Abstract

The fluorescence spectra of Bacillus spores are measured at excitation wavelengths of 280, 310, 340, 370, and 400  nm. When cluster analysis is used with the principal-component analysis, the Bacillus globigii spores can be distinguished from the other species of Bacillus spores (B. cereus, B. popilliae, and B. thuringiensis). To test how robust the identification process is with the fluorescence spectra, the B. globigii is obtained from three separate preparations in different laboratories. Furthermore the fluorescence is measured before and after washing and redrying the B. globigii spores. Using the cluster analysis of the first two or three principal components of the fluorescence spectra, one is able to distinguish B. globigii spores from the other species, independent of preparing or washing the spores.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. T. Coburn, F. E. Lytle, and D. M. Huber, "Identification of bacterial pathogens by laser excited fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 57, 1669-1673 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. M. Rossi and I. M. Warner, "Bacterial identification using fluorescence spectroscopy," in Rapid Detection and Identification of Microorganisms, W.H.Nelson, ed. (Verlag Chemie, 1985), pp. 1-50.
  3. L. Reinisch, J. Tribble, J. A., Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Noninvasive optical diagnosis of bacteria causing otitis media," Laryngoscope 104, 264-268 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  4. M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. C. Spector, L. Reinisch, D. Smith, and J. A. Werkhaven, "Noninvasive fluorescent identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media in a chinchilla model," Laryngoscope 110, 1119-1123 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. V. Bronk and L. Reinisch, "Variability of steady-state bacterial fluorescence with respect to growth conditions," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 436-440 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, Jr., D. J. Rader, T. J. O'Hem, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. I. Randloff, "Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy," Aerosol. Sci. Technol. 30, 186-201 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. R. Beebe and B. R. Kowalski, "Introduction to multivariate calibration and analysis," Anal. Chem. 59, 1007A-1017A (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. A. Sharaf, D. L. Illman, and B. R. Kowalski, Chemometrics (Wiley, 1986).
  10. E. R. Malinowski and D. G. Howery, Factor Analysis in Chemistry (Wiley, 1980).
  11. N. Bonnet, "Multivariate statistical methods for analysis of microscope image series," J. Microsc. 190, 2-18 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. P. Sun, D. F. Sears, and J. Saltiel, "Three component self-modeling technique applied to luminance spectra," Anal. Chem. 59, 2515-2519 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. K. Jenson and F. A. Walty, "Principal-component analysis and canonical analysis in remote sensing," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 45, 783-784 (1979).
  14. A. Basilevsky, Statistical Factor Analysis and Related Methods, Theory and Applications (J Wiley, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. S. Everitt and G. Dunn, Applied Multivariate Data Analysis (Oxford University, 1992).
  16. A. M. Kshirsagar, Multivariate Analysis (Marcel Dekker, 1972).
  17. R. Gananadesikan, Methods for Statistical Data Analysis of Multivariate Observations (Wiley, 1977).
  18. H. F. Kaiser, "The application of electronic computers to factor analysis," Educ. Psychol. Meas. 20, 141-151 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Y. Yeung and W. L. Ruzzo, "Principal-component analysis for clustering gene expression data," Bioinformatics 17, 763-774 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. N. Bonnet, "Artificial intelligence and pattern recognition techniques in microscope image processing and analysis," Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 114, 1-77 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. B. Eisen, P. T. Spellman, P. O. Brown, and D. Botstein, "Cluster analysis and display of genome-wide expression patterns," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 14863-14868 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. I. T. Jolliffe, B. Jones, and B. J. T. Morgan, "Stability and influence in cluster analysis," in Data Analysis and Informatics, E.Diday, ed. (North-Holland, 1988), pp. 507-514.
  23. J. Kunnil, B. Swartz, and L. Reinisch, "Changes in the luminescence between dried and wet bacillus spores," Appl. Opt. 43, 5404-5409 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Sarasanandarajah, J. Kunnil, E. Chacko, B. V. Bronk, and L. Reinisch, "Reversible changes in fluorescence of bacterial endospores found in aerosols due to hydration/drying," J. Aerosol Sci. 36, 689-699 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Sarasanandarajah, J. Kunnil, E. Chacko, B. V. Bronk, and L. Reinisch, "Reversible changes in fluorescence of bacterial endospores found in aerosols due to hydration/drying," J. Aerosol Sci. 36, 689-699 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

K. Y. Yeung and W. L. Ruzzo, "Principal-component analysis for clustering gene expression data," Bioinformatics 17, 763-774 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

N. Bonnet, "Artificial intelligence and pattern recognition techniques in microscope image processing and analysis," Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 114, 1-77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Spector, L. Reinisch, D. Smith, and J. A. Werkhaven, "Noninvasive fluorescent identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media in a chinchilla model," Laryngoscope 110, 1119-1123 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, Jr., D. J. Rader, T. J. O'Hem, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. I. Randloff, "Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy," Aerosol. Sci. Technol. 30, 186-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

N. Bonnet, "Multivariate statistical methods for analysis of microscope image series," J. Microsc. 190, 2-18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Eisen, P. T. Spellman, P. O. Brown, and D. Botstein, "Cluster analysis and display of genome-wide expression patterns," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 14863-14868 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

L. Reinisch, J. Tribble, J. A., Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Noninvasive optical diagnosis of bacteria causing otitis media," Laryngoscope 104, 264-268 (1994).
[PubMed]

M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Basilevsky, Statistical Factor Analysis and Related Methods, Theory and Applications (J Wiley, 1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

B. S. Everitt and G. Dunn, Applied Multivariate Data Analysis (Oxford University, 1992).

1988 (1)

I. T. Jolliffe, B. Jones, and B. J. T. Morgan, "Stability and influence in cluster analysis," in Data Analysis and Informatics, E.Diday, ed. (North-Holland, 1988), pp. 507-514.

1987 (2)

Y. P. Sun, D. F. Sears, and J. Saltiel, "Three component self-modeling technique applied to luminance spectra," Anal. Chem. 59, 2515-2519 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Beebe and B. R. Kowalski, "Introduction to multivariate calibration and analysis," Anal. Chem. 59, 1007A-1017A (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. A. Sharaf, D. L. Illman, and B. R. Kowalski, Chemometrics (Wiley, 1986).

1985 (2)

J. T. Coburn, F. E. Lytle, and D. M. Huber, "Identification of bacterial pathogens by laser excited fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 57, 1669-1673 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Rossi and I. M. Warner, "Bacterial identification using fluorescence spectroscopy," in Rapid Detection and Identification of Microorganisms, W.H.Nelson, ed. (Verlag Chemie, 1985), pp. 1-50.

1980 (1)

E. R. Malinowski and D. G. Howery, Factor Analysis in Chemistry (Wiley, 1980).

1979 (1)

S. K. Jenson and F. A. Walty, "Principal-component analysis and canonical analysis in remote sensing," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 45, 783-784 (1979).

1977 (1)

R. Gananadesikan, Methods for Statistical Data Analysis of Multivariate Observations (Wiley, 1977).

1972 (1)

A. M. Kshirsagar, Multivariate Analysis (Marcel Dekker, 1972).

1960 (1)

H. F. Kaiser, "The application of electronic computers to factor analysis," Educ. Psychol. Meas. 20, 141-151 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Barr, E. B.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, Jr., D. J. Rader, T. J. O'Hem, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. I. Randloff, "Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy," Aerosol. Sci. Technol. 30, 186-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Basilevsky, A.

A. Basilevsky, Statistical Factor Analysis and Related Methods, Theory and Applications (J Wiley, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Beebe, K. R.

K. R. Beebe and B. R. Kowalski, "Introduction to multivariate calibration and analysis," Anal. Chem. 59, 1007A-1017A (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet, N.

N. Bonnet, "Artificial intelligence and pattern recognition techniques in microscope image processing and analysis," Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 114, 1-77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Bonnet, "Multivariate statistical methods for analysis of microscope image series," J. Microsc. 190, 2-18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Botstein, D.

M. B. Eisen, P. T. Spellman, P. O. Brown, and D. Botstein, "Cluster analysis and display of genome-wide expression patterns," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 14863-14868 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bronk, B. V.

S. Sarasanandarajah, J. Kunnil, E. Chacko, B. V. Bronk, and L. Reinisch, "Reversible changes in fluorescence of bacterial endospores found in aerosols due to hydration/drying," J. Aerosol Sci. 36, 689-699 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Bronk and L. Reinisch, "Variability of steady-state bacterial fluorescence with respect to growth conditions," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 436-440 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brown, P. O.

M. B. Eisen, P. T. Spellman, P. O. Brown, and D. Botstein, "Cluster analysis and display of genome-wide expression patterns," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 14863-14868 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chacko, E.

S. Sarasanandarajah, J. Kunnil, E. Chacko, B. V. Bronk, and L. Reinisch, "Reversible changes in fluorescence of bacterial endospores found in aerosols due to hydration/drying," J. Aerosol Sci. 36, 689-699 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. S.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, Jr., D. J. Rader, T. J. O'Hem, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. I. Randloff, "Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy," Aerosol. Sci. Technol. 30, 186-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coburn, J. T.

J. T. Coburn, F. E. Lytle, and D. M. Huber, "Identification of bacterial pathogens by laser excited fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 57, 1669-1673 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, G.

B. S. Everitt and G. Dunn, Applied Multivariate Data Analysis (Oxford University, 1992).

Eisen, M. B.

M. B. Eisen, P. T. Spellman, P. O. Brown, and D. Botstein, "Cluster analysis and display of genome-wide expression patterns," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 14863-14868 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everitt, B. S.

B. S. Everitt and G. Dunn, Applied Multivariate Data Analysis (Oxford University, 1992).

Fan, B. J.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, Jr., D. J. Rader, T. J. O'Hem, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. I. Randloff, "Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy," Aerosol. Sci. Technol. 30, 186-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gananadesikan, R.

R. Gananadesikan, Methods for Statistical Data Analysis of Multivariate Observations (Wiley, 1977).

Hargis, P. J.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, Jr., D. J. Rader, T. J. O'Hem, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. I. Randloff, "Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy," Aerosol. Sci. Technol. 30, 186-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Howery, D. G.

E. R. Malinowski and D. G. Howery, Factor Analysis in Chemistry (Wiley, 1980).

Huber, D. M.

J. T. Coburn, F. E. Lytle, and D. M. Huber, "Identification of bacterial pathogens by laser excited fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 57, 1669-1673 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Illman, D. L.

M. A. Sharaf, D. L. Illman, and B. R. Kowalski, Chemometrics (Wiley, 1986).

Jenson, S. K.

S. K. Jenson and F. A. Walty, "Principal-component analysis and canonical analysis in remote sensing," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 45, 783-784 (1979).

Jolliffe, I. T.

I. T. Jolliffe, B. Jones, and B. J. T. Morgan, "Stability and influence in cluster analysis," in Data Analysis and Informatics, E.Diday, ed. (North-Holland, 1988), pp. 507-514.

Jones, B.

I. T. Jolliffe, B. Jones, and B. J. T. Morgan, "Stability and influence in cluster analysis," in Data Analysis and Informatics, E.Diday, ed. (North-Holland, 1988), pp. 507-514.

Kaiser, H. F.

H. F. Kaiser, "The application of electronic computers to factor analysis," Educ. Psychol. Meas. 20, 141-151 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, B. R.

K. R. Beebe and B. R. Kowalski, "Introduction to multivariate calibration and analysis," Anal. Chem. 59, 1007A-1017A (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Sharaf, D. L. Illman, and B. R. Kowalski, Chemometrics (Wiley, 1986).

Kshirsagar, A. M.

A. M. Kshirsagar, Multivariate Analysis (Marcel Dekker, 1972).

Kunnil, J.

S. Sarasanandarajah, J. Kunnil, E. Chacko, B. V. Bronk, and L. Reinisch, "Reversible changes in fluorescence of bacterial endospores found in aerosols due to hydration/drying," J. Aerosol Sci. 36, 689-699 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kunnil, B. Swartz, and L. Reinisch, "Changes in the luminescence between dried and wet bacillus spores," Appl. Opt. 43, 5404-5409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lytle, F. E.

J. T. Coburn, F. E. Lytle, and D. M. Huber, "Identification of bacterial pathogens by laser excited fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 57, 1669-1673 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, E. R.

E. R. Malinowski and D. G. Howery, Factor Analysis in Chemistry (Wiley, 1980).

Morgan, B. J. T.

I. T. Jolliffe, B. Jones, and B. J. T. Morgan, "Stability and influence in cluster analysis," in Data Analysis and Informatics, E.Diday, ed. (North-Holland, 1988), pp. 507-514.

O'Hem, T. J.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, Jr., D. J. Rader, T. J. O'Hem, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. I. Randloff, "Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy," Aerosol. Sci. Technol. 30, 186-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ossoff, R. H.

L. Reinisch, J. Tribble, J. A., Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Noninvasive optical diagnosis of bacteria causing otitis media," Laryngoscope 104, 264-268 (1994).
[PubMed]

M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Preppernau, B. L.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, Jr., D. J. Rader, T. J. O'Hem, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. I. Randloff, "Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy," Aerosol. Sci. Technol. 30, 186-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rader, D. J.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, Jr., D. J. Rader, T. J. O'Hem, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. I. Randloff, "Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy," Aerosol. Sci. Technol. 30, 186-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Randloff, R. I.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, Jr., D. J. Rader, T. J. O'Hem, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. I. Randloff, "Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy," Aerosol. Sci. Technol. 30, 186-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reinisch, L.

S. Sarasanandarajah, J. Kunnil, E. Chacko, B. V. Bronk, and L. Reinisch, "Reversible changes in fluorescence of bacterial endospores found in aerosols due to hydration/drying," J. Aerosol Sci. 36, 689-699 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kunnil, B. Swartz, and L. Reinisch, "Changes in the luminescence between dried and wet bacillus spores," Appl. Opt. 43, 5404-5409 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Spector, L. Reinisch, D. Smith, and J. A. Werkhaven, "Noninvasive fluorescent identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media in a chinchilla model," Laryngoscope 110, 1119-1123 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Reinisch, J. Tribble, J. A., Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Noninvasive optical diagnosis of bacteria causing otitis media," Laryngoscope 104, 264-268 (1994).
[PubMed]

M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Bronk and L. Reinisch, "Variability of steady-state bacterial fluorescence with respect to growth conditions," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 436-440 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, T. M.

T. M. Rossi and I. M. Warner, "Bacterial identification using fluorescence spectroscopy," in Rapid Detection and Identification of Microorganisms, W.H.Nelson, ed. (Verlag Chemie, 1985), pp. 1-50.

Ruzzo, W. L.

K. Y. Yeung and W. L. Ruzzo, "Principal-component analysis for clustering gene expression data," Bioinformatics 17, 763-774 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saltiel, J.

Y. P. Sun, D. F. Sears, and J. Saltiel, "Three component self-modeling technique applied to luminance spectra," Anal. Chem. 59, 2515-2519 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sarasanandarajah, S.

S. Sarasanandarajah, J. Kunnil, E. Chacko, B. V. Bronk, and L. Reinisch, "Reversible changes in fluorescence of bacterial endospores found in aerosols due to hydration/drying," J. Aerosol Sci. 36, 689-699 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sears, D. F.

Y. P. Sun, D. F. Sears, and J. Saltiel, "Three component self-modeling technique applied to luminance spectra," Anal. Chem. 59, 2515-2519 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sharaf, M. A.

M. A. Sharaf, D. L. Illman, and B. R. Kowalski, Chemometrics (Wiley, 1986).

Smith, D.

B. C. Spector, L. Reinisch, D. Smith, and J. A. Werkhaven, "Noninvasive fluorescent identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media in a chinchilla model," Laryngoscope 110, 1119-1123 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorrel, M. J.

M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spector, B. C.

B. C. Spector, L. Reinisch, D. Smith, and J. A. Werkhaven, "Noninvasive fluorescent identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media in a chinchilla model," Laryngoscope 110, 1119-1123 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spellman, P. T.

M. B. Eisen, P. T. Spellman, P. O. Brown, and D. Botstein, "Cluster analysis and display of genome-wide expression patterns," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 14863-14868 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y. P.

Y. P. Sun, D. F. Sears, and J. Saltiel, "Three component self-modeling technique applied to luminance spectra," Anal. Chem. 59, 2515-2519 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Swartz, B.

Tisone, G. C.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, Jr., D. J. Rader, T. J. O'Hem, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. I. Randloff, "Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy," Aerosol. Sci. Technol. 30, 186-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Torczynski, J. R.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, Jr., D. J. Rader, T. J. O'Hem, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. I. Randloff, "Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy," Aerosol. Sci. Technol. 30, 186-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tribble, J.

L. Reinisch, J. Tribble, J. A., Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Noninvasive optical diagnosis of bacteria causing otitis media," Laryngoscope 104, 264-268 (1994).
[PubMed]

M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Walty, F. A.

S. K. Jenson and F. A. Walty, "Principal-component analysis and canonical analysis in remote sensing," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 45, 783-784 (1979).

Warner, I. M.

T. M. Rossi and I. M. Warner, "Bacterial identification using fluorescence spectroscopy," in Rapid Detection and Identification of Microorganisms, W.H.Nelson, ed. (Verlag Chemie, 1985), pp. 1-50.

Werkhaven, J. A.

B. C. Spector, L. Reinisch, D. Smith, and J. A. Werkhaven, "Noninvasive fluorescent identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media in a chinchilla model," Laryngoscope 110, 1119-1123 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Reinisch, J. Tribble, J. A., Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Noninvasive optical diagnosis of bacteria causing otitis media," Laryngoscope 104, 264-268 (1994).
[PubMed]

M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yeung, K. Y.

K. Y. Yeung and W. L. Ruzzo, "Principal-component analysis for clustering gene expression data," Bioinformatics 17, 763-774 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, S. A.

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, Jr., D. J. Rader, T. J. O'Hem, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. I. Randloff, "Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy," Aerosol. Sci. Technol. 30, 186-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. (1)

N. Bonnet, "Artificial intelligence and pattern recognition techniques in microscope image processing and analysis," Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 114, 1-77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aerosol. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. S. Cheng, E. B. Barr, B. J. Fan, P. J. Hargis, Jr., D. J. Rader, T. J. O'Hem, J. R. Torczynski, G. C. Tisone, B. L. Preppernau, S. A. Young, and R. I. Randloff, "Detection of bioaerosols using multiwavelength UV fluorescence spectroscopy," Aerosol. Sci. Technol. 30, 186-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (3)

K. R. Beebe and B. R. Kowalski, "Introduction to multivariate calibration and analysis," Anal. Chem. 59, 1007A-1017A (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Sun, D. F. Sears, and J. Saltiel, "Three component self-modeling technique applied to luminance spectra," Anal. Chem. 59, 2515-2519 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Coburn, F. E. Lytle, and D. M. Huber, "Identification of bacterial pathogens by laser excited fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 57, 1669-1673 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Bioinformatics (1)

K. Y. Yeung and W. L. Ruzzo, "Principal-component analysis for clustering gene expression data," Bioinformatics 17, 763-774 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Educ. Psychol. Meas. (1)

H. F. Kaiser, "The application of electronic computers to factor analysis," Educ. Psychol. Meas. 20, 141-151 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

S. Sarasanandarajah, J. Kunnil, E. Chacko, B. V. Bronk, and L. Reinisch, "Reversible changes in fluorescence of bacterial endospores found in aerosols due to hydration/drying," J. Aerosol Sci. 36, 689-699 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

N. Bonnet, "Multivariate statistical methods for analysis of microscope image series," J. Microsc. 190, 2-18 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laryngoscope (2)

L. Reinisch, J. Tribble, J. A., Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Noninvasive optical diagnosis of bacteria causing otitis media," Laryngoscope 104, 264-268 (1994).
[PubMed]

B. C. Spector, L. Reinisch, D. Smith, and J. A. Werkhaven, "Noninvasive fluorescent identification of bacteria causing acute otitis media in a chinchilla model," Laryngoscope 110, 1119-1123 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

M. J. Sorrel, J. Tribble, L. Reinisch, J. A. Werkhaven, and R. H. Ossoff, "Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 155-163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. (1)

S. K. Jenson and F. A. Walty, "Principal-component analysis and canonical analysis in remote sensing," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 45, 783-784 (1979).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M. B. Eisen, P. T. Spellman, P. O. Brown, and D. Botstein, "Cluster analysis and display of genome-wide expression patterns," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 14863-14868 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

I. T. Jolliffe, B. Jones, and B. J. T. Morgan, "Stability and influence in cluster analysis," in Data Analysis and Informatics, E.Diday, ed. (North-Holland, 1988), pp. 507-514.

T. M. Rossi and I. M. Warner, "Bacterial identification using fluorescence spectroscopy," in Rapid Detection and Identification of Microorganisms, W.H.Nelson, ed. (Verlag Chemie, 1985), pp. 1-50.

A. Basilevsky, Statistical Factor Analysis and Related Methods, Theory and Applications (J Wiley, 1994).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Everitt and G. Dunn, Applied Multivariate Data Analysis (Oxford University, 1992).

A. M. Kshirsagar, Multivariate Analysis (Marcel Dekker, 1972).

R. Gananadesikan, Methods for Statistical Data Analysis of Multivariate Observations (Wiley, 1977).

M. A. Sharaf, D. L. Illman, and B. R. Kowalski, Chemometrics (Wiley, 1986).

E. R. Malinowski and D. G. Howery, Factor Analysis in Chemistry (Wiley, 1980).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fluorescence profiles from dry spores of (A) B. cereus, (B) B. popilliae, and (C) B. thuringiensis. Details of the measurements are given in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence signatures from dry spores of (A) B. globigii (i) before washing, (B) B. globigii (i) after washing, (C) B. globigii (ii) before washing, (D) B. globigii (ii) after washing, (E) B. globigii (iii) before washing, (F) B. globigii (iii) after washing. Details of the measurements are in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principal component 2 versus principal component 1 for the 27 fluorescence measurements: circles, B. globigii (i); solid circles, before washing; open circles, after washing; triangles, B. globigii (ii); solid triangles, before washing, open triangles, after washing, squares, B. globigii (iii); solid squares, before washing; open squares, after washing. The oval is drawn to demonstrate the clustering. Diamonds, B. cereus samples; ×, B. popilliae samples; +, B. thuringiensis samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Dendrogram of the clustering of objects according to the first and the second principal components as shown in Fig. 3. Samples with un were measured unwashed, and samples with wa were measured at being washed twice and redried. (B) The strength of the three clusters is shown with the brackets at the bottom of (A). The cluster strength is defined in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Principal components 1, 2, and 3 for the 27 fluorescence measurements made. The symbols are as in Fig. 3.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S i = [ B i A i ] / max [ A i , B i ] ,

Metrics