Abstract

Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy was used for the simultaneous determination of temperature and exhaust-gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge-compression ignition engine. Measurements were performed in a production-line four-cylinder gasoline engine operated with standard gasoline fuel through small optical line-of-sight accesses. The homogenization process of fresh intake air with recirculated exhaust gas was observed during the compression stroke, and the effect of charge temperature on combustion timing is shown. Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy spectra could not only be taken in the compression stroke but also during the gas-exchange cycle and after combustion. Consequently, the used method has been shown to be suitable for the investigation of two of the key parameters for self-ignition, namely temperature and charge composition.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Zhao, T. W. Asmus, D. N. Assanis, J. E. Dec, J. A. Eng, and P.M. Najt, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines—Key Research and Development Issues (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2003).
  2. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon and Breach, 1996).
  3. K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, eds., Applied Combustion Diagnostics, Combustion: An International Series (Taylor and Francis, 2002).
  4. S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, "Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. Green and R. P. Lucht, "An application of laser diagnostics to the study of end-gas autoignition and engine knock," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Reciprocating Engine (Comodia, 1985), pp. 259-260.
    [PubMed]
  6. G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, and W. Hentschel, "Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analysis in technically applied combustion systems: Spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine," Appl. Phys. B 58, 333-342 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. C. Miles, "Raman line imaging for spatially and temporally resolved mole fraction measurements in internal combustion engines," Appl. Opt. 38, 1714-1732 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. C. Eckbreth and T. J. Anderson, "Simultaneous rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and coherent Stokes Raman spectroscopy with arbitrary pump-Stokes spectral separation," Opt. Lett. 11, 496-498 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and H. Edner, "Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction," Appl. Opt. 25, 4493-4499 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, "Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2-O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 62, 29-37 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. Dreier, "Rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in nitrogen at high pressures (0.1-44 MPa):Experimental and modelling results," J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 703-710 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative O2-N2 concentration measurements by single-shot pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa," Appl. Opt. 39, 6918-6925 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Seeger, F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, and A. Leipertz, "High-pressure pure rotational CARS:comparison of temperature measurements with O2, N2 and synthetic air," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 932-939 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Thumann, M. Schenk, J. Jonuscheit, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative nitrogen oxygen concentration measurements in air with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for temperatures to as high as 2050 K," Appl. Opt. 36, 3500-3505 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13-R25 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, "Stray light rejection in rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy by use of a sodium-seeded flame," Appl. Opt. 37, 8392-8396 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Application of an optical pulse stretcher to coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2381-2383 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a partially premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique," J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Gas-phase temperature measurement in the vaporizing spray of a gasoline direct-injection injector using pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Opt. Lett. 29, 247-249 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. Magens, "Nutzung von Rotations-CARS zur Temperatur und Konzentrationsmessung in Flammen," Dissertation (Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen, 1993).
  21. L. A. Rahn and R. E. Palmer, "Studies of nitrogen self-broadening at high temperature with inverse Raman spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1164-1169 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Beyrau, A. Datta, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Dual-pump CARS for the simultaneous detection of N2, O2 and CO in CH4 flames," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 919-924 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Johansson, "HCCI—The optimum combustion process for IC engines?," in Proceedings of the European Combustion Meeting (Combustion Institute, 2005), Plenary Lecture I.

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a partially premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique," J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhao, T. W. Asmus, D. N. Assanis, J. E. Dec, J. A. Eng, and P.M. Najt, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines—Key Research and Development Issues (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2003).

T. Seeger, F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, and A. Leipertz, "High-pressure pure rotational CARS:comparison of temperature measurements with O2, N2 and synthetic air," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 932-939 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

F. Beyrau, A. Datta, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Dual-pump CARS for the simultaneous detection of N2, O2 and CO in CH4 flames," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 919-924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, eds., Applied Combustion Diagnostics, Combustion: An International Series (Taylor and Francis, 2002).

2000 (3)

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, "Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. Dreier, "Rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in nitrogen at high pressures (0.1-44 MPa):Experimental and modelling results," J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 703-710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative O2-N2 concentration measurements by single-shot pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa," Appl. Opt. 39, 6918-6925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, "Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2-O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 62, 29-37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon and Breach, 1996).

1994 (1)

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, and W. Hentschel, "Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analysis in technically applied combustion systems: Spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine," Appl. Phys. B 58, 333-342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. Magens, "Nutzung von Rotations-CARS zur Temperatur und Konzentrationsmessung in Flammen," Dissertation (Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen, 1993).

1986 (3)

Afzelius, M.

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13-R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

Anderson, T. J.

Andresen, P.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, and W. Hentschel, "Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analysis in technically applied combustion systems: Spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine," Appl. Phys. B 58, 333-342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Asmus, T. W.

F. Zhao, T. W. Asmus, D. N. Assanis, J. E. Dec, J. A. Eng, and P.M. Najt, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines—Key Research and Development Issues (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2003).

Assanis, D. N.

F. Zhao, T. W. Asmus, D. N. Assanis, J. E. Dec, J. A. Eng, and P.M. Najt, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines—Key Research and Development Issues (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2003).

Bengtsson, P.-E.

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13-R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. Dreier, "Rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in nitrogen at high pressures (0.1-44 MPa):Experimental and modelling results," J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 703-710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, "Stray light rejection in rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy by use of a sodium-seeded flame," Appl. Opt. 37, 8392-8396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, "Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2-O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 62, 29-37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and H. Edner, "Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction," Appl. Opt. 25, 4493-4499 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beushausen, V.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, and W. Hentschel, "Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analysis in technically applied combustion systems: Spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine," Appl. Phys. B 58, 333-342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beyrau, F.

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Application of an optical pulse stretcher to coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2381-2383 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Gas-phase temperature measurement in the vaporizing spray of a gasoline direct-injection injector using pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Opt. Lett. 29, 247-249 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seeger, F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, and A. Leipertz, "High-pressure pure rotational CARS:comparison of temperature measurements with O2, N2 and synthetic air," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 932-939 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Beyrau, A. Datta, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Dual-pump CARS for the simultaneous detection of N2, O2 and CO in CH4 flames," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 919-924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bood, J.

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13-R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. Dreier, "Rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in nitrogen at high pressures (0.1-44 MPa):Experimental and modelling results," J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 703-710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, "Stray light rejection in rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy by use of a sodium-seeded flame," Appl. Opt. 37, 8392-8396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brackmann, C.

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13-R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer, A.

F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Gas-phase temperature measurement in the vaporizing spray of a gasoline direct-injection injector using pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Opt. Lett. 29, 247-249 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seeger, F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, and A. Leipertz, "High-pressure pure rotational CARS:comparison of temperature measurements with O2, N2 and synthetic air," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 932-939 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Datta, A.

F. Beyrau, A. Datta, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Dual-pump CARS for the simultaneous detection of N2, O2 and CO in CH4 flames," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 919-924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dec, J. E.

F. Zhao, T. W. Asmus, D. N. Assanis, J. E. Dec, J. A. Eng, and P.M. Najt, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines—Key Research and Development Issues (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2003).

Dreier, T.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. Dreier, "Rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in nitrogen at high pressures (0.1-44 MPa):Experimental and modelling results," J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 703-710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

Edner, H.

Einecke, S.

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, "Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eng, J. A.

F. Zhao, T. W. Asmus, D. N. Assanis, J. E. Dec, J. A. Eng, and P.M. Najt, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines—Key Research and Development Issues (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2003).

Green, R. M.

R. M. Green and R. P. Lucht, "An application of laser diagnostics to the study of end-gas autoignition and engine knock," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Reciprocating Engine (Comodia, 1985), pp. 259-260.
[PubMed]

Grünefeld, G.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, and W. Hentschel, "Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analysis in technically applied combustion systems: Spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine," Appl. Phys. B 58, 333-342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, W.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, and W. Hentschel, "Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analysis in technically applied combustion systems: Spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine," Appl. Phys. B 58, 333-342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, J. B.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, eds., Applied Combustion Diagnostics, Combustion: An International Series (Taylor and Francis, 2002).

Johansson, B.

B. Johansson, "HCCI—The optimum combustion process for IC engines?," in Proceedings of the European Combustion Meeting (Combustion Institute, 2005), Plenary Lecture I.

Jonuscheit, J.

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a partially premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique," J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Thumann, M. Schenk, J. Jonuscheit, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative nitrogen oxygen concentration measurements in air with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for temperatures to as high as 2050 K," Appl. Opt. 36, 3500-3505 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohse-Höinghaus, K.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, eds., Applied Combustion Diagnostics, Combustion: An International Series (Taylor and Francis, 2002).

Leipertz, A.

F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Gas-phase temperature measurement in the vaporizing spray of a gasoline direct-injection injector using pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Opt. Lett. 29, 247-249 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Application of an optical pulse stretcher to coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2381-2383 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seeger, F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, and A. Leipertz, "High-pressure pure rotational CARS:comparison of temperature measurements with O2, N2 and synthetic air," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 932-939 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a partially premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique," J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Beyrau, A. Datta, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Dual-pump CARS for the simultaneous detection of N2, O2 and CO in CH4 flames," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 919-924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative O2-N2 concentration measurements by single-shot pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa," Appl. Opt. 39, 6918-6925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Thumann, M. Schenk, J. Jonuscheit, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative nitrogen oxygen concentration measurements in air with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for temperatures to as high as 2050 K," Appl. Opt. 36, 3500-3505 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucht, R. P.

R. M. Green and R. P. Lucht, "An application of laser diagnostics to the study of end-gas autoignition and engine knock," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Reciprocating Engine (Comodia, 1985), pp. 259-260.
[PubMed]

Magens, E.

E. Magens, "Nutzung von Rotations-CARS zur Temperatur und Konzentrationsmessung in Flammen," Dissertation (Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen, 1993).

Martinsson, L.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, "Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2-O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 62, 29-37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miles, P. C.

Najt, P. M.

F. Zhao, T. W. Asmus, D. N. Assanis, J. E. Dec, J. A. Eng, and P.M. Najt, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines—Key Research and Development Issues (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2003).

Palmer, R. E.

Rahn, L. A.

Schenk, M.

Schulz, C.

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, "Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seeger, T.

F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Gas-phase temperature measurement in the vaporizing spray of a gasoline direct-injection injector using pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Opt. Lett. 29, 247-249 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Application of an optical pulse stretcher to coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2381-2383 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seeger, F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, and A. Leipertz, "High-pressure pure rotational CARS:comparison of temperature measurements with O2, N2 and synthetic air," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 932-939 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a partially premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique," J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Beyrau, A. Datta, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Dual-pump CARS for the simultaneous detection of N2, O2 and CO in CH4 flames," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 919-924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative O2-N2 concentration measurements by single-shot pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa," Appl. Opt. 39, 6918-6925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Thumann, M. Schenk, J. Jonuscheit, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative nitrogen oxygen concentration measurements in air with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for temperatures to as high as 2050 K," Appl. Opt. 36, 3500-3505 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sick, V.

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, "Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thumann, A.

Weikl, M. C.

Zhao, F.

F. Zhao, T. W. Asmus, D. N. Assanis, J. E. Dec, J. A. Eng, and P.M. Najt, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines—Key Research and Development Issues (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2003).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, and V. Sick, "Measurement of temperature, fuel concentration and equivalence ratio fields using tracer LIF in IC engine combustion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 717-723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, and W. Hentschel, "Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analysis in technically applied combustion systems: Spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine," Appl. Phys. B 58, 333-342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, "Oxygen concentration and temperature measurements in N2-O2 mixtures using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 62, 29-37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a partially premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique," J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Raman Spectrosc. (3)

F. Beyrau, A. Datta, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Dual-pump CARS for the simultaneous detection of N2, O2 and CO in CH4 flames," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 919-924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. Dreier, "Rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in nitrogen at high pressures (0.1-44 MPa):Experimental and modelling results," J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 703-710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Seeger, F. Beyrau, A. Bräuer, and A. Leipertz, "High-pressure pure rotational CARS:comparison of temperature measurements with O2, N2 and synthetic air," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 932-939 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13-R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (6)

B. Johansson, "HCCI—The optimum combustion process for IC engines?," in Proceedings of the European Combustion Meeting (Combustion Institute, 2005), Plenary Lecture I.

E. Magens, "Nutzung von Rotations-CARS zur Temperatur und Konzentrationsmessung in Flammen," Dissertation (Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen, 1993).

R. M. Green and R. P. Lucht, "An application of laser diagnostics to the study of end-gas autoignition and engine knock," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Reciprocating Engine (Comodia, 1985), pp. 259-260.
[PubMed]

F. Zhao, T. W. Asmus, D. N. Assanis, J. E. Dec, J. A. Eng, and P.M. Najt, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines—Key Research and Development Issues (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2003).

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon and Breach, 1996).

K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, eds., Applied Combustion Diagnostics, Combustion: An International Series (Taylor and Francis, 2002).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Photograph of the optical access to the combustion chamber of the engine realized by mounting an extension plate between cylinder block and cylinder head.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Experimental setup for dual-broadband pure rotational CARS: BS, beam splitter; T, telescope; GP, Glan–Taylor prism; λ∕2, half-wave plate; DC, dichroic mirror; BD, beam dump.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CARS measured temperatures before autoignition and after combustion. The points represent mean values of single-pulse measurements and error bars represent the standard deviation. Gray bars denote crank-angle degrees where no measurements were possible (see text for details).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single-pulse spectrum taken at −5 °CA. The temperature of the best-fit theoretical spectrum is 1084 K with an O2–N2 ratio of 0.177. Also shown is the difference between the theoretical spectrum and the experimental spectrum, which is shifted by −0.1 for better visibility.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Evaluation of the O2–N2 concentration in intake and compression stroke. The straight line denotes the mean value of measured ratios late in the compression stroke with a value of 0.174, which corresponds to an EGR rate of 45.5%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measurements at −90 °CA with a variation of intake valve closing time. Temperatures are mean values of more than 96% of the 500 measured spectra. Additionally shown is the crank angle degree of 50% heat-released (CA50) calculated from the pressure indication data.

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