Abstract

The new and fast scatterometry method called optical diffraction microscopy is compared with atomic-force microscopy by use of cross-section scanning-electron microscope images as references. The sample is a high-aspect-ratio grating with a period of ≈1000 nm. To allow the atomic-force microscope to track all parts of the grating profile, the grating is investigated at different tilt angles. The measured quantities of the profile include sidewall angle γ (≈90°), groove height h (≈2000 nm), and degree of filling f (≈40%). The two methods, which respond to quite different material properties, give consistent results within standard uncertainties of u(γ)≤0.8°, u(h)≤15 nm, and u(f)≤1%.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  2. D. A. Pommet, M. G. Moharam, and E. B. Grann, "Limits of scalar diffraction theory for diffractive phase elements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1827-1834 (1994).
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  4. H. Hung and F. Terry, Jr., "Spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectometry from gratings for critical dimension measurements and in situ, real-time process monitoring," Thin Solid Films 455-456, 828-836 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. The optical diffraction microscope is made by LuKa OptoScope, "Method and apparatus for optically measuring the topography of nearly planar periodic structures," Danish patents WO2004008069 and EP1527320 (12 July 2002) (http://www.lukaoptoscope.com).
  6. Y. Martin and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Methods for imaging sidewalls by atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 2498-2500 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Meyyappan, M. Klos, and S. Muckenhirn, "Foot (bottom corner) measurement of a structure with SPM," in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XV, N.T.Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE 4344,733-738 (2001).
  8. J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanthan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Direct measurement of sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116-4118 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Villarrubia, "Algorithms for scanned probe microscope image simulation, surface reconstruction, and tip estimation," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 425-454 (1997).
  10. F. Meli, "Critical dimension (CD) measurements using a metrology AFM," in Proceedings of the 4th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy QM 2000 Dimensional Measurements in the Micro-and Nanometre Range, K.Hasche, W.Mirandé, and G.Wilkening, eds. (PTB-Bericht, 2000), pp. 169-174.
  11. J. Turunen, "Micro-optics," in Diffraction Theory of Micro-Relief Gratings (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 31-52.
  12. L. Li, "New formulation of the Fourier modal method for crossed surface-relief gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2758-2767 (1997).
  13. M. G. Moharam, D. A. Pommet, E. B. Grann, and T. K. Gaylord, "Stable implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis for surface relief gratings: enhanced transmittance matrix approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1077-1086 (1995).
  14. L. Li, "Fourier modal methods for crossed anisotropic gratings with arbitrary permittivity and permeability tensors," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 345-355 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. H. Press, W. T. Vetterling, S. A. Teukolsky, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C++ (Cambridge U. Press, 2002), pp. 661-712.
  16. Dimension 3100 SPM with metrology AFM head, Digital Instruments (now Veeco).
  17. ISC AFM probe tips, Team Nanotec GmBh, Germany.
  18. J. Garnaes, A. Kühle, L. Nielsen, and F. Borsetto, "True three-dimensional calibration of closed loop scanning probe microscopes," in Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods: Dimensional and Related Measurements in the Micro-and Nanometer Range, G.Wilkening and L.Koenders, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2005), pp. 193-204.
  19. J. Garnaes, N. Kofod, A. Kühle, C. Nielsen, K. Dirscherl, and L. Blunt, "Calibration of step heights and roughness measurements with atomic force microscopes," Precis. Eng. 27, 91-98 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Scanning probe image processor (SPIP), Image Metrology, Denmark; http://www.imagemet.com.
  21. N. Kofod, J. Garnaes, and J. F. Jørgensen, "Methods for lateral calibration of scanning probe microscopes based on two dimensional transfer standards," in Proceedings of the 4th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy QM 2000 Dimensional Measurements in the Micro-and Nanometre range, K.Hasche, W.Mirandé, and G.Wilkening, eds. (PTB-Bericht, 2000), pp. 36-43.
  22. N. Otsu, "A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9, 62-66 (1979).

2004 (1)

H. Hung and F. Terry, Jr., "Spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectometry from gratings for critical dimension measurements and in situ, real-time process monitoring," Thin Solid Films 455-456, 828-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanthan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Direct measurement of sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116-4118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, "Fourier modal methods for crossed anisotropic gratings with arbitrary permittivity and permeability tensors," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 345-355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Garnaes, N. Kofod, A. Kühle, C. Nielsen, K. Dirscherl, and L. Blunt, "Calibration of step heights and roughness measurements with atomic force microscopes," Precis. Eng. 27, 91-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1997 (2)

L. Li, "New formulation of the Fourier modal method for crossed surface-relief gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2758-2767 (1997).

J. S. Villarrubia, "Algorithms for scanned probe microscope image simulation, surface reconstruction, and tip estimation," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 425-454 (1997).

1995 (2)

1994 (2)

Y. Martin and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Methods for imaging sidewalls by atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 2498-2500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Pommet, M. G. Moharam, and E. B. Grann, "Limits of scalar diffraction theory for diffractive phase elements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1827-1834 (1994).

1979 (1)

N. Otsu, "A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9, 62-66 (1979).

Abeles, J. H.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanthan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Direct measurement of sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116-4118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adesida, I.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanthan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Direct measurement of sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116-4118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bae, J. W.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanthan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Direct measurement of sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116-4118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blunt, L.

J. Garnaes, N. Kofod, A. Kühle, C. Nielsen, K. Dirscherl, and L. Blunt, "Calibration of step heights and roughness measurements with atomic force microscopes," Precis. Eng. 27, 91-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Borsetto, F.

J. Garnaes, A. Kühle, L. Nielsen, and F. Borsetto, "True three-dimensional calibration of closed loop scanning probe microscopes," in Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods: Dimensional and Related Measurements in the Micro-and Nanometer Range, G.Wilkening and L.Koenders, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2005), pp. 193-204.

Dirscherl, K.

J. Garnaes, N. Kofod, A. Kühle, C. Nielsen, K. Dirscherl, and L. Blunt, "Calibration of step heights and roughness measurements with atomic force microscopes," Precis. Eng. 27, 91-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, W. T. Vetterling, S. A. Teukolsky, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C++ (Cambridge U. Press, 2002), pp. 661-712.

Garnaes, J.

J. Garnaes, N. Kofod, A. Kühle, C. Nielsen, K. Dirscherl, and L. Blunt, "Calibration of step heights and roughness measurements with atomic force microscopes," Precis. Eng. 27, 91-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Garnaes, A. Kühle, L. Nielsen, and F. Borsetto, "True three-dimensional calibration of closed loop scanning probe microscopes," in Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods: Dimensional and Related Measurements in the Micro-and Nanometer Range, G.Wilkening and L.Koenders, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2005), pp. 193-204.

N. Kofod, J. Garnaes, and J. F. Jørgensen, "Methods for lateral calibration of scanning probe microscopes based on two dimensional transfer standards," in Proceedings of the 4th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy QM 2000 Dimensional Measurements in the Micro-and Nanometre range, K.Hasche, W.Mirandé, and G.Wilkening, eds. (PTB-Bericht, 2000), pp. 36-43.

Gaylord, T. K.

Glytsis, E. N.

Grann, E. B.

Hung, H.

H. Hung and F. Terry, Jr., "Spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectometry from gratings for critical dimension measurements and in situ, real-time process monitoring," Thin Solid Films 455-456, 828-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. H.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanthan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Direct measurement of sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116-4118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jørgensen, J. F.

N. Kofod, J. Garnaes, and J. F. Jørgensen, "Methods for lateral calibration of scanning probe microscopes based on two dimensional transfer standards," in Proceedings of the 4th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy QM 2000 Dimensional Measurements in the Micro-and Nanometre range, K.Hasche, W.Mirandé, and G.Wilkening, eds. (PTB-Bericht, 2000), pp. 36-43.

Klos, M.

A. Meyyappan, M. Klos, and S. Muckenhirn, "Foot (bottom corner) measurement of a structure with SPM," in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XV, N.T.Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE 4344,733-738 (2001).

Kofod, N.

J. Garnaes, N. Kofod, A. Kühle, C. Nielsen, K. Dirscherl, and L. Blunt, "Calibration of step heights and roughness measurements with atomic force microscopes," Precis. Eng. 27, 91-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Kofod, J. Garnaes, and J. F. Jørgensen, "Methods for lateral calibration of scanning probe microscopes based on two dimensional transfer standards," in Proceedings of the 4th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy QM 2000 Dimensional Measurements in the Micro-and Nanometre range, K.Hasche, W.Mirandé, and G.Wilkening, eds. (PTB-Bericht, 2000), pp. 36-43.

Korner, T. O.

Kühle, A.

J. Garnaes, N. Kofod, A. Kühle, C. Nielsen, K. Dirscherl, and L. Blunt, "Calibration of step heights and roughness measurements with atomic force microscopes," Precis. Eng. 27, 91-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Garnaes, A. Kühle, L. Nielsen, and F. Borsetto, "True three-dimensional calibration of closed loop scanning probe microscopes," in Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods: Dimensional and Related Measurements in the Micro-and Nanometer Range, G.Wilkening and L.Koenders, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2005), pp. 193-204.

Kwakernaak, M.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanthan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Direct measurement of sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116-4118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lepore, A.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanthan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Direct measurement of sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116-4118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, "Fourier modal methods for crossed anisotropic gratings with arbitrary permittivity and permeability tensors," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 345-355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, "New formulation of the Fourier modal method for crossed surface-relief gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2758-2767 (1997).

Martin, Y.

Y. Martin and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Methods for imaging sidewalls by atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 2498-2500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meli, F.

F. Meli, "Critical dimension (CD) measurements using a metrology AFM," in Proceedings of the 4th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy QM 2000 Dimensional Measurements in the Micro-and Nanometre Range, K.Hasche, W.Mirandé, and G.Wilkening, eds. (PTB-Bericht, 2000), pp. 169-174.

Meyyappan, A.

A. Meyyappan, M. Klos, and S. Muckenhirn, "Foot (bottom corner) measurement of a structure with SPM," in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XV, N.T.Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE 4344,733-738 (2001).

Moharam, M. G.

Muckenhirn, S.

A. Meyyappan, M. Klos, and S. Muckenhirn, "Foot (bottom corner) measurement of a structure with SPM," in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XV, N.T.Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE 4344,733-738 (2001).

Nielsen, C.

J. Garnaes, N. Kofod, A. Kühle, C. Nielsen, K. Dirscherl, and L. Blunt, "Calibration of step heights and roughness measurements with atomic force microscopes," Precis. Eng. 27, 91-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, L.

J. Garnaes, A. Kühle, L. Nielsen, and F. Borsetto, "True three-dimensional calibration of closed loop scanning probe microscopes," in Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods: Dimensional and Related Measurements in the Micro-and Nanometer Range, G.Wilkening and L.Koenders, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2005), pp. 193-204.

Otsu, N.

N. Otsu, "A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9, 62-66 (1979).

Pommet, D. A.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, W. T. Vetterling, S. A. Teukolsky, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C++ (Cambridge U. Press, 2002), pp. 661-712.

Rommel, S. L.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanthan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Direct measurement of sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116-4118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schwider, J.

Selvanthan, D.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanthan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Direct measurement of sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116-4118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheridan, J. T.

Terry, F.

H. Hung and F. Terry, Jr., "Spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectometry from gratings for critical dimension measurements and in situ, real-time process monitoring," Thin Solid Films 455-456, 828-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, W. T. Vetterling, S. A. Teukolsky, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C++ (Cambridge U. Press, 2002), pp. 661-712.

Turunen, J.

J. Turunen, "Micro-optics," in Diffraction Theory of Micro-Relief Gratings (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 31-52.

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, W. T. Vetterling, S. A. Teukolsky, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C++ (Cambridge U. Press, 2002), pp. 661-712.

Villarrubia, J. S.

J. S. Villarrubia, "Algorithms for scanned probe microscope image simulation, surface reconstruction, and tip estimation," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 425-454 (1997).

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

Y. Martin and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Methods for imaging sidewalls by atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 2498-2500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanthan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Direct measurement of sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116-4118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Martin and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Methods for imaging sidewalls by atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 2498-2500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Jang, W. Zhao, J. W. Bae, D. Selvanthan, S. L. Rommel, I. Adesida, A. Lepore, M. Kwakernaak, and J. H. Abeles, "Direct measurement of sidewall roughness of optical waveguides using an atomic force microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4116-4118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (1)

N. Otsu, "A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9, 62-66 (1979).

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

L. Li, "Fourier modal methods for crossed anisotropic gratings with arbitrary permittivity and permeability tensors," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 345-355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (1)

J. S. Villarrubia, "Algorithms for scanned probe microscope image simulation, surface reconstruction, and tip estimation," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 425-454 (1997).

Precis. Eng. (1)

J. Garnaes, N. Kofod, A. Kühle, C. Nielsen, K. Dirscherl, and L. Blunt, "Calibration of step heights and roughness measurements with atomic force microscopes," Precis. Eng. 27, 91-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

H. Hung and F. Terry, Jr., "Spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectometry from gratings for critical dimension measurements and in situ, real-time process monitoring," Thin Solid Films 455-456, 828-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

The optical diffraction microscope is made by LuKa OptoScope, "Method and apparatus for optically measuring the topography of nearly planar periodic structures," Danish patents WO2004008069 and EP1527320 (12 July 2002) (http://www.lukaoptoscope.com).

A. Meyyappan, M. Klos, and S. Muckenhirn, "Foot (bottom corner) measurement of a structure with SPM," in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XV, N.T.Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE 4344,733-738 (2001).

F. Meli, "Critical dimension (CD) measurements using a metrology AFM," in Proceedings of the 4th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy QM 2000 Dimensional Measurements in the Micro-and Nanometre Range, K.Hasche, W.Mirandé, and G.Wilkening, eds. (PTB-Bericht, 2000), pp. 169-174.

J. Turunen, "Micro-optics," in Diffraction Theory of Micro-Relief Gratings (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 31-52.

W. H. Press, W. T. Vetterling, S. A. Teukolsky, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C++ (Cambridge U. Press, 2002), pp. 661-712.

Dimension 3100 SPM with metrology AFM head, Digital Instruments (now Veeco).

ISC AFM probe tips, Team Nanotec GmBh, Germany.

J. Garnaes, A. Kühle, L. Nielsen, and F. Borsetto, "True three-dimensional calibration of closed loop scanning probe microscopes," in Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods: Dimensional and Related Measurements in the Micro-and Nanometer Range, G.Wilkening and L.Koenders, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2005), pp. 193-204.

Scanning probe image processor (SPIP), Image Metrology, Denmark; http://www.imagemet.com.

N. Kofod, J. Garnaes, and J. F. Jørgensen, "Methods for lateral calibration of scanning probe microscopes based on two dimensional transfer standards," in Proceedings of the 4th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy QM 2000 Dimensional Measurements in the Micro-and Nanometre range, K.Hasche, W.Mirandé, and G.Wilkening, eds. (PTB-Bericht, 2000), pp. 36-43.

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