975 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematics of the laser optic mine prodder. (a) The complete system as used for field applications. (b) Scheme of the laser excitation and detection system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Time evolution of the 388 nm CN plasma emission for plastic mine casing, laser excitation in single shot mode at 1064 nm, Ep = 0.5 mJ. (b) Time evolution of the 388 nm CN emission for a Coke can, laser excitation in single shot mode at 1064 nm, Ep = 0.5 mJ. (c) Decay times of the CN emission (388 nm) for different materials: (1) plastic mine casing, (2) Coke can, (3) wood mine casing, (4) brass bullet casing, (5) plastic mine casing (other type), and (6) rock.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Analysis of LIBS decay data by using neural networks for four different samples. The images show SOMs that have a material specific signature. (b) Identification proportion for the four samples (left bar for correct, right bar for false identified) when data sets are analyzed by a neural network that has not seen these data sets before, and (c) identification proportion for the samples using a neural network that has been trained with these samples.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Real-time material characterization of plastic (material 1) and rock (material 2) applying the laser prodder and neural networks for data analysis.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of 1/e LIBS Emission Decay Times after Laser Excitation at 1064 nm and Ep = 5 mJ a

Metrics