Abstract

We have developed new expressions for power fading and average power fading owing to polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and chromatic dispersion in terms of the angle of precession of the output state of polarization about the PMD vector. Based on these expressions, a simple and novel pilot-tone-based technique for simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and PMD is proposed. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique; these results agree well with the theoretical analysis.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Wiesmann, O. Beck, and H. Heppner, " Cost effective performance monitoring in WDM systems," in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (CLEO) 2000 (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 171- 173.
  2. A. Chraplyvy, R. Tkach, L. Buhl, and R. Alferness, " Phase modulation to amplitude modulation conversion of cw laser light in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 22, 409- 411 ( 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, " In service monitor for group-velocity dispersion of optical fiber transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 37, 743- 745 ( 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, " Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 873- 875 ( 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Ishikawa and H. Ooi, " Polarization mode dispersion sensitivity and monitoring in 40-Gbit/s OTDM and 10 G-bit/s NRZ transmission experiments," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 1998 (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 117- 119.
  6. S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y. Wang, M. Hauer, S. Lee, and A. E. Willner, " Simultaneous PMD monitoring of several WDM channels using subcarrier tones," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2001 (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 561- 563.
  7. T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2177- 2179 ( 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, and Y. C. Chung, " A simultaneous monitoring technique for polarization mode dispersion and group velocity dispersion" in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002 (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 199- 200.
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Fu and R. Q. Hui, " Fiber chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion monitoring using coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1561- 1563 ( 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, " Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 22, 1029- 1230 ( 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, " Polarization mode dispersion measurements based on transmission spectra through a polarizer," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 917- 929 ( 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Yu, Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " Optical compensation of PMD-induced power fading for single sideband subcarrier-multiplexed systems," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002 (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 304- 305.
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. Fu and R. Q. Hui, " Fiber chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion monitoring using coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1561- 1563 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2177- 2179 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, " Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 873- 875 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, " In service monitor for group-velocity dispersion of optical fiber transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 37, 743- 745 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, " Polarization mode dispersion measurements based on transmission spectra through a polarizer," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 917- 929 ( 1994).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, " Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 22, 1029- 1230 ( 1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Chraplyvy, R. Tkach, L. Buhl, and R. Alferness, " Phase modulation to amplitude modulation conversion of cw laser light in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 22, 409- 411 ( 1986).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R.

A. Chraplyvy, R. Tkach, L. Buhl, and R. Alferness, " Phase modulation to amplitude modulation conversion of cw laser light in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 22, 409- 411 ( 1986).
[CrossRef]

Beck, O.

R. Wiesmann, O. Beck, and H. Heppner, " Cost effective performance monitoring in WDM systems," in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (CLEO) 2000 (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 171- 173.

Buhl, L.

A. Chraplyvy, R. Tkach, L. Buhl, and R. Alferness, " Phase modulation to amplitude modulation conversion of cw laser light in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 22, 409- 411 ( 1986).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A.

A. Chraplyvy, R. Tkach, L. Buhl, and R. Alferness, " Phase modulation to amplitude modulation conversion of cw laser light in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 22, 409- 411 ( 1986).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. C.

K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, " Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 873- 875 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, and Y. C. Chung, " A simultaneous monitoring technique for polarization mode dispersion and group velocity dispersion" in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002 (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 199- 200.
[CrossRef]

Favin, D. L.

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, " Polarization mode dispersion measurements based on transmission spectra through a polarizer," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 917- 929 ( 1994).
[CrossRef]

Fu, B.

B. Fu and R. Q. Hui, " Fiber chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion monitoring using coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1561- 1563 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Hauer, M.

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y. Wang, M. Hauer, S. Lee, and A. E. Willner, " Simultaneous PMD monitoring of several WDM channels using subcarrier tones," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2001 (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 561- 563.

Heppner, H.

R. Wiesmann, O. Beck, and H. Heppner, " Cost effective performance monitoring in WDM systems," in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (CLEO) 2000 (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 171- 173.

Hui, R. Q.

B. Fu and R. Q. Hui, " Fiber chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion monitoring using coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1561- 1563 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, G.

G. Ishikawa and H. Ooi, " Polarization mode dispersion sensitivity and monitoring in 40-Gbit/s OTDM and 10 G-bit/s NRZ transmission experiments," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 1998 (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 117- 119.

Kikuchi, K.

Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, " In service monitor for group-velocity dispersion of optical fiber transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 37, 743- 745 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, " Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 873- 875 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, and Y. C. Chung, " A simultaneous monitoring technique for polarization mode dispersion and group velocity dispersion" in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002 (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 199- 200.
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y. Wang, M. Hauer, S. Lee, and A. E. Willner, " Simultaneous PMD monitoring of several WDM channels using subcarrier tones," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2001 (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 561- 563.

Luo, T.

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2177- 2179 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Nezam, S. M. R. Motaghian

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2177- 2179 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y. Wang, M. Hauer, S. Lee, and A. E. Willner, " Simultaneous PMD monitoring of several WDM channels using subcarrier tones," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2001 (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 561- 563.

Ooi, H.

G. Ishikawa and H. Ooi, " Polarization mode dispersion sensitivity and monitoring in 40-Gbit/s OTDM and 10 G-bit/s NRZ transmission experiments," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 1998 (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 117- 119.

Pan, Z.

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2177- 2179 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Yu, Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " Optical compensation of PMD-induced power fading for single sideband subcarrier-multiplexed systems," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002 (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 304- 305.
[CrossRef]

Park, K. J.

K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, " Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 873- 875 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, and Y. C. Chung, " A simultaneous monitoring technique for polarization mode dispersion and group velocity dispersion" in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002 (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 199- 200.
[CrossRef]

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, " Polarization mode dispersion measurements based on transmission spectra through a polarizer," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 917- 929 ( 1994).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, " Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 22, 1029- 1230 ( 1986).
[CrossRef]

Sahin, A. B.

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2177- 2179 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Yu, Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " Optical compensation of PMD-induced power fading for single sideband subcarrier-multiplexed systems," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002 (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 304- 305.
[CrossRef]

Takushima, Y.

Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, " In service monitor for group-velocity dispersion of optical fiber transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 37, 743- 745 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R.

A. Chraplyvy, R. Tkach, L. Buhl, and R. Alferness, " Phase modulation to amplitude modulation conversion of cw laser light in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 22, 409- 411 ( 1986).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R. E.

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, " Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 22, 1029- 1230 ( 1986).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y. Wang, M. Hauer, S. Lee, and A. E. Willner, " Simultaneous PMD monitoring of several WDM channels using subcarrier tones," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2001 (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 561- 563.

Wiesmann, R.

R. Wiesmann, O. Beck, and H. Heppner, " Cost effective performance monitoring in WDM systems," in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (CLEO) 2000 (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 171- 173.

Willner, A. E.

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2177- 2179 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y. Wang, M. Hauer, S. Lee, and A. E. Willner, " Simultaneous PMD monitoring of several WDM channels using subcarrier tones," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2001 (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 561- 563.

C. Yu, Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " Optical compensation of PMD-induced power fading for single sideband subcarrier-multiplexed systems," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002 (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 304- 305.
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2177- 2179 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Youn, C. J.

K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, " Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 873- 875 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, and Y. C. Chung, " A simultaneous monitoring technique for polarization mode dispersion and group velocity dispersion" in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002 (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 199- 200.
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

C. Yu, Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " Optical compensation of PMD-induced power fading for single sideband subcarrier-multiplexed systems," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002 (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 304- 305.
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

C. Yu, Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " Optical compensation of PMD-induced power fading for single sideband subcarrier-multiplexed systems," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002 (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 304- 305.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

A. Chraplyvy, R. Tkach, L. Buhl, and R. Alferness, " Phase modulation to amplitude modulation conversion of cw laser light in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 22, 409- 411 ( 1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, " In service monitor for group-velocity dispersion of optical fiber transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 37, 743- 745 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, " Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 22, 1029- 1230 ( 1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, " Polarization mode dispersion measurements based on transmission spectra through a polarizer," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 917- 929 ( 1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, " Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 873- 875 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2177- 2179 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Fu and R. Q. Hui, " Fiber chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion monitoring using coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1561- 1563 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R. Wiesmann, O. Beck, and H. Heppner, " Cost effective performance monitoring in WDM systems," in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (CLEO) 2000 (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 171- 173.

K. J. Park, J. H. Lee, C. J. Youn, and Y. C. Chung, " A simultaneous monitoring technique for polarization mode dispersion and group velocity dispersion" in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002 (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 199- 200.
[CrossRef]

G. Ishikawa and H. Ooi, " Polarization mode dispersion sensitivity and monitoring in 40-Gbit/s OTDM and 10 G-bit/s NRZ transmission experiments," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 1998 (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 117- 119.

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, Y. Wang, M. Hauer, S. Lee, and A. E. Willner, " Simultaneous PMD monitoring of several WDM channels using subcarrier tones," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2001 (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 561- 563.

C. Yu, Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, " Optical compensation of PMD-induced power fading for single sideband subcarrier-multiplexed systems," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002 (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 304- 305.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for simultaneous monitoring of PMD and CD. The rf output powers measured by the rf spectrum analyzers are the following: RFSA 1 (P0 ), no power fading; RFSA 2 [ P e ( P ) SSB ] , power fading owing to PMD; RFSA 3 [ P e ( P + C ) DSB ] , power fading owing to PMD and CD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power fading owing to PMD {RFSA 1 (P 0), RFSA 2 [ P e ( P ) SSB ] } versus angle between input SOP and PMD vector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power fading owing to various values of chromatic dispersion {RFSA 2 [ P e ( P ) SSB ] , RFSA 3 [ P e ( P + C ) DSB ] } versus the angle between the input SOP and PMD vector; DGD = 39 ps.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power fading owing to PMD and CD {RFSA 3 [ P e ( P + C ) DSB ] } for several values of DGD and CD; 2α = π/2.

Equations (15)

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e ( ω ) = cos α exp ( j ϕ + ) e Ω + + sin α exp ( j ϕ ) e Ω ,
e ( ω ) = cos α exp [ j ( Δ τ Δ ω ) 2 ] e Ω + + sin α exp [ j ( Δ τ Δ ω ) 2 ] e Ω .
f ( t ) = P i [ 1 + m cos ( ω m t ) ] 1 / 2 cos ( ω 0 t ) ,
f Ω + ( t ) = M cos α 2 π + | F ( ω ω 0 ) | exp { j [ ( Δ τ Δ ω / 2 ) ( β 2 L Δ ω 2 / 2 ) ] } exp [ j ( ω ω 0 ) t ] d ω ,
f Ω ( t ) = M sin α 2 π + | F ( ω ω 0 ) | exp { j [ ( Δ τ Δ ω / 2 ) + ( β 2 L Δ ω 2 / 2 ) ] } exp [ j ( ω ω 0 ) t ] d ω .
f ( t ) = f Ω + ( t ) Ω + + f Ω ( t ) Ω .
f Ω + ( t ) = cos ( α ) M P i { cos ( ω 0 t ) + m 4 cos [ ( ω 0 + ω m ) t + ( Δτ ω m / 2 ) ( β 2 L ω m       2 / 2 ) ] + m 4     cos [ ( ω 0 ω m ) t ( Δτ ω m / 2 ) ( β 2 L ω m       2 / 2 ) ] } ,
f Ω ( t ) = sin ( α ) M P i { cos ( ω 0 t ) + m 4 cos [ ( ω 0 + ω m ) t ( Δτ ω m / 2 ) ( β 2 L ω m       2 / 2 ) ] + m 4     cos [ ( ω 0 ω m ) t + ( Δτ ω m / 2 ) ( β 2 L ω m     2 / 2 ) ] } .
P ( t ) = | f ( t ) | 2 = f ( t ) f ( t ) = | f Ω + ( t ) | 2 + | f Ω ( t ) | 2 .
I ( t ) = ( cos α ) 2 R M 2 P i { m cos ( β 2 L ω m     2 / 2 ) × cos [ ω m ( t + Δ τ / 2 ) ] } + ( sin α ) 2 R M 2 P i { m cos ( β 2 L ω m       2 / 2 ) × cos [ ω m ( t Δ τ / 2 ) ] } .
P e ( P + C ) DS B ( ω m ) = P 0 [ cos ( β 2 L ω m       2 / 2 ) ] 2 × { 1 ( sin 2 α ) 2 [ sin ( Δ τ ω m / 2 ) ] 2 } .
P e ( P + C ) DS B ( A v ) ( f m ) = P 0 [ cos ( π f m         2 λ 2 D l / c ) ] 2 × { 1 2 3 [ sin ( π Δ τ f m ) ] 2 } .
P e ( C ) DS B ( f m ) = P 0 [ cos ( π f m         2 λ 2 D l / c ) ] 2 .
P e ( P ) SS B ( ω m ) = P 0 { 1 ( sin 2 α ) 2 [ sin ( Δ τ ω m / 2 ) ] 2 } .
P e ( P ) SS B ( A v ) ( f m ) = P 0 { 1 2 3 [ sin ( π f m Δ τ ) ] 2 } .

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