Abstract

Silicon and fused-silica targets are used as the starting materials for depositing silicon oxide (SiO2) films. The SiO 2 films are prepared by a dual ion beam sputtering deposition system with a main ion source and an ion-assisted source with different working gases. The films deposited are then examined and compared by using a visible spectrophotometer, a Fourier-transform IR spectrophotometer, an atomic force microscope, and contact angle instruments. A Twyman–Green interferometer is employed to study the film stress by phase-shift interferometry. All the SiO 2 films show excellent optical properties with extra-low extinction coefficients (below 2×105) and have no water absorption. When the working gas is O 2 for the ion-assisted source, the deposited SiO 2 films show good properties in terms of stress and roughness and with a good molecular bonding structure order for both targets. However, SiO 2 films deposited from the fused-silica target had a larger contact angle, while those deposited from the silicon target had 2.5 times the deposition rate.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. C. Hsu and C. C. Lee, "Single- and dual-ion-beam sputter deposition of titanium oxide films," Appl. Opt. 37, 1171-1176 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Emiliani and S. Scaglone, "Properties of silicon and aluminum oxide thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering," J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. 5, 1824-1827 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. T. Wei, H. R. Kaufman, and C. C. Lee, "Ion beam sputtering," in Thin Films for Optical System, F.R.Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995).
  4. D. T. Wei, "Ion beam interference coatings for ultralow optical loss," Appl. Opt. 15, 2813-2816 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. C. Hsu, C. C. Lee, C. C. Kuo, S. H. Chen, J. Y. Wu, H. L. Chen, and C. Y. Wei, "Coating uniformity improvement for a dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing filter by use of the etching effect," Appl. Opt. 44, 4402-4407 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, and C. C. Jaing, "The measurements of thin films stress by using phase shifting interferometry," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 839-849 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Tabata, N. Matsuno, Y. Suzuoki, and T. Mizutani, "Optical properties and structure of SiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering," Thin Solid Films 289, 84-89 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. S. Swanepoel, "Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon," J. Phys. E 16, 1214-1221 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. C. Lee and D. J. Jan, "DC magnetron sputtering of Si to form SiO2 in low energy ion beam," in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Sputtering and Plasma Processes, Kanazawa, Japan ( Vacuum Society of Japan, 2005), pp. 167-172.
    [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. C. Hsu, C. C. Lee, C. C. Kuo, S. H. Chen, J. Y. Wu, H. L. Chen, and C. Y. Wei, "Coating uniformity improvement for a dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing filter by use of the etching effect," Appl. Opt. 44, 4402-4407 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee and D. J. Jan, "DC magnetron sputtering of Si to form SiO2 in low energy ion beam," in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Sputtering and Plasma Processes, Kanazawa, Japan ( Vacuum Society of Japan, 2005), pp. 167-172.
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, and C. C. Jaing, "The measurements of thin films stress by using phase shifting interferometry," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 839-849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

A. Tabata, N. Matsuno, Y. Suzuoki, and T. Mizutani, "Optical properties and structure of SiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering," Thin Solid Films 289, 84-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. T. Wei, H. R. Kaufman, and C. C. Lee, "Ion beam sputtering," in Thin Films for Optical System, F.R.Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995).

1989 (1)

D. T. Wei, "Ion beam interference coatings for ultralow optical loss," Appl. Opt. 15, 2813-2816 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

G. Emiliani and S. Scaglone, "Properties of silicon and aluminum oxide thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering," J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. 5, 1824-1827 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. S. Swanepoel, "Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon," J. Phys. E 16, 1214-1221 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. L.

Chen, S. H.

Emiliani, G.

G. Emiliani and S. Scaglone, "Properties of silicon and aluminum oxide thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering," J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. 5, 1824-1827 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. C.

Jaing, C. C.

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, and C. C. Jaing, "The measurements of thin films stress by using phase shifting interferometry," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 839-849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jan, D. J.

C. C. Lee and D. J. Jan, "DC magnetron sputtering of Si to form SiO2 in low energy ion beam," in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Sputtering and Plasma Processes, Kanazawa, Japan ( Vacuum Society of Japan, 2005), pp. 167-172.
[PubMed]

Kaufman, H. R.

D. T. Wei, H. R. Kaufman, and C. C. Lee, "Ion beam sputtering," in Thin Films for Optical System, F.R.Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995).

Kuo, C. C.

Lee, C. C.

J. C. Hsu, C. C. Lee, C. C. Kuo, S. H. Chen, J. Y. Wu, H. L. Chen, and C. Y. Wei, "Coating uniformity improvement for a dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing filter by use of the etching effect," Appl. Opt. 44, 4402-4407 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee and D. J. Jan, "DC magnetron sputtering of Si to form SiO2 in low energy ion beam," in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Sputtering and Plasma Processes, Kanazawa, Japan ( Vacuum Society of Japan, 2005), pp. 167-172.
[PubMed]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, and C. C. Jaing, "The measurements of thin films stress by using phase shifting interferometry," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 839-849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hsu and C. C. Lee, "Single- and dual-ion-beam sputter deposition of titanium oxide films," Appl. Opt. 37, 1171-1176 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Wei, H. R. Kaufman, and C. C. Lee, "Ion beam sputtering," in Thin Films for Optical System, F.R.Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995).

Matsuno, N.

A. Tabata, N. Matsuno, Y. Suzuoki, and T. Mizutani, "Optical properties and structure of SiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering," Thin Solid Films 289, 84-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, T.

A. Tabata, N. Matsuno, Y. Suzuoki, and T. Mizutani, "Optical properties and structure of SiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering," Thin Solid Films 289, 84-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scaglone, S.

G. Emiliani and S. Scaglone, "Properties of silicon and aluminum oxide thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering," J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. 5, 1824-1827 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Suzuoki, Y.

A. Tabata, N. Matsuno, Y. Suzuoki, and T. Mizutani, "Optical properties and structure of SiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering," Thin Solid Films 289, 84-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Swanepoel, R. S.

R. S. Swanepoel, "Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon," J. Phys. E 16, 1214-1221 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tabata, A.

A. Tabata, N. Matsuno, Y. Suzuoki, and T. Mizutani, "Optical properties and structure of SiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering," Thin Solid Films 289, 84-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C. L.

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, and C. C. Jaing, "The measurements of thin films stress by using phase shifting interferometry," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 839-849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C. Y.

Wei, D. T.

D. T. Wei, H. R. Kaufman, and C. C. Lee, "Ion beam sputtering," in Thin Films for Optical System, F.R.Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995).

D. T. Wei, "Ion beam interference coatings for ultralow optical loss," Appl. Opt. 15, 2813-2816 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. Y.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, and C. C. Jaing, "The measurements of thin films stress by using phase shifting interferometry," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 839-849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

R. S. Swanepoel, "Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon," J. Phys. E 16, 1214-1221 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Emiliani and S. Scaglone, "Properties of silicon and aluminum oxide thin films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering," J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. 5, 1824-1827 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. Tabata, N. Matsuno, Y. Suzuoki, and T. Mizutani, "Optical properties and structure of SiO2 films prepared by ion-beam sputtering," Thin Solid Films 289, 84-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. T. Wei, H. R. Kaufman, and C. C. Lee, "Ion beam sputtering," in Thin Films for Optical System, F.R.Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995).

C. C. Lee and D. J. Jan, "DC magnetron sputtering of Si to form SiO2 in low energy ion beam," in Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Sputtering and Plasma Processes, Kanazawa, Japan ( Vacuum Society of Japan, 2005), pp. 167-172.
[PubMed]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the DIBSS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FTIR spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Deconvoluted results for sample A2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Major peak distributions of the deposited SiO2 films (cm−1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

FWHM of major peaks of the deposited SiO2 films (cm−1).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relation between the refractive index and wavelength for the Si and SiO2 targets.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Refractive index for all SiO2 films at 630 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Deposition rates (Å/s).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Stress (MPa).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Roughness (nm).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Contact angles (degrees).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Deposition Parameters of the Processes

Tables Icon

Table 2 Experimental Results for the SiO2 Films Deposited by Various Processes

Metrics