Abstract

The saturation spectrum of the P(84) 5–5 transition of I1272 at 657.483  nm is obtained with the third-harmonic demodulation method using an external cavity diode laser. The laser frequency is modulated by modulating the diode current instead of modulating the cavity length with a piezoelectric transducer (PZT). Current modulation allows a modulation frequency that is higher than PZT modulation. The signal-to-noise ratio of 1000 is better than previous results presented in the literature. The laser is frequency stabilized to the hyperfine component o of the P(84) 5–5 transition with a frequency stability of better than 10  kHz (2.2×1011 relative stability).

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia 40, 103-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. S. Huang, M. H. Lu, and J. T. Shy, "A calcium vapor cell for atomic spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3747-3749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Merimaa, P. Kokkonen, K. Nyholm, and E. Ikonen, "Portable laser frequency standard at 633 nm with compact external-cavity diode laser," Metrologia 38, 311-318 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "A 633 nm iodine-stabilized diode-laser frequency standard," Metrologia 36, 41-45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

H. R. Simonsen, "Iodine-stabilized extended cavity diode laser at lambda = 633 nm," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 141-144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Masuda, T. Kimura, T. Tako, and A. Morinaga, "Frequency stabilization of a visible laser diode to an enhanced saturated absorption signal of molecular iodine in an external cavity," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36, L1443-L1445 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurosu, J. Ishikawa, and N. Ito, "High-sensitive spectroscopy of molecular iodine by means of power-stabilized light from a diode laser spectrometer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 36, 4513-4516 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, F. Rodríguez-Llorente, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Frequency-stabilized diode lasers in the visible region using Doppler-free iodine spectra," Opt. Commun. 132, 94-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Absolute frequency stabilization of a 637 nm laser diode using Doppler-free I2 spectra," Electron. Lett. 31, 796-797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. Nakazawa, "Phase-sensitive detection on Lorentzian line shape and its application to frequency stabilization of lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2297-2305 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Barwood, G. P.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "A 633 nm iodine-stabilized diode-laser frequency standard," Metrologia 36, 41-45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, F. Rodríguez-Llorente, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Frequency-stabilized diode lasers in the visible region using Doppler-free iodine spectra," Opt. Commun. 132, 94-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Absolute frequency stabilization of a 637 nm laser diode using Doppler-free I2 spectra," Electron. Lett. 31, 796-797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cíp, O.

Edwards, C. S.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "A 633 nm iodine-stabilized diode-laser frequency standard," Metrologia 36, 41-45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, F. Rodríguez-Llorente, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Frequency-stabilized diode lasers in the visible region using Doppler-free iodine spectra," Opt. Commun. 132, 94-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Absolute frequency stabilization of a 637 nm laser diode using Doppler-free I2 spectra," Electron. Lett. 31, 796-797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gill, P.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "A 633 nm iodine-stabilized diode-laser frequency standard," Metrologia 36, 41-45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, F. Rodríguez-Llorente, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Frequency-stabilized diode lasers in the visible region using Doppler-free iodine spectra," Opt. Commun. 132, 94-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Absolute frequency stabilization of a 637 nm laser diode using Doppler-free I2 spectra," Electron. Lett. 31, 796-797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. S.

M. S. Huang, M. H. Lu, and J. T. Shy, "A calcium vapor cell for atomic spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3747-3749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ikonen, E.

M. Merimaa, P. Kokkonen, K. Nyholm, and E. Ikonen, "Portable laser frequency standard at 633 nm with compact external-cavity diode laser," Metrologia 38, 311-318 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, J.

T. Kurosu, J. Ishikawa, and N. Ito, "High-sensitive spectroscopy of molecular iodine by means of power-stabilized light from a diode laser spectrometer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 36, 4513-4516 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ito, N.

T. Kurosu, J. Ishikawa, and N. Ito, "High-sensitive spectroscopy of molecular iodine by means of power-stabilized light from a diode laser spectrometer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 36, 4513-4516 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jedlicka, P.

Kimura, T.

T. Masuda, T. Kimura, T. Tako, and A. Morinaga, "Frequency stabilization of a visible laser diode to an enhanced saturated absorption signal of molecular iodine in an external cavity," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36, L1443-L1445 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kokkonen, P.

M. Merimaa, P. Kokkonen, K. Nyholm, and E. Ikonen, "Portable laser frequency standard at 633 nm with compact external-cavity diode laser," Metrologia 38, 311-318 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kurosu, T.

T. Kurosu, J. Ishikawa, and N. Ito, "High-sensitive spectroscopy of molecular iodine by means of power-stabilized light from a diode laser spectrometer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 36, 4513-4516 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lazar, J.

Littman, M. G.

Lu, M. H.

M. S. Huang, M. H. Lu, and J. T. Shy, "A calcium vapor cell for atomic spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3747-3749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, T.

T. Masuda, T. Kimura, T. Tako, and A. Morinaga, "Frequency stabilization of a visible laser diode to an enhanced saturated absorption signal of molecular iodine in an external cavity," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36, L1443-L1445 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Merimaa, M.

M. Merimaa, P. Kokkonen, K. Nyholm, and E. Ikonen, "Portable laser frequency standard at 633 nm with compact external-cavity diode laser," Metrologia 38, 311-318 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morinaga, A.

T. Masuda, T. Kimura, T. Tako, and A. Morinaga, "Frequency stabilization of a visible laser diode to an enhanced saturated absorption signal of molecular iodine in an external cavity," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36, L1443-L1445 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, "Phase-sensitive detection on Lorentzian line shape and its application to frequency stabilization of lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2297-2305 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nyholm, K.

M. Merimaa, P. Kokkonen, K. Nyholm, and E. Ikonen, "Portable laser frequency standard at 633 nm with compact external-cavity diode laser," Metrologia 38, 311-318 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia 40, 103-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez-Llorente, F.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, F. Rodríguez-Llorente, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Frequency-stabilized diode lasers in the visible region using Doppler-free iodine spectra," Opt. Commun. 132, 94-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rowley, W. R. C.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "A 633 nm iodine-stabilized diode-laser frequency standard," Metrologia 36, 41-45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, F. Rodríguez-Llorente, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Frequency-stabilized diode lasers in the visible region using Doppler-free iodine spectra," Opt. Commun. 132, 94-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Absolute frequency stabilization of a 637 nm laser diode using Doppler-free I2 spectra," Electron. Lett. 31, 796-797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shy, J. T.

M. S. Huang, M. H. Lu, and J. T. Shy, "A calcium vapor cell for atomic spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3747-3749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H. R.

H. R. Simonsen, "Iodine-stabilized extended cavity diode laser at lambda = 633 nm," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 141-144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tako, T.

T. Masuda, T. Kimura, T. Tako, and A. Morinaga, "Frequency stabilization of a visible laser diode to an enhanced saturated absorption signal of molecular iodine in an external cavity," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36, L1443-L1445 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Absolute frequency stabilization of a 637 nm laser diode using Doppler-free I2 spectra," Electron. Lett. 31, 796-797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

H. R. Simonsen, "Iodine-stabilized extended cavity diode laser at lambda = 633 nm," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 141-144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Nakazawa, "Phase-sensitive detection on Lorentzian line shape and its application to frequency stabilization of lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2297-2305 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

T. Kurosu, J. Ishikawa, and N. Ito, "High-sensitive spectroscopy of molecular iodine by means of power-stabilized light from a diode laser spectrometer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 36, 4513-4516 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 (1)

T. Masuda, T. Kimura, T. Tako, and A. Morinaga, "Frequency stabilization of a visible laser diode to an enhanced saturated absorption signal of molecular iodine in an external cavity," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36, L1443-L1445 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (3)

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "A 633 nm iodine-stabilized diode-laser frequency standard," Metrologia 36, 41-45 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Merimaa, P. Kokkonen, K. Nyholm, and E. Ikonen, "Portable laser frequency standard at 633 nm with compact external-cavity diode laser," Metrologia 38, 311-318 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia 40, 103-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, F. Rodríguez-Llorente, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Frequency-stabilized diode lasers in the visible region using Doppler-free iodine spectra," Opt. Commun. 132, 94-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. S. Huang, M. H. Lu, and J. T. Shy, "A calcium vapor cell for atomic spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3747-3749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. ECDL, external cavity diode laser; FI, Faraday isolator; BS, beam splitter; M, mirror; L, lens; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; λ∕4, quarter wave plate; ND, filter-neutral density filter; PD, photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Third-derivative signal of the saturation spectrum of the hyperfine components of the P(84) 5–5 transition. Here the time constant is 1 s. (b) The third-derivative signal of the o component using a slower scan rate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured peak amplitude of the third-derivative signal as a function of modulation width (dotted points) and the theoretical fitted curve (solid curve). The fitted FWHM width is 7.5 ± 0.4 MHz.

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