Abstract

Recently, a data processing and retrieval algorithm (version 2) for ozone, aerosol, and temperature lidar measurements was developed for an ozone lidar system at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) in Tsukuba (36°N,140  °E), Japan. A method for obtaining the aerosol boundary altitude and the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio in the version 2 algorithm enables a more accurate determination of the vertical profiles of aerosols and a more accurate correction of the systematic errors caused by aerosols in the vertical profile of ozone. Improvements in signal processing are incorporated for the correction of systematic errors such as the signal-induced noise and the dead-time effect. The mean vertical ozone profiles of the NIES ozone lidar were compared with those of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II); they agreed well within a 5% relative difference in the 2040  km altitude range and within 10% up to 45   km. The long-term variations in the NIES ozone lidar also showed good coincidence with the ozonesonde and SAGE II at 20, 25, 30, and 35   km. The temperatures retrieved from the NIES ozone lidar and those given by the National Center for Environmental Prediction agreed within 7  K in the 3550   km range.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. See NDSC website at http://www.ndsc.ncep.noaa.gov/ (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, and J. F. Burris, "STORZ LITE: Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment," Opt. Eng. 30, 31-39 (1991).
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  6. H. Nakane, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and A. Minato, "Vertical profiles of temperature and ozone observed during DYANA campaign with NIES ozone lidar system at Tsukuba," J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1071-1083 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. P. Namboothiri, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, I. Matsui, and Y. Murayama, "Rayleigh lidar observations of temperature over Tsukuba: winter thermal structure and comparison studies," Earth , Planets Space 51, 825-832 (1999).
  8. S. Godin, A. I. Carswell, D. P. Donovan, H. Claude, W. Steinbrecht, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, H. Nakane, D. P. J. Swart, H. B. Bergwerff, O. Uchino, P. Gathen, and R. Neuber, "Ozone differential absorption lidar algorithm intercomparison," Appl. Opt. 38, 6225-6235 (1999).
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  25. V. A. Kovalev, " Sensitivity of the lidar solution to errors of the aerosol backscatter-to-extinction ratio: influence of a monotonic change in the aerosol extinction coefficient," Appl. Opt. 34, 3457-3462 (1995).
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  28. A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, "One-year observations of Mount-Pinatubo aerosol with an advanced Raman lidar over Germany at 53.5°N," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 711-714 (1993).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  37. R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, and T. Nagai, "Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789-792 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
  45. H. J. Wang, D. M. Cunnold, L. W. Thomason, J. M. Zawodny, and G. E. Bodeker, "Assessment of SAGE version 6.1 ozone data quality," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
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  49. H. Nakane, Polar vortex forecast, http://www-cger2.nies.go.jp/new/analysis-e/pv/indexlowbarstras.html (2002)
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    [CrossRef]
  51. D. J. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, J. M. Harris, W. D. Komhyr, J. A. Lathrop, T. Defoor, and D. Kuniyuki, "Ozonesonde measurements at Hilo, Hawaii following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1555-1558 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  52. W. B. Grant, E. V. Browell, J. Fishman, V. G. Brackett, R. E. Veiga, D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. S. Long, and L. L. Stowe, "Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8197-8211 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  53. T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, and U. Singh, "Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of volcanic aerosols," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955-958 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

L. W. Thomas, SAGE II, http://www-sage2.larc.nasa.gov/ (2004).

2002 (3)

H. Nakane, Polar vortex forecast, http://www-cger2.nies.go.jp/new/analysis-e/pv/indexlowbarstras.html (2002)

H. J. Wang, D. M. Cunnold, L. W. Thomason, J. M. Zawodny, and G. E. Bodeker, "Assessment of SAGE version 6.1 ozone data quality," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

See NDSC website at http://www.ndsc.ncep.noaa.gov/ (2002).

1999 (2)

S. P. Namboothiri, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, I. Matsui, and Y. Murayama, "Rayleigh lidar observations of temperature over Tsukuba: winter thermal structure and comparison studies," Earth , Planets Space 51, 825-832 (1999).

S. Godin, A. I. Carswell, D. P. Donovan, H. Claude, W. Steinbrecht, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, H. Nakane, D. P. J. Swart, H. B. Bergwerff, O. Uchino, P. Gathen, and R. Neuber, "Ozone differential absorption lidar algorithm intercomparison," Appl. Opt. 38, 6225-6235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

F. Congeduti, J. DeLuisi, and T. Defoor, "Optical extinction properties of volcanic stratospheric aerosol derived from ground-based lidar and sun-photometer measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 13893-13902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. McDermid, J. B. Bergwerff, G. Bodeker, I. S. Boyd, E. J. Brinksma, B. J. Connor, R. Farmer, M. R. Gross, P. Kimvilakani, W. A. Matthews, T. J. McGee, F. T. Ormel, A. Parrish, U. Singh, D. P. J. Swart, J. J. Tsou, P. H. Wang, and J. Zawodny, "OPAL: network for the detection of stratospheric change ozone profiler assessment at Lauder, New Zealand. I. Blind intercomparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28683-28692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

L. Pan, S. Solomon, W. J. Randel, J. F. Lamarque, P. Hess, J. C. Gille, E. W. Chiou, and P. McCormick, "Hemispheric asymmetry and seasonal variations of the lowermost stratospheric water vapor and ozone derived from SAGE II data," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 28177-28184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, G. K. Yue, R. J. Atkinson, and W. A. Matthews, " Interomparison of stratospheric ozone profiles obtained by Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II, Halogen Occultation Experiment, and ozonesondes in 1994-1995," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16137-16144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, G. K. Yue, and H. Jaeger, "Intercomparison of multi-platform stratospheric aerosol and ozone observations," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16127-16136 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rosenfield, D. B. Considine, P. E. Meade, J. T. Bacmeister, C. H. Jackman, and M. R. Schoeberl, "Stratospheric effect of Mount Pinatubo aerosol studies with a coupled two-dimensional method," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3649-3670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Thayer, N. B. Nielsen, R. E. Warren, C. J. Heinselman, and J. Sohn, "Rayleigh lidar system for middle atmosphere research in the arctic," Opt. Eng. 36, 2045-2061 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, and G. D. Donfrancesco, "A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3274-3280 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (6)

T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, J. J. Butler, and P. E. Kimvilakani, "Improved stratospheric ozone lidar," Opt. Eng. 34, 1421-1430 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Jager, T. Deshler, and D. Hofman, "Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversions based on balloon aerosol measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729-1732 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Steinbrecht and A. I. Carswell, "Evaluation of the effect of Mount Pinatubo aerosol on differential absorption lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1215-1233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Kovalev, " Sensitivity of the lidar solution to errors of the aerosol backscatter-to-extinction ratio: influence of a monotonic change in the aerosol extinction coefficient," Appl. Opt. 34, 3457-3462 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gross, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, and P. Kimvilakani, "Measurements of stratospheric aerosols with a combined elastic-Raman-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 34, 6915-6924 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Reichardt, and T. Deshler, "Determination of stratospheric aerosol microphysical properties from independent extinction and backscattering measurements with Raman lidar," Appl. Opt. 34, 8315-8329 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

W. B. Grant, E. V. Browell, J. Fishman, V. G. Brackett, R. E. Veiga, D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. S. Long, and L. L. Stowe, "Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8197-8211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, and T. Nagai, "Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789-792 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (5)

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, and U. Singh, "Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of volcanic aerosols," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955-958 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, J. M. Harris, W. D. Komhyr, J. A. Lathrop, T. Defoor, and D. Kuniyuki, "Ozonesonde measurements at Hilo, Hawaii following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1555-1558 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, and W. R. Rozier, "Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosols during 1991 and 1992 at 41°N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435-1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, "One-year observations of Mount-Pinatubo aerosol with an advanced Raman lidar over Germany at 53.5°N," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 711-714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Donovan, J. A. Whiteway, and A. I. Carswell, "Correction for nonlinear photon-counting effects in lidar systems," Appl. Opt. 32, 6742-6753 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (6)

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, and R. A. Ferrare, "Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 31, 3068-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, and K. D. Evans, "Raman lidar measurements of the Pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November-December 1991," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1599-1602 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakane, Y. Sasano, S. Hayashida-Amano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and A. Minato, "Comparison of ozone profiles obtained with NIES DIAL and SAGE II measurements," J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 153-159 (1992).

H. Nakane, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and A. Minato, "Vertical profiles of temperature and ozone observed during DYANA campaign with NIES ozone lidar system at Tsukuba," J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1071-1083 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in Fortran 77: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992), Vol. 1.

1991 (2)

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, and J. F. Burris, "STORZ LITE: Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment," Opt. Eng. 30, 31-39 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Jager and D. Hofmann, "Midlatitude lidar backscatter to mass, area, and extinction conversion model based on in situ measurements from 1980 to 1987," Appl. Opt. 30, 127-138 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (4)

H. S. Lee, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Corb, M. Dombrowski, and C. Prasad, "Gated photomultiplier response characterization for DIAL measurements," Appl. Opt. 29, 3303-3315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, and L. S. Lindqvist, "Ground-based laser DIAL system for long-term measurements of stratospheric ozone," Appl. Opt. 29, 3603-3613 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Fleming, S. Chandra, J. J. Barnett, and M. Corney, "Zonal mean temperature, pressure, zonal wind, and geopotential height as functions of latitude," Adv. Space Res. 10, 1211-1259 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, and T. J. McGee, "Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, ECC balloon sonde, ROCOZ-A rocket sonde, and SAGE II satellite measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037-10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, and R. E. Veiga, "Validation of SAGE II ozone measurement," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447-8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Godin, G. Megie, and J. Pelon, "Systematic lidar measurements of the stratospheric ozone vertical distribution," Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 547-550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (2)

1981 (2)

J. D. Klett, "Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns," Appl. Opt. 20, 211-220 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Chanin and A. Hauchecorne, "Lidar observation of gravity and tidal waves in the stratosphere and mesosphere," J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9715-9721 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. M. Schotland, "Errors in the lidar measurements of atmospheric gases by differential absorption," J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71-77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, "Determination of aerosol height distribution by lidar," J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482-489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. W. Snedecor and W. G. Cochran, Statistical Methods, 6th ed. (Iowa State University Press, 1968), Chap. 6.

1955 (1)

R. D. Evans, The Atomic Nucleus (McGraw-Hill, 1955), p. 785.

Anderson, J. G.

J. R. Spackman, E. M. Weinstock, and J. G. Anderson, "Export of ozone-poor air from the lower tropical stratosphere to mid-latitudes," presented at the American Geophysical Union Spring Meeting, 28-31 May 2002, Washington D.C., abstract A22D-04.

Ansmann, A.

Atkinson, R. J.

J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, G. K. Yue, R. J. Atkinson, and W. A. Matthews, " Interomparison of stratospheric ozone profiles obtained by Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II, Halogen Occultation Experiment, and ozonesondes in 1994-1995," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16137-16144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bacmeister, J. T.

J. E. Rosenfield, D. B. Considine, P. E. Meade, J. T. Bacmeister, C. H. Jackman, and M. R. Schoeberl, "Stratospheric effect of Mount Pinatubo aerosol studies with a coupled two-dimensional method," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3649-3670 (1997).
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S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, and T. J. McGee, "Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, ECC balloon sonde, ROCOZ-A rocket sonde, and SAGE II satellite measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037-10042 (1990).
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D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, and R. E. Veiga, "Validation of SAGE II ozone measurement," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447-8460 (1989).
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Barnett, J. J.

E. L. Fleming, S. Chandra, J. J. Barnett, and M. Corney, "Zonal mean temperature, pressure, zonal wind, and geopotential height as functions of latitude," Adv. Space Res. 10, 1211-1259 (1990).
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Bergwerff, H. B.

Bergwerff, J. B.

S. McDermid, J. B. Bergwerff, G. Bodeker, I. S. Boyd, E. J. Brinksma, B. J. Connor, R. Farmer, M. R. Gross, P. Kimvilakani, W. A. Matthews, T. J. McGee, F. T. Ormel, A. Parrish, U. Singh, D. P. J. Swart, J. J. Tsou, P. H. Wang, and J. Zawodny, "OPAL: network for the detection of stratospheric change ozone profiler assessment at Lauder, New Zealand. I. Blind intercomparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28683-28692 (1998).
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Bodeker, G.

S. McDermid, J. B. Bergwerff, G. Bodeker, I. S. Boyd, E. J. Brinksma, B. J. Connor, R. Farmer, M. R. Gross, P. Kimvilakani, W. A. Matthews, T. J. McGee, F. T. Ormel, A. Parrish, U. Singh, D. P. J. Swart, J. J. Tsou, P. H. Wang, and J. Zawodny, "OPAL: network for the detection of stratospheric change ozone profiler assessment at Lauder, New Zealand. I. Blind intercomparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28683-28692 (1998).
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Bodeker, G. E.

H. J. Wang, D. M. Cunnold, L. W. Thomason, J. M. Zawodny, and G. E. Bodeker, "Assessment of SAGE version 6.1 ozone data quality," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
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S. McDermid, J. B. Bergwerff, G. Bodeker, I. S. Boyd, E. J. Brinksma, B. J. Connor, R. Farmer, M. R. Gross, P. Kimvilakani, W. A. Matthews, T. J. McGee, F. T. Ormel, A. Parrish, U. Singh, D. P. J. Swart, J. J. Tsou, P. H. Wang, and J. Zawodny, "OPAL: network for the detection of stratospheric change ozone profiler assessment at Lauder, New Zealand. I. Blind intercomparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28683-28692 (1998).
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W. B. Grant, E. V. Browell, J. Fishman, V. G. Brackett, R. E. Veiga, D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. S. Long, and L. L. Stowe, "Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8197-8211 (1994).
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Brinksma, E. J.

S. McDermid, J. B. Bergwerff, G. Bodeker, I. S. Boyd, E. J. Brinksma, B. J. Connor, R. Farmer, M. R. Gross, P. Kimvilakani, W. A. Matthews, T. J. McGee, F. T. Ormel, A. Parrish, U. Singh, D. P. J. Swart, J. J. Tsou, P. H. Wang, and J. Zawodny, "OPAL: network for the detection of stratospheric change ozone profiler assessment at Lauder, New Zealand. I. Blind intercomparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28683-28692 (1998).
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W. B. Grant, E. V. Browell, J. Fishman, V. G. Brackett, R. E. Veiga, D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. S. Long, and L. L. Stowe, "Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8197-8211 (1994).
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S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, and T. J. McGee, "Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, ECC balloon sonde, ROCOZ-A rocket sonde, and SAGE II satellite measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037-10042 (1990).
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W. B. Grant, E. V. Browell, J. Fishman, V. G. Brackett, R. E. Veiga, D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. S. Long, and L. L. Stowe, "Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8197-8211 (1994).
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S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, and T. J. McGee, "Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, ECC balloon sonde, ROCOZ-A rocket sonde, and SAGE II satellite measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037-10042 (1990).
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Butler, J. J.

T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, J. J. Butler, and P. E. Kimvilakani, "Improved stratospheric ozone lidar," Opt. Eng. 34, 1421-1430 (1995).
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T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, and J. F. Burris, "STORZ LITE: Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment," Opt. Eng. 30, 31-39 (1991).
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Centurioni, S.

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E. L. Fleming, S. Chandra, J. J. Barnett, and M. Corney, "Zonal mean temperature, pressure, zonal wind, and geopotential height as functions of latitude," Adv. Space Res. 10, 1211-1259 (1990).
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M. L. Chanin and A. Hauchecorne, "Lidar observation of gravity and tidal waves in the stratosphere and mesosphere," J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9715-9721 (1981).
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L. Pan, S. Solomon, W. J. Randel, J. F. Lamarque, P. Hess, J. C. Gille, E. W. Chiou, and P. McCormick, "Hemispheric asymmetry and seasonal variations of the lowermost stratospheric water vapor and ozone derived from SAGE II data," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 28177-28184 (1997).
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S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, and T. J. McGee, "Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, ECC balloon sonde, ROCOZ-A rocket sonde, and SAGE II satellite measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037-10042 (1990).
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D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, and R. E. Veiga, "Validation of SAGE II ozone measurement," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447-8460 (1989).
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Cochran, W. G.

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F. Congeduti, J. DeLuisi, and T. Defoor, "Optical extinction properties of volcanic stratospheric aerosol derived from ground-based lidar and sun-photometer measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 13893-13902 (1998).
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F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, and G. D. Donfrancesco, "A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3274-3280 (1996).
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S. McDermid, J. B. Bergwerff, G. Bodeker, I. S. Boyd, E. J. Brinksma, B. J. Connor, R. Farmer, M. R. Gross, P. Kimvilakani, W. A. Matthews, T. J. McGee, F. T. Ormel, A. Parrish, U. Singh, D. P. J. Swart, J. J. Tsou, P. H. Wang, and J. Zawodny, "OPAL: network for the detection of stratospheric change ozone profiler assessment at Lauder, New Zealand. I. Blind intercomparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28683-28692 (1998).
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J. E. Rosenfield, D. B. Considine, P. E. Meade, J. T. Bacmeister, C. H. Jackman, and M. R. Schoeberl, "Stratospheric effect of Mount Pinatubo aerosol studies with a coupled two-dimensional method," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3649-3670 (1997).
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Corney, M.

E. L. Fleming, S. Chandra, J. J. Barnett, and M. Corney, "Zonal mean temperature, pressure, zonal wind, and geopotential height as functions of latitude," Adv. Space Res. 10, 1211-1259 (1990).
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W. B. Grant, E. V. Browell, J. Fishman, V. G. Brackett, R. E. Veiga, D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. S. Long, and L. L. Stowe, "Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8197-8211 (1994).
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H. J. Wang, D. M. Cunnold, L. W. Thomason, J. M. Zawodny, and G. E. Bodeker, "Assessment of SAGE version 6.1 ozone data quality," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
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D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, and R. E. Veiga, "Validation of SAGE II ozone measurement," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447-8460 (1989).
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F. Congeduti, J. DeLuisi, and T. Defoor, "Optical extinction properties of volcanic stratospheric aerosol derived from ground-based lidar and sun-photometer measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 13893-13902 (1998).
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D. J. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, J. M. Harris, W. D. Komhyr, J. A. Lathrop, T. Defoor, and D. Kuniyuki, "Ozonesonde measurements at Hilo, Hawaii following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1555-1558 (1993).
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F. Congeduti, J. DeLuisi, and T. Defoor, "Optical extinction properties of volcanic stratospheric aerosol derived from ground-based lidar and sun-photometer measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 13893-13902 (1998).
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H. Jager, T. Deshler, and D. Hofman, "Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversions based on balloon aerosol measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729-1732 (1995).
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Donfrancesco, G. D.

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, and G. D. Donfrancesco, "A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3274-3280 (1996).
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S. McDermid, J. B. Bergwerff, G. Bodeker, I. S. Boyd, E. J. Brinksma, B. J. Connor, R. Farmer, M. R. Gross, P. Kimvilakani, W. A. Matthews, T. J. McGee, F. T. Ormel, A. Parrish, U. Singh, D. P. J. Swart, J. J. Tsou, P. H. Wang, and J. Zawodny, "OPAL: network for the detection of stratospheric change ozone profiler assessment at Lauder, New Zealand. I. Blind intercomparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28683-28692 (1998).
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W. B. Grant, E. V. Browell, J. Fishman, V. G. Brackett, R. E. Veiga, D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. S. Long, and L. L. Stowe, "Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8197-8211 (1994).
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T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, and U. Singh, "Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of volcanic aerosols," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955-958 (1993).
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T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, and J. F. Burris, "STORZ LITE: Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment," Opt. Eng. 30, 31-39 (1991).
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S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, and T. J. McGee, "Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, ECC balloon sonde, ROCOZ-A rocket sonde, and SAGE II satellite measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037-10042 (1990).
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R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, and K. D. Evans, "Raman lidar measurements of the Pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November-December 1991," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1599-1602 (1992).
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W. B. Grant, E. V. Browell, J. Fishman, V. G. Brackett, R. E. Veiga, D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. S. Long, and L. L. Stowe, "Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8197-8211 (1994).
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E. L. Fleming, S. Chandra, J. J. Barnett, and M. Corney, "Zonal mean temperature, pressure, zonal wind, and geopotential height as functions of latitude," Adv. Space Res. 10, 1211-1259 (1990).
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L. Pan, S. Solomon, W. J. Randel, J. F. Lamarque, P. Hess, J. C. Gille, E. W. Chiou, and P. McCormick, "Hemispheric asymmetry and seasonal variations of the lowermost stratospheric water vapor and ozone derived from SAGE II data," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 28177-28184 (1997).
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W. B. Grant, E. V. Browell, J. Fishman, V. G. Brackett, R. E. Veiga, D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. S. Long, and L. L. Stowe, "Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8197-8211 (1994).
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T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, and U. Singh, "Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of volcanic aerosols," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955-958 (1993).
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S. Godin, A. I. Carswell, D. P. Donovan, H. Claude, W. Steinbrecht, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, H. Nakane, D. P. J. Swart, H. B. Bergwerff, O. Uchino, P. Gathen, and R. Neuber, "Ozone differential absorption lidar algorithm intercomparison," Appl. Opt. 38, 6225-6235 (1999).
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M. R. Gross, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, and P. Kimvilakani, "Measurements of stratospheric aerosols with a combined elastic-Raman-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 34, 6915-6924 (1995).
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D. J. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, J. M. Harris, W. D. Komhyr, J. A. Lathrop, T. Defoor, and D. Kuniyuki, "Ozonesonde measurements at Hilo, Hawaii following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1555-1558 (1993).
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Heaps, W.

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, and U. Singh, "Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of volcanic aerosols," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955-958 (1993).
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Hess, P.

L. Pan, S. Solomon, W. J. Randel, J. F. Lamarque, P. Hess, J. C. Gille, E. W. Chiou, and P. McCormick, "Hemispheric asymmetry and seasonal variations of the lowermost stratospheric water vapor and ozone derived from SAGE II data," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 28177-28184 (1997).
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Hofman, D.

H. Jager, T. Deshler, and D. Hofman, "Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversions based on balloon aerosol measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729-1732 (1995).
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Hofmann, D.

Hofmann, D. J.

D. J. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, J. M. Harris, W. D. Komhyr, J. A. Lathrop, T. Defoor, and D. Kuniyuki, "Ozonesonde measurements at Hilo, Hawaii following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1555-1558 (1993).
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Iikura, Y.

Jackman, C. H.

J. E. Rosenfield, D. B. Considine, P. E. Meade, J. T. Bacmeister, C. H. Jackman, and M. R. Schoeberl, "Stratospheric effect of Mount Pinatubo aerosol studies with a coupled two-dimensional method," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3649-3670 (1997).
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S. McDermid, J. B. Bergwerff, G. Bodeker, I. S. Boyd, E. J. Brinksma, B. J. Connor, R. Farmer, M. R. Gross, P. Kimvilakani, W. A. Matthews, T. J. McGee, F. T. Ormel, A. Parrish, U. Singh, D. P. J. Swart, J. J. Tsou, P. H. Wang, and J. Zawodny, "OPAL: network for the detection of stratospheric change ozone profiler assessment at Lauder, New Zealand. I. Blind intercomparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28683-28692 (1998).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, J. J. Butler, and P. E. Kimvilakani, "Improved stratospheric ozone lidar," Opt. Eng. 34, 1421-1430 (1995).
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R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, and T. Nagai, "Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789-792 (1994).
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D. J. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, J. M. Harris, W. D. Komhyr, J. A. Lathrop, T. Defoor, and D. Kuniyuki, "Ozonesonde measurements at Hilo, Hawaii following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1555-1558 (1993).
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D. J. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, J. M. Harris, W. D. Komhyr, J. A. Lathrop, T. Defoor, and D. Kuniyuki, "Ozonesonde measurements at Hilo, Hawaii following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1555-1558 (1993).
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L. Pan, S. Solomon, W. J. Randel, J. F. Lamarque, P. Hess, J. C. Gille, E. W. Chiou, and P. McCormick, "Hemispheric asymmetry and seasonal variations of the lowermost stratospheric water vapor and ozone derived from SAGE II data," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 28177-28184 (1997).
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D. J. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, J. M. Harris, W. D. Komhyr, J. A. Lathrop, T. Defoor, and D. Kuniyuki, "Ozonesonde measurements at Hilo, Hawaii following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1555-1558 (1993).
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W. B. Grant, E. V. Browell, J. Fishman, V. G. Brackett, R. E. Veiga, D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. S. Long, and L. L. Stowe, "Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8197-8211 (1994).
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C. Lu, G. K. Yue, G. L. Manney, E. D. Joseph, and V. A. Mohnen, "Variability of stratospheric ozone derived from 1991-2001 SAGE II and HALOE measurements," presented at the American Geophysical Union Spring Meeting, 28-31 May 2002, Washington D.C., abstract A42B-07.

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J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, G. K. Yue, R. J. Atkinson, and W. A. Matthews, " Interomparison of stratospheric ozone profiles obtained by Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II, Halogen Occultation Experiment, and ozonesondes in 1994-1995," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16137-16144 (1997).
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J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, G. K. Yue, and H. Jaeger, "Intercomparison of multi-platform stratospheric aerosol and ozone observations," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16127-16136 (1997).
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C. Lu, G. K. Yue, G. L. Manney, E. D. Joseph, and V. A. Mohnen, "Variability of stratospheric ozone derived from 1991-2001 SAGE II and HALOE measurements," presented at the American Geophysical Union Spring Meeting, 28-31 May 2002, Washington D.C., abstract A42B-07.

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R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, and T. Nagai, "Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789-792 (1994).
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S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, and T. J. McGee, "Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, ECC balloon sonde, ROCOZ-A rocket sonde, and SAGE II satellite measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037-10042 (1990).
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G. W. Snedecor and W. G. Cochran, Statistical Methods, 6th ed. (Iowa State University Press, 1968), Chap. 6.

Sohn, J.

J. P. Thayer, N. B. Nielsen, R. E. Warren, C. J. Heinselman, and J. Sohn, "Rayleigh lidar system for middle atmosphere research in the arctic," Opt. Eng. 36, 2045-2061 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S.

L. Pan, S. Solomon, W. J. Randel, J. F. Lamarque, P. Hess, J. C. Gille, E. W. Chiou, and P. McCormick, "Hemispheric asymmetry and seasonal variations of the lowermost stratospheric water vapor and ozone derived from SAGE II data," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 28177-28184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spackman, J. R.

J. R. Spackman, E. M. Weinstock, and J. G. Anderson, "Export of ozone-poor air from the lower tropical stratosphere to mid-latitudes," presented at the American Geophysical Union Spring Meeting, 28-31 May 2002, Washington D.C., abstract A22D-04.

Steinbrecht, W.

Stowe, L. L.

W. B. Grant, E. V. Browell, J. Fishman, V. G. Brackett, R. E. Veiga, D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. S. Long, and L. L. Stowe, "Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8197-8211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

S. P. Namboothiri, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, I. Matsui, and Y. Murayama, "Rayleigh lidar observations of temperature over Tsukuba: winter thermal structure and comparison studies," Earth , Planets Space 51, 825-832 (1999).

H. Nakane, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and A. Minato, "Vertical profiles of temperature and ozone observed during DYANA campaign with NIES ozone lidar system at Tsukuba," J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1071-1083 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakane, Y. Sasano, S. Hayashida-Amano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and A. Minato, "Comparison of ozone profiles obtained with NIES DIAL and SAGE II measurements," J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 153-159 (1992).

Y. Iikura, N. Sugimoto, Y. Sasano, and H. Shimizu, "Improvement on lidar data processing for stratospheric aerosol measurements," Appl. Opt. 26, 5299-5306 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Swart, D. P. J.

S. Godin, A. I. Carswell, D. P. Donovan, H. Claude, W. Steinbrecht, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, H. Nakane, D. P. J. Swart, H. B. Bergwerff, O. Uchino, P. Gathen, and R. Neuber, "Ozone differential absorption lidar algorithm intercomparison," Appl. Opt. 38, 6225-6235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. McDermid, J. B. Bergwerff, G. Bodeker, I. S. Boyd, E. J. Brinksma, B. J. Connor, R. Farmer, M. R. Gross, P. Kimvilakani, W. A. Matthews, T. J. McGee, F. T. Ormel, A. Parrish, U. Singh, D. P. J. Swart, J. J. Tsou, P. H. Wang, and J. Zawodny, "OPAL: network for the detection of stratospheric change ozone profiler assessment at Lauder, New Zealand. I. Blind intercomparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28683-28692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in Fortran 77: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992), Vol. 1.

Thayer, J. P.

J. P. Thayer, N. B. Nielsen, R. E. Warren, C. J. Heinselman, and J. Sohn, "Rayleigh lidar system for middle atmosphere research in the arctic," Opt. Eng. 36, 2045-2061 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, L. W.

L. W. Thomas, SAGE II, http://www-sage2.larc.nasa.gov/ (2004).

Thomason, L. W.

H. J. Wang, D. M. Cunnold, L. W. Thomason, J. M. Zawodny, and G. E. Bodeker, "Assessment of SAGE version 6.1 ozone data quality," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Torres, A.

S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, and T. J. McGee, "Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, ECC balloon sonde, ROCOZ-A rocket sonde, and SAGE II satellite measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037-10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tsou, J. J.

S. McDermid, J. B. Bergwerff, G. Bodeker, I. S. Boyd, E. J. Brinksma, B. J. Connor, R. Farmer, M. R. Gross, P. Kimvilakani, W. A. Matthews, T. J. McGee, F. T. Ormel, A. Parrish, U. Singh, D. P. J. Swart, J. J. Tsou, P. H. Wang, and J. Zawodny, "OPAL: network for the detection of stratospheric change ozone profiler assessment at Lauder, New Zealand. I. Blind intercomparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28683-28692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, O.

S. Godin, A. I. Carswell, D. P. Donovan, H. Claude, W. Steinbrecht, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, H. Nakane, D. P. J. Swart, H. B. Bergwerff, O. Uchino, P. Gathen, and R. Neuber, "Ozone differential absorption lidar algorithm intercomparison," Appl. Opt. 38, 6225-6235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, and T. Nagai, "Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789-792 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Veiga, R. E.

W. B. Grant, E. V. Browell, J. Fishman, V. G. Brackett, R. E. Veiga, D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. S. Long, and L. L. Stowe, "Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8197-8211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, and R. E. Veiga, "Validation of SAGE II ozone measurement," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447-8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in Fortran 77: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992), Vol. 1.

Wandinger, U.

Wang, H. J.

H. J. Wang, D. M. Cunnold, L. W. Thomason, J. M. Zawodny, and G. E. Bodeker, "Assessment of SAGE version 6.1 ozone data quality," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, and T. J. McGee, "Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, ECC balloon sonde, ROCOZ-A rocket sonde, and SAGE II satellite measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037-10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. H.

S. McDermid, J. B. Bergwerff, G. Bodeker, I. S. Boyd, E. J. Brinksma, B. J. Connor, R. Farmer, M. R. Gross, P. Kimvilakani, W. A. Matthews, T. J. McGee, F. T. Ormel, A. Parrish, U. Singh, D. P. J. Swart, J. J. Tsou, P. H. Wang, and J. Zawodny, "OPAL: network for the detection of stratospheric change ozone profiler assessment at Lauder, New Zealand. I. Blind intercomparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28683-28692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Warren, R. E.

J. P. Thayer, N. B. Nielsen, R. E. Warren, C. J. Heinselman, and J. Sohn, "Rayleigh lidar system for middle atmosphere research in the arctic," Opt. Eng. 36, 2045-2061 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weinstock, E. M.

J. R. Spackman, E. M. Weinstock, and J. G. Anderson, "Export of ozone-poor air from the lower tropical stratosphere to mid-latitudes," presented at the American Geophysical Union Spring Meeting, 28-31 May 2002, Washington D.C., abstract A22D-04.

Weitkamp, C.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, "One-year observations of Mount-Pinatubo aerosol with an advanced Raman lidar over Germany at 53.5°N," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 711-714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whiteman, D.

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, and J. F. Burris, "STORZ LITE: Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment," Opt. Eng. 30, 31-39 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, and T. J. McGee, "Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, ECC balloon sonde, ROCOZ-A rocket sonde, and SAGE II satellite measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037-10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D. N.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, and K. D. Evans, "Raman lidar measurements of the Pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November-December 1991," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1599-1602 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, and R. A. Ferrare, "Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 31, 3068-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whiteway, J. A.

Yue, G. K.

J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, G. K. Yue, R. J. Atkinson, and W. A. Matthews, " Interomparison of stratospheric ozone profiles obtained by Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II, Halogen Occultation Experiment, and ozonesondes in 1994-1995," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16137-16144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, G. K. Yue, and H. Jaeger, "Intercomparison of multi-platform stratospheric aerosol and ozone observations," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16127-16136 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Lu, G. K. Yue, G. L. Manney, E. D. Joseph, and V. A. Mohnen, "Variability of stratospheric ozone derived from 1991-2001 SAGE II and HALOE measurements," presented at the American Geophysical Union Spring Meeting, 28-31 May 2002, Washington D.C., abstract A42B-07.

Zawodny, J.

S. McDermid, J. B. Bergwerff, G. Bodeker, I. S. Boyd, E. J. Brinksma, B. J. Connor, R. Farmer, M. R. Gross, P. Kimvilakani, W. A. Matthews, T. J. McGee, F. T. Ormel, A. Parrish, U. Singh, D. P. J. Swart, J. J. Tsou, P. H. Wang, and J. Zawodny, "OPAL: network for the detection of stratospheric change ozone profiler assessment at Lauder, New Zealand. I. Blind intercomparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28683-28692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zawodny, J. M.

H. J. Wang, D. M. Cunnold, L. W. Thomason, J. M. Zawodny, and G. E. Bodeker, "Assessment of SAGE version 6.1 ozone data quality," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

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A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, and R. A. Ferrare, "Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 31, 3068-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Godin, A. I. Carswell, D. P. Donovan, H. Claude, W. Steinbrecht, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, H. Nakane, D. P. J. Swart, H. B. Bergwerff, O. Uchino, P. Gathen, and R. Neuber, "Ozone differential absorption lidar algorithm intercomparison," Appl. Opt. 38, 6225-6235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano and H. Nakane, "Significance of the extinction/backscattering ratio and the boundary value term in the solution for the two-component lidar equation," Appl. Opt. 23, 11-13 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Earth (1)

S. P. Namboothiri, N. Sugimoto, H. Nakane, I. Matsui, and Y. Murayama, "Rayleigh lidar observations of temperature over Tsukuba: winter thermal structure and comparison studies," Earth , Planets Space 51, 825-832 (1999).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (8)

S. Godin, G. Megie, and J. Pelon, "Systematic lidar measurements of the stratospheric ozone vertical distribution," Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 547-550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, and T. Nagai, "Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789-792 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, J. M. Harris, W. D. Komhyr, J. A. Lathrop, T. Defoor, and D. Kuniyuki, "Ozonesonde measurements at Hilo, Hawaii following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1555-1558 (1993).
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T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, and W. R. Rozier, "Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosols during 1991 and 1992 at 41°N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435-1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, and K. D. Evans, "Raman lidar measurements of the Pinatubo aerosols over southeastern Kansas during November-December 1991," Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1599-1602 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, "One-year observations of Mount-Pinatubo aerosol with an advanced Raman lidar over Germany at 53.5°N," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 711-714 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Jager, T. Deshler, and D. Hofman, "Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversions based on balloon aerosol measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729-1732 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

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J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. (1)

H. Nakane, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and A. Minato, "Vertical profiles of temperature and ozone observed during DYANA campaign with NIES ozone lidar system at Tsukuba," J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1071-1083 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (11)

S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whiteman, and T. J. McGee, "Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, ECC balloon sonde, ROCOZ-A rocket sonde, and SAGE II satellite measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037-10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, G. K. Yue, and H. Jaeger, "Intercomparison of multi-platform stratospheric aerosol and ozone observations," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16127-16136 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. McDermid, J. B. Bergwerff, G. Bodeker, I. S. Boyd, E. J. Brinksma, B. J. Connor, R. Farmer, M. R. Gross, P. Kimvilakani, W. A. Matthews, T. J. McGee, F. T. Ormel, A. Parrish, U. Singh, D. P. J. Swart, J. J. Tsou, P. H. Wang, and J. Zawodny, "OPAL: network for the detection of stratospheric change ozone profiler assessment at Lauder, New Zealand. I. Blind intercomparisons," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28683-28692 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Cunnold, W. P. Chu, R. A. Barnes, M. P. McCormick, and R. E. Veiga, "Validation of SAGE II ozone measurement," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8447-8460 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Pan, S. Solomon, W. J. Randel, J. F. Lamarque, P. Hess, J. C. Gille, E. W. Chiou, and P. McCormick, "Hemispheric asymmetry and seasonal variations of the lowermost stratospheric water vapor and ozone derived from SAGE II data," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 28177-28184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, G. K. Yue, R. J. Atkinson, and W. A. Matthews, " Interomparison of stratospheric ozone profiles obtained by Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II, Halogen Occultation Experiment, and ozonesondes in 1994-1995," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16137-16144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rosenfield, D. B. Considine, P. E. Meade, J. T. Bacmeister, C. H. Jackman, and M. R. Schoeberl, "Stratospheric effect of Mount Pinatubo aerosol studies with a coupled two-dimensional method," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3649-3670 (1997).
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F. Congeduti, J. DeLuisi, and T. Defoor, "Optical extinction properties of volcanic stratospheric aerosol derived from ground-based lidar and sun-photometer measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 103D, 13893-13902 (1998).
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W. B. Grant, E. V. Browell, J. Fishman, V. G. Brackett, R. E. Veiga, D. Nganga, A. Minga, B. Cros, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. S. Long, and L. L. Stowe, "Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8197-8211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Steinbrecht and A. I. Carswell, "Evaluation of the effect of Mount Pinatubo aerosol on differential absorption lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1215-1233 (1995).
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J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. (1)

H. Nakane, Y. Sasano, S. Hayashida-Amano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and A. Minato, "Comparison of ozone profiles obtained with NIES DIAL and SAGE II measurements," J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 153-159 (1992).

Opt. Eng. (3)

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, and J. F. Burris, "STORZ LITE: Stratospheric Ozone Lidar Trailer Experiment," Opt. Eng. 30, 31-39 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Thayer, N. B. Nielsen, R. E. Warren, C. J. Heinselman, and J. Sohn, "Rayleigh lidar system for middle atmosphere research in the arctic," Opt. Eng. 36, 2045-2061 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, J. J. Butler, and P. E. Kimvilakani, "Improved stratospheric ozone lidar," Opt. Eng. 34, 1421-1430 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, and G. D. Donfrancesco, "A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3274-3280 (1996).
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Other (9)

R. D. Evans, The Atomic Nucleus (McGraw-Hill, 1955), p. 785.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in Fortran 77: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1992), Vol. 1.

See NDSC website at http://www.ndsc.ncep.noaa.gov/ (2002).

G. W. Snedecor and W. G. Cochran, Statistical Methods, 6th ed. (Iowa State University Press, 1968), Chap. 6.

H. J. Wang, D. M. Cunnold, L. W. Thomason, J. M. Zawodny, and G. E. Bodeker, "Assessment of SAGE version 6.1 ozone data quality," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Lu, G. K. Yue, G. L. Manney, E. D. Joseph, and V. A. Mohnen, "Variability of stratospheric ozone derived from 1991-2001 SAGE II and HALOE measurements," presented at the American Geophysical Union Spring Meeting, 28-31 May 2002, Washington D.C., abstract A42B-07.

L. W. Thomas, SAGE II, http://www-sage2.larc.nasa.gov/ (2004).

J. R. Spackman, E. M. Weinstock, and J. G. Anderson, "Export of ozone-poor air from the lower tropical stratosphere to mid-latitudes," presented at the American Geophysical Union Spring Meeting, 28-31 May 2002, Washington D.C., abstract A22D-04.

H. Nakane, Polar vortex forecast, http://www-cger2.nies.go.jp/new/analysis-e/pv/indexlowbarstras.html (2002)

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the NIES ozone lidar system. BE, beam expander; M, mirror; H.V., high voltage; A∕D, analog to digital; PS, phase shifter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Side view of the NIES ozone lidar system. M, mirror; DC, double Cassegrain mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical layout of receiving optics (left) and spectrometer (right). DC, double Cassegrain mirror; SFL, soft-focusing lens; M, mirror; DM, dichroic mirror; BS, beam splitter; IF, interference filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flow chart of signal processing and data retrieval. BS, background signal; IEC∕IBC, integrated extinction coefficient∕integrated backscattering coefficient.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

DT effects and correction for (a) 308 nm and (b) 355 nm wavelength signals.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Profiles of ozone concentration derived with and without DT correction (DTC).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SIN of the lidar return signals after subtraction of background noise.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Changes in temperature profiles for different boundary altitudes (BA) and comparison with temperatures obtained with the NCEP and radiosonde data.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Estimated aerosol-free layer from 1991 to 2001.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Variations in the aerosol IEC obtained from SAGE II data and the aerosol IBC obtained from NIES ozone lidar data since 1991 and the fitting curves for the IEC and IBC.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Variation in the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (Sa ) from October 1992 to December 1999 with its linear fitting line from 1991 to 2000.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Altitudinal variation of vertical resolution in DIAL ozone calculation.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Typical vertical profile of aerosol backscattering ratio after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo and (b) comparison between NIES ozone lidar profiles with ozonesonde (measured on 25 February 1992).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) Vertical profile of aerosol backscattering ratio for intermediate aerosol loading and (b) comparison between NIES ozone lidar profiles with ozonesonde (measured on 10 February 1993).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Comparison of mean vertical profiles between NIES ozone lidar and SAGE II, with relative differences (curve) and standard deviation (open circles). (b) Same as (a) but after excluding daytime profiles showing large differences in PV between the measurement locations and time of the NIES ozone lidar and SAGE II.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Time series of ozone concentration at 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 km.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Time series of the aerosol partial IBC at altitude ranges of 10.5–15.5, 15.5–20.5, 20.5–25.5, and 25.5–30.5 km.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Time series of temperatures at 35, 40, 45, 50, and 55 km and comparisons between NIES ozone lidar and NCEP data.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Modifications to the NIES Ozone DIAL System

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specifications of the NIES Ozone DIAL System

Equations (19)

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P ( λ , z ) = P 0 ( λ ) T ( λ ) A Δ z ( z z 0 ) 2 β ( λ , z ) × exp [ 2 z 0 z ( α ( λ , ζ ) + N O 3 ( ζ ) σ O 3 ( λ ) + α e ( λ , ζ ) ) d ζ ] + P B S + P S I N ,
P H ( λ , z ) = P H        r ( λ , z ) 1 + a P H         r ( λ , z ) ,
P L ( λ , z ) = P L       r ( λ , z ) 1 + a P L       r ( λ , z ) ,
P H         r = k r P L       r ,
P H ( λ , z ) = k r P L ( λ , z ) 1 + a ( k r 1 ) P L ( λ , z ) .
P B S + P S I N = a exp ( b x ) + c ,
S I N e r r = S y x { ( 1 / n ) + [ ( x x a ) 2 / ( x x a ) 2 ] } 1 / 2 ,
S y x = [ ( ( y y a ) 2 { [ ( x x a ) × ( y y a ) ] 2 / ( x x a ) 2 } ) / ( n 2 ) ] 1 / 2 ,
T ( z i ) = g ( z i ) Δ z R ln ( 1 + X i ) ,
X i = ρ ( z i ) g ( z i ) Δ z j = i + 1 n ρ ( z j ) g ( z j ) Δ z + P n ( z n + Δ z / 2 ) ,
ρ ( z i ) = ρ ( z m ) P ( z i ) z i      2 [ 1 + R ( z m ) ] q 2 ( z g r o u n d , z m ) P ( z m ) z m       2 [ 1 + R ( z i ) ] q 2 ( z g r o u n d , z i ) .
β a ( z ) = P ( z ) z 2 exp [ 2 ( S a S R ) z b z β a ( ζ ) d ζ ] P ( z b ) z b       2 β a ( z b ) + β m ( z b ) 2 S a z b z P ( ζ ) ζ 2 exp [ 2 ( S a S R ) z b ζ β m ( z ) d z ] d ζ β m ( z ) ,
S R = α m / β m = 8 π / 3 .
S a = z 1 z 2 α a ( λ 1 ) d z / z 1 z 2 β a ( λ 1 ) d z .
N O 3 ( z ) = 1 2 [ σ ( λ o n , T ) σ ( λ off , T ) ] { d d z [ ln P ( λ o n , z ) P ( λ off , z ) ] + B + E } ,
B = d d z ln [ β a ( λ o n , z ) + β m ( λ on , z ) ] [ β a ( λ off , z ) + β m ( λ off , z ) ] ,
E = 2 [ α a ( λ o n , z ) + α m ( λ o n , z ) α a ( λ o f f , z ) α m ( λ o f f , z ) ] .
α a ( λ 1 , z ) = α a ( λ 2 , z ) ( λ 1 λ 2 ) γ ,
β a ( λ 1 , z ) = β a ( λ 2 , z ) ( λ 1 λ 2 ) σ .

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