Abstract

The spectral volume scattering function (VSF) was measured in a coastal environment from 0.6° to 177.3° by use of a recently developed device. The spectral variations of the particulate VSF and phase function (i.e., ratio of the VSF to the scattering coefficient) were examined as a function of the scattering angle. The angular dependency of both VSF and phase- function spectra was highly sensitive to the absorption and to the size distribution of the particles. As a result, the use of spectrally neutral phase functions in radiative-transfer modeling is questioned.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2004

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, W. P. Bissett, B. Johnson, and D. Kohler, "Optical influence of ship wakes," Appl. Opt. 43, 3122-3132 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. E. Lee and M. R. Lewis, "A new method for the measurement of the optical volume scattering function in the upper ocean," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 563-571 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, "Spectral beam attenuation coefficient retrieved from ocean color inversion," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1468, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Babin and D. Stramski, "Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near infra-red spectral region," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, M. E.-G. Lee, B. Johnson, and G. K. Korotaev, "The volume scattering function of natural bubble populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1273-1282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, "Phase function effects on oceanic light fields," Appl. Opt. 41, 1035-1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, "Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient," Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, C7, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, C4, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. R. Lide, "Physical and optical properties of minerals," in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th ed. D.R.Lide, ed. (CRC, 1997), pp. 4.130-4.136.

R. A. Maffione and D. R. Dana, "Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters," Appl. Opt. 36, 6057-6067 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

E. Aas, "Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition," J. Plankton Res. 18, 2223-2249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Bowers, G. E. L Harker, and B. Stephan, "Absorption spectra of inorganic particles in the Irish Sea and their relevance to remote sensing of chlorophyll," Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2449-2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, 1995).

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, "An alternative approach to absorption measurements of aquatic particles retained on filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1358-1368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393-410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

1992

Y. H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters," Deep Sea Res. Part I , 39, 1835-1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

1988

D. Stramski, A. Morel, and A. Bricaud, "Modeling the light attenuation and scattering by spherical phytoplankton cells: a retrieval of the bulk refractive index," Appl. Opt. 27, 3954-3956 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Mitchell and D. A. Kiefer, "Chlorophyll a specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light limited phytoplankton," Deep Sea Res. 35, 639-663 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

1985

M. Kishino, N. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, "Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea," Bull. Marine Sci. 37, 634-642 (1985).

1983

O. V. Kopelevich, "Small parameter model of optical properties of sea water," in Physical Ocean Optics, Vol. 1 of Ocean Optics, A.S.Monin, ed. (Nauka, Moscow, 1983; in Russian), Chap. 8, pp. 208-234.

S. G. Ackleson and R. W. Spinrad, "Size and refractive index of individual marine particulates: a flow cytometric approach," Appl. Opt. 27, 1270-1277 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Jonasz, "Particle size distribution in the Baltic," Tellus 35B, 346-358 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, "Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton," Deep Sea Res , Part I 28, 1375-1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977

J. C. Kitchen, "Particle size distribution and the vertical distribution of suspended matter in the upwelling region off Oregon," Rep. 77-10 (Oregon State University, 1977).

1974

A. Morel, "Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater," in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N.G.Jerlov and E.S.Nielsen, eds. (Academic, (1974), pp. 1-24.

K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, and D. W. Eggimann, "Physical, chemical and optical measures of suspended particle concentrations: their intercomparison and application to the West African shelf," in Suspended Solids in Water, R.J.Gibbs, ed. (Plenum, 1974), pp. 173-193.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, and H. Pak, "The determination of the index of refraction distribution of oceanic particulates," J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091-4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Roach, "Determination of refractive index distributions for oceanic particulates," Ph.D. dissertation (Oregon State University, 1974).

O. B. Brown and H. R. Gordon, "Size-refractive index distribution of clear coastal water particulates from light scattering," Appl. Opt. 13, 2874-2881 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

1972

H. R. Gordon and O. B. Brown, "A theoretical model of light scattering by Sargasso Sea particles," Limn. Oceanogr. 17, 826-832 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, and G. F. Beardsley, Jr., "A technique for the estimation of indices of refraction of marine phytoplankters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833-839 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. W. SheldonA. Prakash, and W. H. Sutcliffe, Jr., "The size distribution of particles in the ocean," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 327-340 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

K. L. Carder, G. F. Beardsley, and H. Pak, "Particle size distribution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5070-5077 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

H. Bader, "The hyperbolic distribution of particles sizes," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822-2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1965

O. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, and J. D. H. Strickland, "Fluorometric determination of chlorophyll," J. Cons. Intl. Explor. Mer. 30, 3-15 (1965).

1962

C. S. Yentsch, "Measurement of visible light absorption by particulate matter in the ocean," Limnol. Oceanogr. 7, 207-217 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1958

1957

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, 1957).

Aas, E.

E. Aas, "Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition," J. Plankton Res. 18, 2223-2249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ackleson, S. G.

Ahn, Y. H.

Y. H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters," Deep Sea Res. Part I , 39, 1835-1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin and D. Stramski, "Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near infra-red spectral region," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bader, H.

H. Bader, "The hyperbolic distribution of particles sizes," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822-2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Baratange, F.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, C7, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beardsley, G. F.

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, and G. F. Beardsley, Jr., "A technique for the estimation of indices of refraction of marine phytoplankters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833-839 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, G. F. Beardsley, and H. Pak, "Particle size distribution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5070-5077 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Berseneva, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea)," J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Betzer, P. R.

K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, and D. W. Eggimann, "Physical, chemical and optical measures of suspended particle concentrations: their intercomparison and application to the West African shelf," in Suspended Solids in Water, R.J.Gibbs, ed. (Plenum, 1974), pp. 173-193.

Bissett, W. P.

Boss, E.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, "Spectral beam attenuation coefficient retrieved from ocean color inversion," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1468, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, "Phase function effects on oceanic light fields," Appl. Opt. 41, 1035-1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, C7, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, "Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient," Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, D. G.

D. G. Bowers, G. E. L Harker, and B. Stephan, "Absorption spectra of inorganic particles in the Irish Sea and their relevance to remote sensing of chlorophyll," Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2449-2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393-410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters," Deep Sea Res. Part I , 39, 1835-1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Morel, and A. Bricaud, "Modeling the light attenuation and scattering by spherical phytoplankton cells: a retrieval of the bulk refractive index," Appl. Opt. 27, 3954-3956 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bricaud and A. Morel, "Light attenuation and scattering by phytoplanktonic cells. A theoretical modeling," Appl. Opt. 25, 571-580 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, "Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton," Deep Sea Res , Part I 28, 1375-1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. F.

Brown, O. B.

Bukata, R. P.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, 1995).

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, and D. W. Eggimann, "Physical, chemical and optical measures of suspended particle concentrations: their intercomparison and application to the West African shelf," in Suspended Solids in Water, R.J.Gibbs, ed. (Plenum, 1974), pp. 173-193.

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, and G. F. Beardsley, Jr., "A technique for the estimation of indices of refraction of marine phytoplankters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833-839 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, G. F. Beardsley, and H. Pak, "Particle size distribution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific," J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5070-5077 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Chami, M.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea)," J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Churilova, T. Y.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea)," J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Dana, D. R.

Eggimann, D. W.

K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, and D. W. Eggimann, "Physical, chemical and optical measures of suspended particle concentrations: their intercomparison and application to the West African shelf," in Suspended Solids in Water, R.J.Gibbs, ed. (Plenum, 1974), pp. 173-193.

Fargion, G. S.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of measurements of the VSF with Mie theory: example for monodispersed spheres of size 3 μm at 490 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral variation of the VSF at 140° normalized to 555 nm for several samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Relationship between β p (140°) at 443 nm and the absorption coefficient of nonalgal particles a NAP at 400 nm. Equations for the linear fit: before 6 August, β p (140°, 443 nm) = 0.0140 a NAP(400 nm) − 0.0001; r 2 = 0.86. After 6 August, β p (140°, 443 nm) = 0.0048 a NAP(400 nm) + 0.0002; r 2 = 0.76. (b) Relationship between β p (140°) at 443 nm and absorption coefficient of phytoplankton a ph at 443 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Examples of spectral variation of the VSF (a) on 30 July at 0 m and (b) on 1 August at 16 m.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of R 443∕555, the spectral ratio of VSF from 443 to 555 nm, on scattering angle as measured on (a) 28 July at 4 m, 30 July at 0 m and (b) 1 August at 20 m, 11 August at 16 m, and 12 August at 4 m.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral variation of β p normalized to 555 nm measured at four scattering angles, namely, 10°, 60°, 120°, and 150°, on (a) 28 July at 4 m and (b) 1 August at 20 m.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relationship between angular ratio R 443∕555(120°)∕R 443∕555(140°) and parameter a p∕cp at 443 nm from 0 to 4 m. Linear fit, R443∕555(120°)∕R 443∕555 (140°) = 1.42 ap∕cp (443 nm) + 0.77; r 2 = 0.76.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Retrieval of spectral ratios R 443∕555 and R 490∕555 with Mie theory on 28 July at 4 m. The size distribution of the particles followed a Junge power law. Refractive index of the particles: np = 1.14; n p ′ = 0.002 at 443 nm; np ′ = 0 at 490 nm. Junge exponent, ξ = 3.9. (b) Retrieval of R 443∕555 by use of absorbing and nonabsorbing particles (i.e., np ′ = 0).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Angular distribution of spectral ratio R 443∕555 observed during the calibration experiment for beads sizes (a) 0.6 and (b) 0.9 μm. Results from Mie theory are also shown.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Example of β p spectra normalized to 555 nm at 120° and 150° when the bead size is 0.9 μm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Retrieval of spectral ratios R 443∕555 and R 490∕555 with Mie theory on 11 August at 16 m. The size distribution was modeled as the sum of a Junge power law and a lognormal function. Refractive indices corresponding to particles distributed according to the Junge law, np = 1.07 and np ′ = 0.0002; the Junge exponent, ξ, 3.2; refractive indices of particles lognormally distributed, mp = 1.17 and mp ′ = 0.007 at 443 nm and mp ′ = 0.0005 at 490 nm; mean radius, r mean = 0.65; standard deviation, σ = 0.1.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Retrieval of R 443∕555 with Mie theory on (a) 12 August at 4 m, (b) 1 August at 20 m. The parameters used to retrieve the observations are listed in Table 2.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Spectral variation of the phase function of the particles at 140° normalized to 555 nm measured on four days.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Relationship of β ˜ p ( 140 ) at 443 nm to the absorption coefficient of nonalgal particles a NAP at 400 nm. Equations for linear fit: before 6 August, β ˜ p ( 140 ° , 443   nm ) = 0.0110 a NAP(400 nm); r 2 = 0.71. After 6 August, β ˜ p ( 140 ° , 443   nm ) = 0.0038 a NAP(400 nm) + 0.0002; r 2 = 0.71.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Spectral ratio β p (140°) from 443 to 555 nm, i.e., R 443∕555(140°), in surface layer 0–4 m as a function of parameter a NAPa ph at 400 nm. Equation for the linear fit, R 443∕555(140°) = −0.060 a NAPa ph(400 nm) + 0.99; r 2 = 0.72.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Dependence of spectral ratio of the phase function from 443 to 555 nm, R ˜ 443 , on scattering angle as measured on 28 July at 4 m, 30 July at 0 m, 1 August at 20 m, 11 August at 16 m, and 12 August at 4 m.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Accuracy of Retrieval of Spectral Ratios R443∕555 and R490∕555 with Mie Theory for Representative Measurements of the Data Set Expressed in Terms of Relative RMS (%)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of Mie Computations Used to Retrieve Spectral Ratio R 443∕555 on 1 August at 20 m and 12 August at 4 m a

Equations (11)

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b = 2 π 0 π β ( θ ) sin θ d θ [ m 1 ] ,
b b = 2 π π / 2 π β ( θ ) sin θ d θ [ m 1 ] .
β ˜ ( θ ) = β ( θ ) b [ sr 1 ] .
S ( λ , θ ) = P ( λ , θ ) B s ( λ , θ ) [ counts ] ,
B s ( λ , θ ) = G ( λ , θ ) ϕ ( λ ) [ W   nm 1 sr 1 ] .
S ( λ , θ ) = G ( λ , θ ) ϕ ( λ ) P ( λ , θ ) = G ( λ , θ ) K ( λ , θ ) .
G ( λ , θ ) = 4 π β ( λ , θ ) V ( θ ) exp [ c L ( θ ) ] [ sr 1 ] ,
K ( λ , θ ) = S cal ( λ , θ ) 4 π β cal ( λ , θ ) V ( θ ) exp [ c cal L ( θ ) ] [ counts   sr ].
β ( λ , θ ) = S ( λ , θ ) 4 π K ( λ , θ ) V ( θ ) exp [ c L ( θ ) ] [ m 1 sr 1 ] .
RMS = { 1 N i = 1 N [ R λ / 555 ( θ i ) estimated R λ / 555 ( θ i ) measured R λ / 555 ( θ i ) measured ] 2 } 1 / 2 ,
R ˜ 443 = R 443 b p ( 555   nm ) b p ( 443   nm ) .

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