Abstract

What we believe to be novel pumping schemes for lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are proposed. Based on the refractive and total internal reflection principles, curved fused-silica light guides of rectangular cross sections are used to couple the pump radiation from an arc lamp into a laser crystal. The performances of light-guide pumping schemes are analyzed through a nonsequential ray-trace program and are compared to that of a single elliptical cavity. Improved pump radiation distribution around the laser crystal was registered. The light-guide cavities also permit tailoring the pump flux distribution within the active medium. A lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser by a light-guide cavity was built and tested. An overall laser efficiency of 1.1% was measured.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Pavel, T. Kano, Y. Hirano, S. Yamamoto, Y. Koyata, and T. Tajime, "Improved pump-beam distribution in a diode side-pumped solid-state laser with a highly diffuse, cross-axis beam delivery system," Appl. Opt. 39, 986-992 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Moon, J. Yi, J. Han, B. Cha, and J. Lee, "Efficient diffusive reflector-type diode side-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser with an optical slope efficiency of 55%," Appl. Opt. 38, 1772-1776 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Lee, S. Kim, M. Yun, H. Kim, B. Cha, and H. Moon, "Design and fabrication of a diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a diffusive optical cavity for 500-W output power," Appl. Opt. 41, 1089-1094 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. J. Beach, "Theory and optimization of lens ducts," Appl. Opt. 35, 2005-2015 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, and P. V. Avizonis, "183-W, M2 = 2.4 Yb:YAG Q-switched laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 154-156 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, S. B. Sutton, S. A. Payne, P. V. Avizonis, R. S. Monroe, and D. G. Harris, "High-power dual-rod Yb:YAG laser," Opt. Lett. 25, 805-807 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kamiryo, T. Kano, and H. Matsuzawa, "Optimum design of elliptical pumping chambers for solid-state lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 1217-1225 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. H. Church and I. Liberman, "The spherical reflector for use in the optical pumping of lasers," Appl. Opt. 6, 1966-1968 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. B. Schuldt and R. L. Aagard, "An analysis of radiation transfer by means of elliptical cylinder reflectors," Appl. Opt. 2, 509-513 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Bowness, "On the efficiency of single and multiple elliptical laser cavities," Appl. Opt. 4, 103-107 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Whittle and D. R. Skinner, "Transfer efficiency formula for diffusively reflecting laser pumping cavities," Appl. Opt. 5, 1179-1182 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Fekete, "Effect of multiple reflections on the design of an elliptic cavity for solid state lasers," Appl. Opt. 5, 643-646 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1992), Chap. 6, pp. 377-378.
  14. D. Pantelic, B. Panic, and I. Belic, "Solid-state laser pumping with a planar compound parabolic concentrator," Appl. Opt. 36, 7730-7740 (1997).

2002

2000

1999

1996

1992

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1992), Chap. 6, pp. 377-378.

1967

1966

D. Fekete, "Effect of multiple reflections on the design of an elliptic cavity for solid state lasers," Appl. Opt. 5, 643-646 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kamiryo, T. Kano, and H. Matsuzawa, "Optimum design of elliptical pumping chambers for solid-state lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 1217-1225 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

1963

Aagard, R. L.

Avizonis, P. V.

Beach, R. J.

Belic, I.

D. Pantelic, B. Panic, and I. Belic, "Solid-state laser pumping with a planar compound parabolic concentrator," Appl. Opt. 36, 7730-7740 (1997).

Bowness, C.

Cha, B.

Church, C. H.

Emanuel, M. A.

Fekete, D.

Han, J.

Harris, D. G.

Hirano, Y.

Honea, E. C.

Kamiryo, K.

K. Kamiryo, T. Kano, and H. Matsuzawa, "Optimum design of elliptical pumping chambers for solid-state lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 1217-1225 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kano, T.

Kim, H.

Kim, S.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1992), Chap. 6, pp. 377-378.

Koyata, Y.

Lee, J.

Lee, S.

Liberman, I.

Matsuzawa, H.

K. Kamiryo, T. Kano, and H. Matsuzawa, "Optimum design of elliptical pumping chambers for solid-state lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 1217-1225 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, S. C.

Monroe, R. S.

Moon, H.

Panic, B.

D. Pantelic, B. Panic, and I. Belic, "Solid-state laser pumping with a planar compound parabolic concentrator," Appl. Opt. 36, 7730-7740 (1997).

Pantelic, D.

D. Pantelic, B. Panic, and I. Belic, "Solid-state laser pumping with a planar compound parabolic concentrator," Appl. Opt. 36, 7730-7740 (1997).

Pavel, N.

Payne, S. A.

Schuldt, S. B.

Skidmore, J. A.

Skinner, D. R.

Sutton, S. B.

Tajime, T.

Whittle, J.

Yamamoto, S.

Yi, J.

Yun, M.

Appl. Opt.

S. B. Schuldt and R. L. Aagard, "An analysis of radiation transfer by means of elliptical cylinder reflectors," Appl. Opt. 2, 509-513 (1963).
[CrossRef]

C. Bowness, "On the efficiency of single and multiple elliptical laser cavities," Appl. Opt. 4, 103-107 (1965).
[CrossRef]

D. Fekete, "Effect of multiple reflections on the design of an elliptic cavity for solid state lasers," Appl. Opt. 5, 643-646 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Whittle and D. R. Skinner, "Transfer efficiency formula for diffusively reflecting laser pumping cavities," Appl. Opt. 5, 1179-1182 (1965).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Church and I. Liberman, "The spherical reflector for use in the optical pumping of lasers," Appl. Opt. 6, 1966-1968 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Moon, J. Yi, J. Han, B. Cha, and J. Lee, "Efficient diffusive reflector-type diode side-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser with an optical slope efficiency of 55%," Appl. Opt. 38, 1772-1776 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Beach, "Theory and optimization of lens ducts," Appl. Opt. 35, 2005-2015 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Pavel, T. Kano, Y. Hirano, S. Yamamoto, Y. Koyata, and T. Tajime, "Improved pump-beam distribution in a diode side-pumped solid-state laser with a highly diffuse, cross-axis beam delivery system," Appl. Opt. 39, 986-992 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, S. Kim, M. Yun, H. Kim, B. Cha, and H. Moon, "Design and fabrication of a diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a diffusive optical cavity for 500-W output power," Appl. Opt. 41, 1089-1094 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Kamiryo, T. Kano, and H. Matsuzawa, "Optimum design of elliptical pumping chambers for solid-state lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 1217-1225 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1992), Chap. 6, pp. 377-378.

D. Pantelic, B. Panic, and I. Belic, "Solid-state laser pumping with a planar compound parabolic concentrator," Appl. Opt. 36, 7730-7740 (1997).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pump cavities of (a) a light-guide cavity using ten guides and (b) a modified elliptical cavity using two guides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

3D ray trace for a light-guide cavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the transfer efficiency between the light-guide cavities [solid curves with (○)] and the elliptical cavity (solid curves) calculated for different rod diameters and wall reflectivities. The two curves for the light-guide cavity correspond to different external dimensions: Type I (110 mm × 90 mm), upper curve; Type II (60 mm × 60 mm), lower curve.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the transfer efficiency between the light-guide cavity [solid curves with (○)] and the modified elliptical cavity (solid curves) calculated for different rod diameters and wall reflectivities. The effects of light-guide cavity dimensions are compared: Type I (110 mm × 90 mm), upper curve; Type II (60 mm × 60 mm), lower curve.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the transfer efficiency between the modified elliptical cavity [solid curves with (○)] and the elliptical cavity (solid curves) calculated for various diameters of the crystal rod and wall reflectivities.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Angular absorption distribution of the pump power on the rod surface for the light-guide cavity, single elliptical, and modified elliptical cylinder. The horizontal axis is the angle in degrees measured clockwise from the positive x axis of the laser rod. Calculations are made by considering a lamp of 6 mm diameter and a laser rod of (a) 6 mm and (b) 4 mm diameter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Nd:YAG laser output power versus lamp input power.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Plot of the beam profile.

Equations (39)

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1.1 %
80 %
ε = 0.4
20   mm
45   mm
6   mm
50   mm
4  and  3.7   mm
50   mm
10   mm
99 %
97 %
99.9 %
6   mm
100 %
( 0 ° 90 ° ) ( 270 ° 360 ° )
4   mm
[ ( 90 ° 270 ° ) ] )
4   mm
( 99.9999 % )
( 4 × 50   mm )
10   mm
3.1   kW
45   mm
5   mm
1.1 %
55 mm
600   mm
94 %
99.97 %
1.0   m
3.1   kW
34.6   W
1064   nm
1.1 %
1.5 %
( X , Y )
1.1 %
1.5 %

Metrics