Abstract

Results of an investigation of acousto-optic (AO) cells using single crystals of magnesium fluoride (MgF2) are presented. Two acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) cells for imaging application have been designed and tested in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) regions of the spectrum from 190 to 490nm. The two imaging filters were developed by using the wide-angle AO interaction geometry in the (010) and (11̄0) planes of the crystal. These filters were used to obtain spectral images at the shortest wavelengths achieved so far. Advantages and drawbacks of this crystal are discussed and photoelastic, acoustic, and AO properties of MgF2 are examined. The investigation confirmed that MgF2-based AOTF cells can be used in the deep UV region up to 110nm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).
  2. J. Xu and R. Stroud, Acousto-Optic Devices (Wiley, 1992).
  3. A. Goutzoulis and D. Pape, Design and Fabrication of Acousto-Optic Devices (Marcel Dekker, 1994).
  4. N. Gupta, "Acousto-Optics," in Optical Engineer's Desk Reference, W. Wolfe, ed. (Optical Society of America, 2003).
  5. I. C. Chang, "Tunable acousto-optic filters: an overview," in Acousto-Optics: Device Development/Instrumentation/Applications, J. B. Houston, ed., Proc. SPIE 90, 12-22 (1976).
  6. S. R. Gilleskie and J. W. Carnahan, "Ultraviolet acousto-optic tunable filter wavelength selection for inductively coupled plasma atom emission spectrometry," Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 730-738 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. B. Voloshinov and N. Gupta, "Tunable acousto-optic filters for monitoring of atmospheric ozone," in Instrumentation for Air Pollution and Global Atmospheric Monitoring, J. O. Jensen, ed., Proc. SPIE 4574, 162-173 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. C. Tang, J. T. Chen, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, R. W. Krumm, and R. R. Alfano, "Ultraviolet visible acousto-optic tunable spectroscopic imager for medical diagnostics," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 80-84 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. A. Glenar, J. J. Hillman, B. Saif, and J. Bergstralh, "Acoustooptic imaging spectropolarimetry for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 33, 7412-7424 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. J. Cheng, J. C. Mahone, G. F. Reyes, and H. R. Suiter, "Target detection using an AOTF hyperspectral imager," in Optical Pattern Recognition V, D. P. Casasent and D. Chao, eds., Proc. SPIE 2237, 251-258 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Gupta and V. Voloshinov, "Hyperspectral imager, from ultraviolet to visible, with a KDP acousto-optic tunable filter," Appl. Opt. 43, 2752-2759 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. Voloshinov and N. Gupta, "Ultraviolet-visible imaging acousto-optic tunable filters in KDP," Appl. Opt. 43, 3901-3909 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Gupta and V. Voloshinov, "Tunable ultraviolet hyperspectral imagers," in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper CTHYG 6.
  14. V. B. Voloshinov, "Imaging experiments based on application of non-collinear tunable acousto-optic filters," in 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, R. J. Mericsko, ed., Proc. SPIE 3584, 116-127 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. C. Chang and J. Xu, "High performance AOTFs for the ultraviolet," Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 1998), pp. 1289-1292.
  16. P. Katzka and I. C. Chang, "Non-collinear acousto-optic filter for the ultraviolet," in Infrared Technology for Target Detection and Classification, P. M. Narendra, ed., Proc. SPIE 202, 26-32 (1979).
  17. I. B. Belikov, V. B. Voloshinov, A. B. Kasyanov, and V. N. Parygin, "Acousto-optic spectral filtration of radiation in the ultraviolet region," Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 645-650 (1989).
  18. V. B. Voloshinov, "Acousto-optic filtration of electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet region," in Physical Acoustics: Fundamentals and Applications, O. Leroy and M. Breazeale, eds. (Plenum, 1991), pp. 665-670.
  19. N. Gupta and V. Voloshinov, "Hyperspectral imaging performance of TeO2 AOTF in UV region," Opt. Lett. 30, 985-987 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Duncanson and R. Stevenson, "Some properties of MgF2 crystal from the melt," Proc. R. Phys. Soc. , London 72, 1001-1006 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Laporte, J. Subtil, M. Courbon, and M. Bon, "Vacuum-ultraviolet refractive index of LiF and MgF2 in the temperature range 80-300 K," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1062-1069 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Kandil, J. Greiner, A. Ayers, and J. Smith, "Single crystal elastic constants of MgF2 in the temperature range 4.2-300 K," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 759-765 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. B. Voloshinov, "Anisotropic light diffraction on ultrasound in tellurium dioxide single crystal," Ultrasound 31, 333-338 (1993).

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

V. B. Voloshinov and N. Gupta, "Tunable acousto-optic filters for monitoring of atmospheric ozone," in Instrumentation for Air Pollution and Global Atmospheric Monitoring, J. O. Jensen, ed., Proc. SPIE 4574, 162-173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (2)

G. C. Tang, J. T. Chen, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, R. W. Krumm, and R. R. Alfano, "Ultraviolet visible acousto-optic tunable spectroscopic imager for medical diagnostics," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 80-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Voloshinov, "Imaging experiments based on application of non-collinear tunable acousto-optic filters," in 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, R. J. Mericsko, ed., Proc. SPIE 3584, 116-127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

D. A. Glenar, J. J. Hillman, B. Saif, and J. Bergstralh, "Acoustooptic imaging spectropolarimetry for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 33, 7412-7424 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Cheng, J. C. Mahone, G. F. Reyes, and H. R. Suiter, "Target detection using an AOTF hyperspectral imager," in Optical Pattern Recognition V, D. P. Casasent and D. Chao, eds., Proc. SPIE 2237, 251-258 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

V. B. Voloshinov, "Anisotropic light diffraction on ultrasound in tellurium dioxide single crystal," Ultrasound 31, 333-338 (1993).

1989 (1)

I. B. Belikov, V. B. Voloshinov, A. B. Kasyanov, and V. N. Parygin, "Acousto-optic spectral filtration of radiation in the ultraviolet region," Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 645-650 (1989).

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

H. Kandil, J. Greiner, A. Ayers, and J. Smith, "Single crystal elastic constants of MgF2 in the temperature range 4.2-300 K," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 759-765 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

P. Katzka and I. C. Chang, "Non-collinear acousto-optic filter for the ultraviolet," in Infrared Technology for Target Detection and Classification, P. M. Narendra, ed., Proc. SPIE 202, 26-32 (1979).

1976 (1)

I. C. Chang, "Tunable acousto-optic filters: an overview," in Acousto-Optics: Device Development/Instrumentation/Applications, J. B. Houston, ed., Proc. SPIE 90, 12-22 (1976).

1958 (1)

A. Duncanson and R. Stevenson, "Some properties of MgF2 crystal from the melt," Proc. R. Phys. Soc. , London 72, 1001-1006 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

G. C. Tang, J. T. Chen, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, R. W. Krumm, and R. R. Alfano, "Ultraviolet visible acousto-optic tunable spectroscopic imager for medical diagnostics," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 80-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ayers, A.

H. Kandil, J. Greiner, A. Ayers, and J. Smith, "Single crystal elastic constants of MgF2 in the temperature range 4.2-300 K," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 759-765 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Belikov, I. B.

I. B. Belikov, V. B. Voloshinov, A. B. Kasyanov, and V. N. Parygin, "Acousto-optic spectral filtration of radiation in the ultraviolet region," Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 645-650 (1989).

Bergstralh, J.

Bon, M.

Carnahan, J. W.

Celmer, E. J.

G. C. Tang, J. T. Chen, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, R. W. Krumm, and R. R. Alfano, "Ultraviolet visible acousto-optic tunable spectroscopic imager for medical diagnostics," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 80-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, I. C.

P. Katzka and I. C. Chang, "Non-collinear acousto-optic filter for the ultraviolet," in Infrared Technology for Target Detection and Classification, P. M. Narendra, ed., Proc. SPIE 202, 26-32 (1979).

I. C. Chang, "Tunable acousto-optic filters: an overview," in Acousto-Optics: Device Development/Instrumentation/Applications, J. B. Houston, ed., Proc. SPIE 90, 12-22 (1976).

I. C. Chang and J. Xu, "High performance AOTFs for the ultraviolet," Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 1998), pp. 1289-1292.

Chen, J. T.

G. C. Tang, J. T. Chen, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, R. W. Krumm, and R. R. Alfano, "Ultraviolet visible acousto-optic tunable spectroscopic imager for medical diagnostics," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 80-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. J.

L. J. Cheng, J. C. Mahone, G. F. Reyes, and H. R. Suiter, "Target detection using an AOTF hyperspectral imager," in Optical Pattern Recognition V, D. P. Casasent and D. Chao, eds., Proc. SPIE 2237, 251-258 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Courbon, M.

Duncanson, A.

A. Duncanson and R. Stevenson, "Some properties of MgF2 crystal from the melt," Proc. R. Phys. Soc. , London 72, 1001-1006 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Gilleskie, S. R.

Glenar, D. A.

Goutzoulis, A.

A. Goutzoulis and D. Pape, Design and Fabrication of Acousto-Optic Devices (Marcel Dekker, 1994).

Greiner, J.

H. Kandil, J. Greiner, A. Ayers, and J. Smith, "Single crystal elastic constants of MgF2 in the temperature range 4.2-300 K," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 759-765 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, N.

N. Gupta and V. Voloshinov, "Hyperspectral imaging performance of TeO2 AOTF in UV region," Opt. Lett. 30, 985-987 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gupta and V. Voloshinov, "Hyperspectral imager, from ultraviolet to visible, with a KDP acousto-optic tunable filter," Appl. Opt. 43, 2752-2759 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Voloshinov and N. Gupta, "Ultraviolet-visible imaging acousto-optic tunable filters in KDP," Appl. Opt. 43, 3901-3909 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. B. Voloshinov and N. Gupta, "Tunable acousto-optic filters for monitoring of atmospheric ozone," in Instrumentation for Air Pollution and Global Atmospheric Monitoring, J. O. Jensen, ed., Proc. SPIE 4574, 162-173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta and V. Voloshinov, "Tunable ultraviolet hyperspectral imagers," in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper CTHYG 6.

N. Gupta, "Acousto-Optics," in Optical Engineer's Desk Reference, W. Wolfe, ed. (Optical Society of America, 2003).

Hillman, J. J.

Kandil, H.

H. Kandil, J. Greiner, A. Ayers, and J. Smith, "Single crystal elastic constants of MgF2 in the temperature range 4.2-300 K," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 759-765 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kasyanov, A. B.

I. B. Belikov, V. B. Voloshinov, A. B. Kasyanov, and V. N. Parygin, "Acousto-optic spectral filtration of radiation in the ultraviolet region," Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 645-650 (1989).

Katz, A.

G. C. Tang, J. T. Chen, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, R. W. Krumm, and R. R. Alfano, "Ultraviolet visible acousto-optic tunable spectroscopic imager for medical diagnostics," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 80-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Katzka, P.

P. Katzka and I. C. Chang, "Non-collinear acousto-optic filter for the ultraviolet," in Infrared Technology for Target Detection and Classification, P. M. Narendra, ed., Proc. SPIE 202, 26-32 (1979).

Krumm, R. W.

G. C. Tang, J. T. Chen, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, R. W. Krumm, and R. R. Alfano, "Ultraviolet visible acousto-optic tunable spectroscopic imager for medical diagnostics," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 80-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laporte, P.

Mahone, J. C.

L. J. Cheng, J. C. Mahone, G. F. Reyes, and H. R. Suiter, "Target detection using an AOTF hyperspectral imager," in Optical Pattern Recognition V, D. P. Casasent and D. Chao, eds., Proc. SPIE 2237, 251-258 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pape, D.

A. Goutzoulis and D. Pape, Design and Fabrication of Acousto-Optic Devices (Marcel Dekker, 1994).

Parygin, V. N.

I. B. Belikov, V. B. Voloshinov, A. B. Kasyanov, and V. N. Parygin, "Acousto-optic spectral filtration of radiation in the ultraviolet region," Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 645-650 (1989).

Reyes, G. F.

L. J. Cheng, J. C. Mahone, G. F. Reyes, and H. R. Suiter, "Target detection using an AOTF hyperspectral imager," in Optical Pattern Recognition V, D. P. Casasent and D. Chao, eds., Proc. SPIE 2237, 251-258 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saif, B.

Smith, J.

H. Kandil, J. Greiner, A. Ayers, and J. Smith, "Single crystal elastic constants of MgF2 in the temperature range 4.2-300 K," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 759-765 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, R.

A. Duncanson and R. Stevenson, "Some properties of MgF2 crystal from the melt," Proc. R. Phys. Soc. , London 72, 1001-1006 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Stroud, R.

J. Xu and R. Stroud, Acousto-Optic Devices (Wiley, 1992).

Subtil, J.

Suiter, H. R.

L. J. Cheng, J. C. Mahone, G. F. Reyes, and H. R. Suiter, "Target detection using an AOTF hyperspectral imager," in Optical Pattern Recognition V, D. P. Casasent and D. Chao, eds., Proc. SPIE 2237, 251-258 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tang, G. C.

G. C. Tang, J. T. Chen, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, R. W. Krumm, and R. R. Alfano, "Ultraviolet visible acousto-optic tunable spectroscopic imager for medical diagnostics," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 80-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voloshinov, V.

Voloshinov, V. B.

V. B. Voloshinov and N. Gupta, "Tunable acousto-optic filters for monitoring of atmospheric ozone," in Instrumentation for Air Pollution and Global Atmospheric Monitoring, J. O. Jensen, ed., Proc. SPIE 4574, 162-173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Voloshinov, "Imaging experiments based on application of non-collinear tunable acousto-optic filters," in 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, R. J. Mericsko, ed., Proc. SPIE 3584, 116-127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Voloshinov, "Anisotropic light diffraction on ultrasound in tellurium dioxide single crystal," Ultrasound 31, 333-338 (1993).

I. B. Belikov, V. B. Voloshinov, A. B. Kasyanov, and V. N. Parygin, "Acousto-optic spectral filtration of radiation in the ultraviolet region," Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 645-650 (1989).

V. B. Voloshinov, "Acousto-optic filtration of electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet region," in Physical Acoustics: Fundamentals and Applications, O. Leroy and M. Breazeale, eds. (Plenum, 1991), pp. 665-670.

Xu, J.

I. C. Chang and J. Xu, "High performance AOTFs for the ultraviolet," Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 1998), pp. 1289-1292.

J. Xu and R. Stroud, Acousto-Optic Devices (Wiley, 1992).

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Kandil, J. Greiner, A. Ayers, and J. Smith, "Single crystal elastic constants of MgF2 in the temperature range 4.2-300 K," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 759-765 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. C. Tang, J. T. Chen, A. Katz, E. J. Celmer, R. W. Krumm, and R. R. Alfano, "Ultraviolet visible acousto-optic tunable spectroscopic imager for medical diagnostics," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 80-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. R. Phys. Soc. (1)

A. Duncanson and R. Stevenson, "Some properties of MgF2 crystal from the melt," Proc. R. Phys. Soc. , London 72, 1001-1006 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (5)

I. C. Chang, "Tunable acousto-optic filters: an overview," in Acousto-Optics: Device Development/Instrumentation/Applications, J. B. Houston, ed., Proc. SPIE 90, 12-22 (1976).

V. B. Voloshinov and N. Gupta, "Tunable acousto-optic filters for monitoring of atmospheric ozone," in Instrumentation for Air Pollution and Global Atmospheric Monitoring, J. O. Jensen, ed., Proc. SPIE 4574, 162-173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Cheng, J. C. Mahone, G. F. Reyes, and H. R. Suiter, "Target detection using an AOTF hyperspectral imager," in Optical Pattern Recognition V, D. P. Casasent and D. Chao, eds., Proc. SPIE 2237, 251-258 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Voloshinov, "Imaging experiments based on application of non-collinear tunable acousto-optic filters," in 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in Computer-Assisted Recognition, R. J. Mericsko, ed., Proc. SPIE 3584, 116-127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Katzka and I. C. Chang, "Non-collinear acousto-optic filter for the ultraviolet," in Infrared Technology for Target Detection and Classification, P. M. Narendra, ed., Proc. SPIE 202, 26-32 (1979).

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. B. Belikov, V. B. Voloshinov, A. B. Kasyanov, and V. N. Parygin, "Acousto-optic spectral filtration of radiation in the ultraviolet region," Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 645-650 (1989).

Ultrasound (1)

V. B. Voloshinov, "Anisotropic light diffraction on ultrasound in tellurium dioxide single crystal," Ultrasound 31, 333-338 (1993).

Other (7)

V. B. Voloshinov, "Acousto-optic filtration of electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet region," in Physical Acoustics: Fundamentals and Applications, O. Leroy and M. Breazeale, eds. (Plenum, 1991), pp. 665-670.

I. C. Chang and J. Xu, "High performance AOTFs for the ultraviolet," Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 1998), pp. 1289-1292.

N. Gupta and V. Voloshinov, "Tunable ultraviolet hyperspectral imagers," in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper CTHYG 6.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 1984).

J. Xu and R. Stroud, Acousto-Optic Devices (Wiley, 1992).

A. Goutzoulis and D. Pape, Design and Fabrication of Acousto-Optic Devices (Marcel Dekker, 1994).

N. Gupta, "Acousto-Optics," in Optical Engineer's Desk Reference, W. Wolfe, ed. (Optical Society of America, 2003).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of acoustic slowness (same as 1 / V ) surface in the MgF 2 crystal (a) in the ( 001 ) plane, (b) in the ( 010 ) plane, and (c) in the ( 1 1 ¯ 0 ) plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wave vector diagram for wide-angle AO interaction in MgF 2 . One of the cells is based on the plane defined by [ 100 ] and [ 001 ] axes and the second cell uses the plane containing [ 110 ] and [ 001 ] axes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency dependence of incidence angles in the crystal (a) in the ( 010 ) plane as in cell1 and (b) in the ( 1 1 ¯ 0 ) plane as in cell2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AOTF tuning curves for the two cells: curve 1 is for cell1 and curve 2 is for cell2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geometry of AOTF cells in MgF 2 single crystal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Block diagram of the imaging experimental setup using UV light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Filtered images in the UV region of the spectrum at 250, 285, 330, and 385 nm .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Properties of Birefringent Crystals for UV Applications

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V ( α ) = V 110 2 cos 2 α + V 001 2 sin 2 α ,
ψ = arctan [ ( V 001 / V 110 ) 2 tan α ] α .
n i = n o n e n o 2 sin 2 ( θ + α ) + n e 2 cos 2 ( θ + α ) .
n i cos θ = n o cos θ d .
f = V ( α ) λ ( n i sin θ n o 2 n i 2 cos 2 θ ) .
Δλ 0.8 λ 2 cos θ Δ n l sin 2 ( θ + α ) .
T = ( 100% ) sin 2 ( π λ cos θ M 2 P l 2 d ) ,
M 2 = p eff 2 n i 3 n o 3 ρ V 3 .
p eff = p 66 cos α cos ( θ + α ) + p 44 sin α sin ( θ + α ) ,
p eff = 0.5 ( p 12 p 11 ) cos α cos ( θ + α ) + p 44 sin α sin ( θ + α ) .
N = 1.25 Δ n L λ sin 2 ( θ + α ) cos θ .

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