Abstract

The potential applications of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals to optical oxygen sensing are explored. The suitability of quantum dots to provide a reference signal in luminescence-based chemical sensors is addressed. A CdSe–ZnS nanocrystal, with an emission peak at 520  nm, is used to provide a reference signal. Measurements of oxygen concentration, which are based on the dynamic quenching of the luminescence of a ruthenium complex, are performed. Both the dye and the nanocrystal are immobilized in a solgel matrix and are excited by a blue LED. Experimental results show that the ratio between the reference and the sensor signals is highly insensitive to fluctuations of the excitation optical power. The use of CdTe, near-infrared quantum dots with an emission wavelength of 680  nm, in combination with a ruthenium complex to provide a new mechanism for oxygen sensing, is investigated. The possibility of creating oxygen sensitivity in different spectral regions is demonstrated. The results obtained clearly show that this technique can be applied to develop a wavelength division multiplexed system of oxygen sensors.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. D. Johnson and D. W. Paul, "In situ calibrated oxygen electrode," Sens. Actuators B 105, 322-328 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fiber optic chemical sensors and biosensors," Anal. Chem 72, 81R-89R (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Holst and B. Mizaikoff, "Fiber optic sensors for environmental applications," in Handbook of Optical Fiber Sensing Technology, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, ed. (Wiley, 2002), pp. 729-755.
  4. M. K. Krihak and M. R. Shahariari, "Highly sensitive, all solid state fibre optic oxygen sensor based on the sol-gel coating technique," Electron. Lett. 32, 240-242 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Klimant, F. Ruckruh, G. Liebsch, A. Stangelmayer, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fast response oxygen micro-optodes based on novel soluble ormosil glasses," Mikrochim. Acta 131, 35-46 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. R. Carraway, J. N. Demas, B. A. DeGraff, and J. R. Bacon, "Photophysics and photochemistry of oxygen sensors based on luminescent transition-metal complexes," Anal. Chem. 63, 337-342 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. T. Murtagh, D. E. Ackley, and M. R. Shahriari, "Development of a highly sensitive fibre optic O2/DO sensor based on a phase modulation technique," Electron. Lett. 32, 477-479 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. McDonagh, C. Kolle, A. K. McEvoy, D. L. Dowling, A. A. Cafolla, S. J. Cullen, and B. D. MacCraith, "Phase fluorometric dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 74, 124-130 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. M. McDonagh, P. Bowe, K. Mongey, and B. D. MacCraith, "Characterisation of porosity and sensor response times of sol-gel-derived thin films for oxygen sensor applications," J. NonCryst. Solids 306, 138-148 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Klimant and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Oxygen-sensitive luminescent materials basead on silicone-soluble ruthenium diimine complexes," Anal. Chem. 67, 3160-3166 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Kluwer-Plenum, 1999).
  12. P. Hartmann, M. J. P. Leiner, and P. Kohlbacher, "Photobleaching of a ruthenium complex in polymers used for oxygen optodes and its inhibition by singlet oxygen quenchers," Sens. Actuators B 51, 196-202 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Song, S. Parus, and R. Kopelman, "High-performance fiber-optic pH microsensors for practical physiological measurements using a dual-emission sensitive dye," Anal. Chem. 69, 863-867 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Holst, R. N. Glud, M. Kuhl, and I. Klimant, "A microoptode array for fine-scale measurement of oxygen distribution," Sens. Actuators B 38, 122-129 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Lieberman, L. L. Blyler, and L. G. Cohen, "A distributed fiber optic sensor based on cladding fluorescence," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 212-220 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. I. Klimov, "Nanocrystal quantum dots," Los Alamos Sci. 28, 214-220 (2003).
  17. C. J. Murphy, "Optical sensing with quantum dots," Anal. Chem. 74, 520A-526A (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. K. Jaiswal and S. M. Simon, "Potentials and pitfalls of fluorescent quantum dots for biological imaging," Trends Cell Biol. 14, 497-504 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. J. Sutherland, "Quantum dots as luminescent probes in biological systems," Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 6, 365-370 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Benrashid and P. Velasco, "High performance sol-gel spin-on glass materials," U.S. patent 0022697 A1 (3 February 2005).
  21. C. M. McDonagh, B. D. MacCraith, and A. K. McEvoy, "Tailoring of sol-gel films for optical sensing of oxygen in gas and aqueous phase," Anal. Chem. 70, 45-50 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. W. Walker, V. C. Sundar, C. M. Rudzinski, A. W. Wun, M. G. Bawendi, and D. G. Nocera, "Quantum-dot optical temperature probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3555-3557 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. A. S. Jorge, M. Mayeh, R. Benrashid, P. Caldas, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, "Self-referenced intensity based optical fiber temperature probes for luminescent chemical sensors using quantum dots," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 42-45 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. D. Johnson and D. W. Paul, "In situ calibrated oxygen electrode," Sens. Actuators B 105, 322-328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. S. Jorge, M. Mayeh, R. Benrashid, P. Caldas, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, "Self-referenced intensity based optical fiber temperature probes for luminescent chemical sensors using quantum dots," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 42-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. K. Jaiswal and S. M. Simon, "Potentials and pitfalls of fluorescent quantum dots for biological imaging," Trends Cell Biol. 14, 497-504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

V. I. Klimov, "Nanocrystal quantum dots," Los Alamos Sci. 28, 214-220 (2003).

G. W. Walker, V. C. Sundar, C. M. Rudzinski, A. W. Wun, M. G. Bawendi, and D. G. Nocera, "Quantum-dot optical temperature probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3555-3557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

C. J. Murphy, "Optical sensing with quantum dots," Anal. Chem. 74, 520A-526A (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Sutherland, "Quantum dots as luminescent probes in biological systems," Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 6, 365-370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fiber optic chemical sensors and biosensors," Anal. Chem 72, 81R-89R (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. M. McDonagh, P. Bowe, K. Mongey, and B. D. MacCraith, "Characterisation of porosity and sensor response times of sol-gel-derived thin films for oxygen sensor applications," J. NonCryst. Solids 306, 138-148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. McDonagh, C. Kolle, A. K. McEvoy, D. L. Dowling, A. A. Cafolla, S. J. Cullen, and B. D. MacCraith, "Phase fluorometric dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 74, 124-130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

I. Klimant, F. Ruckruh, G. Liebsch, A. Stangelmayer, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fast response oxygen micro-optodes based on novel soluble ormosil glasses," Mikrochim. Acta 131, 35-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. M. McDonagh, B. D. MacCraith, and A. K. McEvoy, "Tailoring of sol-gel films for optical sensing of oxygen in gas and aqueous phase," Anal. Chem. 70, 45-50 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hartmann, M. J. P. Leiner, and P. Kohlbacher, "Photobleaching of a ruthenium complex in polymers used for oxygen optodes and its inhibition by singlet oxygen quenchers," Sens. Actuators B 51, 196-202 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Song, S. Parus, and R. Kopelman, "High-performance fiber-optic pH microsensors for practical physiological measurements using a dual-emission sensitive dye," Anal. Chem. 69, 863-867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Holst, R. N. Glud, M. Kuhl, and I. Klimant, "A microoptode array for fine-scale measurement of oxygen distribution," Sens. Actuators B 38, 122-129 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. K. Krihak and M. R. Shahariari, "Highly sensitive, all solid state fibre optic oxygen sensor based on the sol-gel coating technique," Electron. Lett. 32, 240-242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Murtagh, D. E. Ackley, and M. R. Shahriari, "Development of a highly sensitive fibre optic O2/DO sensor based on a phase modulation technique," Electron. Lett. 32, 477-479 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

I. Klimant and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Oxygen-sensitive luminescent materials basead on silicone-soluble ruthenium diimine complexes," Anal. Chem. 67, 3160-3166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. R. Carraway, J. N. Demas, B. A. DeGraff, and J. R. Bacon, "Photophysics and photochemistry of oxygen sensors based on luminescent transition-metal complexes," Anal. Chem. 63, 337-342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. A. Lieberman, L. L. Blyler, and L. G. Cohen, "A distributed fiber optic sensor based on cladding fluorescence," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 212-220 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ackley, D. E.

M. T. Murtagh, D. E. Ackley, and M. R. Shahriari, "Development of a highly sensitive fibre optic O2/DO sensor based on a phase modulation technique," Electron. Lett. 32, 477-479 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bacon, J. R.

E. R. Carraway, J. N. Demas, B. A. DeGraff, and J. R. Bacon, "Photophysics and photochemistry of oxygen sensors based on luminescent transition-metal complexes," Anal. Chem. 63, 337-342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

G. W. Walker, V. C. Sundar, C. M. Rudzinski, A. W. Wun, M. G. Bawendi, and D. G. Nocera, "Quantum-dot optical temperature probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3555-3557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benrashid, R.

P. A. S. Jorge, M. Mayeh, R. Benrashid, P. Caldas, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, "Self-referenced intensity based optical fiber temperature probes for luminescent chemical sensors using quantum dots," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 42-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Benrashid and P. Velasco, "High performance sol-gel spin-on glass materials," U.S. patent 0022697 A1 (3 February 2005).

Blyler, L. L.

R. A. Lieberman, L. L. Blyler, and L. G. Cohen, "A distributed fiber optic sensor based on cladding fluorescence," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 212-220 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bowe, P.

C. M. McDonagh, P. Bowe, K. Mongey, and B. D. MacCraith, "Characterisation of porosity and sensor response times of sol-gel-derived thin films for oxygen sensor applications," J. NonCryst. Solids 306, 138-148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cafolla, A. A.

C. McDonagh, C. Kolle, A. K. McEvoy, D. L. Dowling, A. A. Cafolla, S. J. Cullen, and B. D. MacCraith, "Phase fluorometric dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 74, 124-130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Caldas, P.

P. A. S. Jorge, M. Mayeh, R. Benrashid, P. Caldas, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, "Self-referenced intensity based optical fiber temperature probes for luminescent chemical sensors using quantum dots," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 42-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carraway, E. R.

E. R. Carraway, J. N. Demas, B. A. DeGraff, and J. R. Bacon, "Photophysics and photochemistry of oxygen sensors based on luminescent transition-metal complexes," Anal. Chem. 63, 337-342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L. G.

R. A. Lieberman, L. L. Blyler, and L. G. Cohen, "A distributed fiber optic sensor based on cladding fluorescence," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 212-220 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cullen, S. J.

C. McDonagh, C. Kolle, A. K. McEvoy, D. L. Dowling, A. A. Cafolla, S. J. Cullen, and B. D. MacCraith, "Phase fluorometric dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 74, 124-130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

DeGraff, B. A.

E. R. Carraway, J. N. Demas, B. A. DeGraff, and J. R. Bacon, "Photophysics and photochemistry of oxygen sensors based on luminescent transition-metal complexes," Anal. Chem. 63, 337-342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Demas, J. N.

E. R. Carraway, J. N. Demas, B. A. DeGraff, and J. R. Bacon, "Photophysics and photochemistry of oxygen sensors based on luminescent transition-metal complexes," Anal. Chem. 63, 337-342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, D. L.

C. McDonagh, C. Kolle, A. K. McEvoy, D. L. Dowling, A. A. Cafolla, S. J. Cullen, and B. D. MacCraith, "Phase fluorometric dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 74, 124-130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Farahi, F.

P. A. S. Jorge, M. Mayeh, R. Benrashid, P. Caldas, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, "Self-referenced intensity based optical fiber temperature probes for luminescent chemical sensors using quantum dots," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 42-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glud, R. N.

G. Holst, R. N. Glud, M. Kuhl, and I. Klimant, "A microoptode array for fine-scale measurement of oxygen distribution," Sens. Actuators B 38, 122-129 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, P.

P. Hartmann, M. J. P. Leiner, and P. Kohlbacher, "Photobleaching of a ruthenium complex in polymers used for oxygen optodes and its inhibition by singlet oxygen quenchers," Sens. Actuators B 51, 196-202 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holst, G.

G. Holst, R. N. Glud, M. Kuhl, and I. Klimant, "A microoptode array for fine-scale measurement of oxygen distribution," Sens. Actuators B 38, 122-129 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Holst and B. Mizaikoff, "Fiber optic sensors for environmental applications," in Handbook of Optical Fiber Sensing Technology, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, ed. (Wiley, 2002), pp. 729-755.

Jaiswal, J. K.

J. K. Jaiswal and S. M. Simon, "Potentials and pitfalls of fluorescent quantum dots for biological imaging," Trends Cell Biol. 14, 497-504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, C. D.

C. D. Johnson and D. W. Paul, "In situ calibrated oxygen electrode," Sens. Actuators B 105, 322-328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jorge, P. A. S.

P. A. S. Jorge, M. Mayeh, R. Benrashid, P. Caldas, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, "Self-referenced intensity based optical fiber temperature probes for luminescent chemical sensors using quantum dots," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 42-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klimant, I.

I. Klimant, F. Ruckruh, G. Liebsch, A. Stangelmayer, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fast response oxygen micro-optodes based on novel soluble ormosil glasses," Mikrochim. Acta 131, 35-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Holst, R. N. Glud, M. Kuhl, and I. Klimant, "A microoptode array for fine-scale measurement of oxygen distribution," Sens. Actuators B 38, 122-129 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Klimant and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Oxygen-sensitive luminescent materials basead on silicone-soluble ruthenium diimine complexes," Anal. Chem. 67, 3160-3166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. I.

V. I. Klimov, "Nanocrystal quantum dots," Los Alamos Sci. 28, 214-220 (2003).

Kohlbacher, P.

P. Hartmann, M. J. P. Leiner, and P. Kohlbacher, "Photobleaching of a ruthenium complex in polymers used for oxygen optodes and its inhibition by singlet oxygen quenchers," Sens. Actuators B 51, 196-202 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kolle, C.

C. McDonagh, C. Kolle, A. K. McEvoy, D. L. Dowling, A. A. Cafolla, S. J. Cullen, and B. D. MacCraith, "Phase fluorometric dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 74, 124-130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kopelman, R.

A. Song, S. Parus, and R. Kopelman, "High-performance fiber-optic pH microsensors for practical physiological measurements using a dual-emission sensitive dye," Anal. Chem. 69, 863-867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krihak, M. K.

M. K. Krihak and M. R. Shahariari, "Highly sensitive, all solid state fibre optic oxygen sensor based on the sol-gel coating technique," Electron. Lett. 32, 240-242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, M.

G. Holst, R. N. Glud, M. Kuhl, and I. Klimant, "A microoptode array for fine-scale measurement of oxygen distribution," Sens. Actuators B 38, 122-129 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Kluwer-Plenum, 1999).

Leiner, M. J. P.

P. Hartmann, M. J. P. Leiner, and P. Kohlbacher, "Photobleaching of a ruthenium complex in polymers used for oxygen optodes and its inhibition by singlet oxygen quenchers," Sens. Actuators B 51, 196-202 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, R. A.

R. A. Lieberman, L. L. Blyler, and L. G. Cohen, "A distributed fiber optic sensor based on cladding fluorescence," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 212-220 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Liebsch, G.

I. Klimant, F. Ruckruh, G. Liebsch, A. Stangelmayer, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fast response oxygen micro-optodes based on novel soluble ormosil glasses," Mikrochim. Acta 131, 35-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

MacCraith, B. D.

C. M. McDonagh, P. Bowe, K. Mongey, and B. D. MacCraith, "Characterisation of porosity and sensor response times of sol-gel-derived thin films for oxygen sensor applications," J. NonCryst. Solids 306, 138-148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. McDonagh, C. Kolle, A. K. McEvoy, D. L. Dowling, A. A. Cafolla, S. J. Cullen, and B. D. MacCraith, "Phase fluorometric dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 74, 124-130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. M. McDonagh, B. D. MacCraith, and A. K. McEvoy, "Tailoring of sol-gel films for optical sensing of oxygen in gas and aqueous phase," Anal. Chem. 70, 45-50 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayeh, M.

P. A. S. Jorge, M. Mayeh, R. Benrashid, P. Caldas, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, "Self-referenced intensity based optical fiber temperature probes for luminescent chemical sensors using quantum dots," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 42-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McDonagh, C.

C. McDonagh, C. Kolle, A. K. McEvoy, D. L. Dowling, A. A. Cafolla, S. J. Cullen, and B. D. MacCraith, "Phase fluorometric dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 74, 124-130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McDonagh, C. M.

C. M. McDonagh, P. Bowe, K. Mongey, and B. D. MacCraith, "Characterisation of porosity and sensor response times of sol-gel-derived thin films for oxygen sensor applications," J. NonCryst. Solids 306, 138-148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. M. McDonagh, B. D. MacCraith, and A. K. McEvoy, "Tailoring of sol-gel films for optical sensing of oxygen in gas and aqueous phase," Anal. Chem. 70, 45-50 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McEvoy, A. K.

C. McDonagh, C. Kolle, A. K. McEvoy, D. L. Dowling, A. A. Cafolla, S. J. Cullen, and B. D. MacCraith, "Phase fluorometric dissolved oxygen sensor," Sens. Actuators B 74, 124-130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. M. McDonagh, B. D. MacCraith, and A. K. McEvoy, "Tailoring of sol-gel films for optical sensing of oxygen in gas and aqueous phase," Anal. Chem. 70, 45-50 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizaikoff, B.

G. Holst and B. Mizaikoff, "Fiber optic sensors for environmental applications," in Handbook of Optical Fiber Sensing Technology, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, ed. (Wiley, 2002), pp. 729-755.

Mongey, K.

C. M. McDonagh, P. Bowe, K. Mongey, and B. D. MacCraith, "Characterisation of porosity and sensor response times of sol-gel-derived thin films for oxygen sensor applications," J. NonCryst. Solids 306, 138-148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, C. J.

C. J. Murphy, "Optical sensing with quantum dots," Anal. Chem. 74, 520A-526A (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murtagh, M. T.

M. T. Murtagh, D. E. Ackley, and M. R. Shahriari, "Development of a highly sensitive fibre optic O2/DO sensor based on a phase modulation technique," Electron. Lett. 32, 477-479 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nocera, D. G.

G. W. Walker, V. C. Sundar, C. M. Rudzinski, A. W. Wun, M. G. Bawendi, and D. G. Nocera, "Quantum-dot optical temperature probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3555-3557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Parus, S.

A. Song, S. Parus, and R. Kopelman, "High-performance fiber-optic pH microsensors for practical physiological measurements using a dual-emission sensitive dye," Anal. Chem. 69, 863-867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, D. W.

C. D. Johnson and D. W. Paul, "In situ calibrated oxygen electrode," Sens. Actuators B 105, 322-328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruckruh, F.

I. Klimant, F. Ruckruh, G. Liebsch, A. Stangelmayer, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fast response oxygen micro-optodes based on novel soluble ormosil glasses," Mikrochim. Acta 131, 35-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rudzinski, C. M.

G. W. Walker, V. C. Sundar, C. M. Rudzinski, A. W. Wun, M. G. Bawendi, and D. G. Nocera, "Quantum-dot optical temperature probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3555-3557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

P. A. S. Jorge, M. Mayeh, R. Benrashid, P. Caldas, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, "Self-referenced intensity based optical fiber temperature probes for luminescent chemical sensors using quantum dots," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 42-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shahariari, M. R.

M. K. Krihak and M. R. Shahariari, "Highly sensitive, all solid state fibre optic oxygen sensor based on the sol-gel coating technique," Electron. Lett. 32, 240-242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shahriari, M. R.

M. T. Murtagh, D. E. Ackley, and M. R. Shahriari, "Development of a highly sensitive fibre optic O2/DO sensor based on a phase modulation technique," Electron. Lett. 32, 477-479 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Simon, S. M.

J. K. Jaiswal and S. M. Simon, "Potentials and pitfalls of fluorescent quantum dots for biological imaging," Trends Cell Biol. 14, 497-504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, A.

A. Song, S. Parus, and R. Kopelman, "High-performance fiber-optic pH microsensors for practical physiological measurements using a dual-emission sensitive dye," Anal. Chem. 69, 863-867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stangelmayer, A.

I. Klimant, F. Ruckruh, G. Liebsch, A. Stangelmayer, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fast response oxygen micro-optodes based on novel soluble ormosil glasses," Mikrochim. Acta 131, 35-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sundar, V. C.

G. W. Walker, V. C. Sundar, C. M. Rudzinski, A. W. Wun, M. G. Bawendi, and D. G. Nocera, "Quantum-dot optical temperature probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3555-3557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, A. J.

A. J. Sutherland, "Quantum dots as luminescent probes in biological systems," Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 6, 365-370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Velasco, P.

R. Benrashid and P. Velasco, "High performance sol-gel spin-on glass materials," U.S. patent 0022697 A1 (3 February 2005).

Walker, G. W.

G. W. Walker, V. C. Sundar, C. M. Rudzinski, A. W. Wun, M. G. Bawendi, and D. G. Nocera, "Quantum-dot optical temperature probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3555-3557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolfbeis, O. S.

O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fiber optic chemical sensors and biosensors," Anal. Chem 72, 81R-89R (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Klimant, F. Ruckruh, G. Liebsch, A. Stangelmayer, and O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fast response oxygen micro-optodes based on novel soluble ormosil glasses," Mikrochim. Acta 131, 35-46 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used to test CdSe QDs as an intensity reference in a luminescent oxygen sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup used to test the sensitivity of different QDs and sensing dye combinations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral behavior of the LED, the reference signal (QD), and the sensing dye (Ru) when (a) P LED was decreased from 100% to 82% and 63% in a 21% O2 atmosphere and (b) the O2 level was set to 0%, 20%, and 100%, with constant P LED.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sensor response (P Ru and P Ru/P QD) to O2/N2 saturation cycles while P LED changed slowly from 100% to 70%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response of P Ru and (P RuP QD)/(P Ru + P QD) to changes in LED optical power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time behavior of the luminescent output of different solgel films doped with Ru(bpy) while the samples are irradiated with blue radiation (20 mW/cm2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral responses in saturated atmospheres of N2 and O2. Insets, a scheme of the sensing configuration: (a) Ru(dpp); (b) Ru(dpp) + QD680; (c) Ru(dpp) + long-pass filter (600 nm) + QD680.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Oxygen sensitivity, α(λ), for configurations 1–3; (b) sensitivity enhancement of configurations (2) and (3) relative to configuration (1).

Equations (3)

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I 0 I = τ 0 τ = 1 + K SV [ O 2 ] ,
α ( λ ) = P O 2 ( λ ) P N 2 ( λ ) ,
Q = I N 2 I O 2 I N 2 ,

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