Abstract

An original imaging multipass cell for infrared spectroscopy has been designed and built. The cell design is aimed at overcoming intrinsic sensitivity limitations associated with the low specific spectral radiance power of blackbody sources. Owing to the implemented low f number, the detector collects a large amount of the energy emitted over a wide angle by a blackbody source. In addition, the adopted optical configuration allows maintenance of the same spatial distribution of the radiance pattern at the cell entrance and exit (imaging capability) within an aperture area of several square millimeters. This feature allows the use of uncollimated blackbody-type emitter arrays and infrared sensor arrays coupled with linear, spectrally variable filters, and performance of spectroscopic measurements of infrared absorption for low concentrated gases detection. In the present design the cell has an f number of about 2, and the optical path is ten times larger than the cell length.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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1999 (1)

1998 (1)

P. Werle, " A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54, 197- 236 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

S. M. Chernin, " New generation of multipass systems in high resolution spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 52, 1009- 1022 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chernin, " Multipass system with large relative aperture," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 525- 532 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1965 (1)

1942 (1)

Baer, D. S.

Barskaya, E. G.

Brenner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Chernin, S. M.

S. M. Chernin, " New generation of multipass systems in high resolution spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 52, 1009- 1022 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chernin, " Multipass system with large relative aperture," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 525- 532 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chernin and E. G. Barskaya, " Optical multipass matrix systems," Appl. Opt. 30, 51- 57 ( 1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devi, V. Malathy

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Dominique, R.

Doussin, J. -F.

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Hackett, C. E.

Hanson, R. K.

Herriot, D. R.

Hill, R. A.

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Mihalcea, R. M.

Mulac, A. J.

Patrick, C.

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, H. J.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, " A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54, 197- 236 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

White, J. U.

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. M. Chernin, " Multipass system with large relative aperture," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 525- 532 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Brenner, V. Malathy Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A Toth, " The HITRAN molecular database: edition of 1991 and 1992," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469- 507 ( 1992).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part A (2)

P. Werle, " A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54, 197- 236 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chernin, " New generation of multipass systems in high resolution spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 52, 1009- 1022 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical scheme of the cell showing the ray trace within the system. The two parabolic off-axis mirrors are on the top (P1 and P2), while the two pairs of right-angle mirrors (R1 and R2) are positioned near the cell entrance and exit apertures, where the source (S) and the detector (D) should be respectively positioned slightly off axis. In this scheme the source was shifted 2.5 mm off axis. The right-angle retroreflector near the source (R1) is shifted on the opposite direction of the same amount and is shown as a box, since it was rotated by 90° around the chief ray spreading from the source to the paraboloid P2. Note that the source, the detector, and the retroreflectors are also displaced above or below the plane of the paper to avoid overlapping, although this displacement is nonvisible from the plane view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simplified trace of the radiation path from the source to the detector, illustrating sequential reflections within the cell, following the optical layout illustrated in Fig. 1. P1 and P2 are the two facing paraboloids; S and D are the source and detector, respectively; R1 and R2 are the two retroreflectors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Computer simulation of illumination two-dimensional surface on the detector focal plane corresponding to a source radiation pattern of 5 lines∕mm and 2 mm × 2 mm size, shifted 2.5 mm off axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3, but having shifted the source target to 5 mm off axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optomechanical layout of the multipass cell showing also a possible arrangement with realistic source and detector vacuum packages.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental results demonstrating imaging performance of the multipass cell. A 5 mm × 5 mm Ronchi ruling was backilluminated and used as a source pattern with a spatial resolution of 100 lines∕in. It is shown on the left. The same target, as imaged by the multipass cell, is shown on the right. Both the photos were acquired using a Nikon CCD camera. The linepairs of the source target are clearly resolved in the image plane.

Equations (3)

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f = 1 / ( 2 n sin θ ) ,
G = A Ω ,
T = G τ ,

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