Abstract

The images on a dot-matrix hologram contain many two-dimensional (2D) dots with different grating orientations and different grating pitches. Because the zeroth-order light nondiffracted by different grating structures has the same progress direction, the nondiffracted light can be diffracted to a 2D spot spectrum by the 2D dot structure. The 2D spot spectrum depends on grating depths and dot sizes. Although ordinary noises are troublesome for 2D spots, noises caused by special dot arrangement defects or special grating moiré fringes are useful in checking holograms. Since the features of grating depths, dot sizes, dot arrangement defects, and grating moiré fringes can be randomly changed on a case by case basis, 2D spot spectra in different cases are different. The aforementioned random features are used to identify dot-matrix holograms.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. C. K. Lee, J. W. J. Wu, S. L. Yeh, C. W. Tu, Y. A. Han, E. H. Z. Liao, Y. Y. Chang, I E. Tsai, H. H. Lin, J. C. T. Hsieh, and J. T. W. Lee, "Optical configuration and color-representation range of a variable-pitch dot matrix holographic printer," Appl. Opt. 39, 40-53 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Wang, S. Yang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Chaos and fractals in digital holography," in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I.Cindrich and S.H.Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE 3010,69-76 (1997).
  4. H. Cao, G. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Ge, and X. Li, "Computer-generated fractal kinetic images and their applications in security holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637,176-180 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  6. "Laser projected image for Westmead's Lightgate," Holography News 15 (9/10), 10 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
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2002 (1)

S. L. Yeh and S. T. Lin, "Dot-matrix hologram with hidden image," Opt. Eng. 41, 314-318 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

T. Tamir and S. Zhang, "Modal transmission-line theory of multilayered grating structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 914-927 (1996).

1987 (1)

1954 (1)

Abraham, N. C.

N. C. Abraham, "Optical data storage disc with a visible holographic image and method for its manufacture," U.S. patent 6,011,767 (4 January 2000).

Arsenault, H. H.

Cao, H.

H. Cao, G. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Ge, and X. Li, "Computer-generated fractal kinetic images and their applications in security holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637,176-180 (1999).

Chang, Y. Y.

Fan, S.

T. Wang, S. Yang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Chaos and fractals in digital holography," in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I.Cindrich and S.H.Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE 3010,69-76 (1997).

Gasvik, K. J.

K. J. Gasvik, Optical Metrology, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2002).
[CrossRef]

Ge, H.

H. Cao, G. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Ge, and X. Li, "Computer-generated fractal kinetic images and their applications in security holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637,176-180 (1999).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).

Han, Y. A.

Hsieh, J. C. T.

Huang, P. P.

P. P. Huang, "Holographic anticounterfeit method and device with encoded pattern," in Diffractive and Holographic Technologies, Systems, and Spatial Light Modulators VI, I.Cindrich, S.H.Lee, and R.L.Sutherland, eds., Proc. SPIE 3633,61-67 (1999).

Lan, J. T.

S. L. Yeh, J. T. Lan, and H. H. Lin, "Dot matrix hologram for hiding a moiré pattern," U.S. patent 6,317,226 (13 November 2001).

Lee, C. K.

Lee, J. T. W.

Li, X.

H. Cao, G. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Ge, and X. Li, "Computer-generated fractal kinetic images and their applications in security holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637,176-180 (1999).

Li, Y.

T. Wang, S. Yang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Chaos and fractals in digital holography," in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I.Cindrich and S.H.Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE 3010,69-76 (1997).

Liao, E. H. Z.

Lin, H. H.

Lin, S. T.

S. L. Yeh and S. T. Lin, "Dot-matrix hologram with hidden image," Opt. Eng. 41, 314-318 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rhody, A.

A. Rhody and F. Ross, Holography Marketplace, 8th ed. (Ross Books, 1999).

Ross, F.

A. Rhody and F. Ross, Holography Marketplace, 8th ed. (Ross Books, 1999).

Schulz, L. G.

Sheng, Y.

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir and S. Zhang, "Modal transmission-line theory of multilayered grating structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 914-927 (1996).

Tangherlini, F. R.

Tsai, I E.

Tu, C. W.

Vest, C. M.

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, 1979).

Wang, T.

T. Wang, S. Yang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Chaos and fractals in digital holography," in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I.Cindrich and S.H.Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE 3010,69-76 (1997).

Wen, H.

T. Wang, S. Yang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Chaos and fractals in digital holography," in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I.Cindrich and S.H.Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE 3010,69-76 (1997).

Wu, J. W. J.

Yang, S.

T. Wang, S. Yang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Chaos and fractals in digital holography," in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I.Cindrich and S.H.Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE 3010,69-76 (1997).

Yeh, S. L.

S. L. Yeh and S. T. Lin, "Dot-matrix hologram with hidden image," Opt. Eng. 41, 314-318 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Lee, J. W. J. Wu, S. L. Yeh, C. W. Tu, Y. A. Han, E. H. Z. Liao, Y. Y. Chang, I E. Tsai, H. H. Lin, J. C. T. Hsieh, and J. T. W. Lee, "Optical configuration and color-representation range of a variable-pitch dot matrix holographic printer," Appl. Opt. 39, 40-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Yeh, J. T. Lan, and H. H. Lin, "Dot matrix hologram for hiding a moiré pattern," U.S. patent 6,317,226 (13 November 2001).

Zhang, S.

T. Tamir and S. Zhang, "Modal transmission-line theory of multilayered grating structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 914-927 (1996).

T. Wang, S. Yang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Chaos and fractals in digital holography," in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I.Cindrich and S.H.Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE 3010,69-76 (1997).

Zhang, Z.

H. Cao, G. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Ge, and X. Li, "Computer-generated fractal kinetic images and their applications in security holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637,176-180 (1999).

Zhu, G.

H. Cao, G. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Ge, and X. Li, "Computer-generated fractal kinetic images and their applications in security holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637,176-180 (1999).

Zhu, Y.

H. Cao, G. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Ge, and X. Li, "Computer-generated fractal kinetic images and their applications in security holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637,176-180 (1999).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. L. Yeh and S. T. Lin, "Dot-matrix hologram with hidden image," Opt. Eng. 41, 314-318 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

"Laser projected image for Westmead's Lightgate," Holography News 15 (9/10), 10 (2001).

P. P. Huang, "Holographic anticounterfeit method and device with encoded pattern," in Diffractive and Holographic Technologies, Systems, and Spatial Light Modulators VI, I.Cindrich, S.H.Lee, and R.L.Sutherland, eds., Proc. SPIE 3633,61-67 (1999).

S. L. Yeh, J. T. Lan, and H. H. Lin, "Dot matrix hologram for hiding a moiré pattern," U.S. patent 6,317,226 (13 November 2001).

"Schengen counterfeit case to retrial," Holography News 14 (1), 1 (2000).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, 1979).

http://www.ahead.com.tw/en/product.asp.

N. C. Abraham, "Optical data storage disc with a visible holographic image and method for its manufacture," U.S. patent 6,011,767 (4 January 2000).

K. J. Gasvik, Optical Metrology, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamir and S. Zhang, "Modal transmission-line theory of multilayered grating structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 914-927 (1996).

A. Rhody and F. Ross, Holography Marketplace, 8th ed. (Ross Books, 1999).

T. Wang, S. Yang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Chaos and fractals in digital holography," in Diffractive and Holographic Device Technologies and Applications IV, I.Cindrich and S.H.Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE 3010,69-76 (1997).

H. Cao, G. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Zhang, H. Ge, and X. Li, "Computer-generated fractal kinetic images and their applications in security holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637,176-180 (1999).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup for analyzing the diffraction of a dot-matrix hologram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dot-matrix hologram on a CD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dot arrangement of areas (a) A, (b) B, and (c) C in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two spectra diffracted by the first (left) and the second (right) CDs for area A.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two spectra diffracted by the first (left) and the second (right) CDs for area B.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two spectra diffracted by the first (left) and the second (right) CDs for area C.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Zeroth-order reflective diffraction efficiencies of 1D sinusoidal gratings for (a) p∕λ = 1.5 and (b) p∕λ = 2.6.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Neat Powers (μW) for the Spots on the (a) Left and (b) Right Spectra in Fig. 6

Equations (4)

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I f ( x h , y h ) = I h ( x h , y h ) comb ( x h Δ x , y h Δ y ) ,
U ˜ ( u , v ; ξ , η ) = c 1 F { exp [ i c 2 I f ( x h , y h ) ] } u u ξ , v v η = U ˜ ( u ξ , v η ; 0 , 0 ) ,
U ˜ ( u , v ) = c 1 δ ( u , v ) + c 3 I ˜ ( u , v ) comb ( u Δ x , v Δ y ) ,
U ˜ ( u , v ) = c 4 I ˜ ( u , v ) comb ( u Δ x , v Δ y ) F ×   { 1 c 5 exp ( x h     2 + y h     2 r 2 ) } ,

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