Abstract

A light-driven micrometer-sized mechanical motor is created by laser-light-induced two-photon photopolymerization. All necessary components of the engine are built upon a glass surface by an identical procedure and include the following: a rigid mechanical framework, a rotor freely rotating on an axis, and an integrated optical waveguide carrying the actuating light to the rotor. The resulting product is a most practical stand-alone system. The light introduced into the integrated optical waveguide input of the motor provides the driving force: neither optical tweezers or even a microscope are needed for the function. The power and efficiency of the motor are evaluated. The independent unit is expected to become an important component of more complex integrated lab-on-a-chip devices.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. I. Bishop, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, " Optical application and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic nonabsorbing material," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033802 ( 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. T. O'Neil and M. J. Padgett, " Rotational control within optical tweezers by use of a rotating aperture," Opt. Lett. 27, 743- 745 ( 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, " Measurement and control of optically induced rotation of anisotropic shaped particles," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3104- 3108 ( 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, " Optically induced rotation of a trapped micro-object about an axis perpendicular to the laser beam axis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2951- 2953 ( 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. C. Gauthie, " Ray optics model and numerical computations for the radiation pressure micromotor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2269- 2271 ( 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Galajda and P. Ormos, " Complex micromachines produced and driven by light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249- 251 ( 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Galajda and P. Ormos, " Rotors produced and driven in laser tweezers with reversed direction of rotation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4653- 4655 ( 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, " Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles," Nature 394, 348- 350 ( 1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, " Optically induced angular alignment of trapped birefringent micro-objects by linearly polarized light," Pys. Rev. E 59, 3676- 3681 ( 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. L. Neale, M. P. MacDonald, K. Dholakia, and T. F. Krauss, " All-optical control of microfluidic components using form birefringence," Nature Mater. 4, 530- 533 ( 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, " Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 296, 1101- 1103 ( 2002).
    [PubMed]
  13. A. T. O'Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, " Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 ( 2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. V. Bingelyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, " Optically controlled three-dimensional rotation of microscopic objects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 829- 831 ( 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. J. Rodrigo, L. Gammelgaard, P. Boggild, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, and J. Gluckstad, " Actuation of microfabricated tools using multiple GPC-based counterpropagating-beam traps," Opt. Express 13, 6899- 6904 ( 2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. A. Lawes, A. S. Holmes, and F. N. Goodall, " The formation of moulds for 3D microstructures using excimer laser ablation," Microsystem Technol. 3(1), 17- 19 ( 1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. R. C. Gauthier, R. N. Tait, H. Mende, and C. Pawlowicz, " Optical selection, manipulation, trapping, and activation of a microgear structure for applications in micro-optical-electromechanical systems," Appl. Opt. 40, 930- 937 ( 2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. R. C. Gauthier R. Niall Tait, and M. Ubriaco, " Activation of microcomponents with light for micro-electro-mechanical systems and micro-optical-electro-mechanical systems applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 2361- 2367 ( 2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, Microfluidic control using colloidal devices, Science 296, 1841- 1844 ( 2002).
  21. W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, C. G. Smith, R. E. Mahrt, and H. J. Guntherodt, " SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095- 4097 ( 2004).
    [CrossRef]

2005

S. L. Neale, M. P. MacDonald, K. Dholakia, and T. F. Krauss, " All-optical control of microfluidic components using form birefringence," Nature Mater. 4, 530- 533 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Rodrigo, L. Gammelgaard, P. Boggild, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, and J. Gluckstad, " Actuation of microfabricated tools using multiple GPC-based counterpropagating-beam traps," Opt. Express 13, 6899- 6904 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, C. G. Smith, R. E. Mahrt, and H. J. Guntherodt, " SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095- 4097 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

V. Bingelyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, " Optically controlled three-dimensional rotation of microscopic objects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 829- 831 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, " Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533- 539 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, " Orientation of flat particles in laser tweezers by linearly polarized light," Opt. Express 11, 446- 451 ( 2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Bishop, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, " Optical application and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic nonabsorbing material," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033802 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. T. O'Neil and M. J. Padgett, " Rotational control within optical tweezers by use of a rotating aperture," Opt. Lett. 27, 743- 745 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, " Rotors produced and driven in laser tweezers with reversed direction of rotation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4653- 4655 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Gauthier R. Niall Tait, and M. Ubriaco, " Activation of microcomponents with light for micro-electro-mechanical systems and micro-optical-electro-mechanical systems applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 2361- 2367 ( 2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, Microfluidic control using colloidal devices, Science 296, 1841- 1844 ( 2002).

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, " Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 296, 1101- 1103 ( 2002).
[PubMed]

A. T. O'Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, " Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 ( 2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

1999

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, " Optically induced angular alignment of trapped birefringent micro-objects by linearly polarized light," Pys. Rev. E 59, 3676- 3681 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, " Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles," Nature 394, 348- 350 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. A. Lawes, A. S. Holmes, and F. N. Goodall, " The formation of moulds for 3D microstructures using excimer laser ablation," Microsystem Technol. 3(1), 17- 19 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, " Measurement and control of optically induced rotation of anisotropic shaped particles," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3104- 3108 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, " Optically induced rotation of a trapped micro-object about an axis perpendicular to the laser beam axis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2951- 2953 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Gauthie, " Ray optics model and numerical computations for the radiation pressure micromotor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2269- 2271 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

A. T. O'Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, " Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 ( 2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arlt, J.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, " Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 296, 1101- 1103 ( 2002).
[PubMed]

Bingelyte, V.

V. Bingelyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, " Optically controlled three-dimensional rotation of microscopic objects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 829- 831 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, A. I.

A. I. Bishop, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, " Optical application and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic nonabsorbing material," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033802 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Boggild, P.

Bryant, P. E.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, " Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 296, 1101- 1103 ( 2002).
[PubMed]

Courtial, J.

V. Bingelyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, " Optically controlled three-dimensional rotation of microscopic objects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 829- 831 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

S. L. Neale, M. P. MacDonald, K. Dholakia, and T. F. Krauss, " All-optical control of microfluidic components using form birefringence," Nature Mater. 4, 530- 533 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, " Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 296, 1101- 1103 ( 2002).
[PubMed]

Drechsler, U.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, C. G. Smith, R. E. Mahrt, and H. J. Guntherodt, " SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095- 4097 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Durig, U.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, C. G. Smith, R. E. Mahrt, and H. J. Guntherodt, " SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095- 4097 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Friese, M. E. J.

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, " Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles," Nature 394, 348- 350 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Galajda, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, " Orientation of flat particles in laser tweezers by linearly polarized light," Opt. Express 11, 446- 451 ( 2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, " Rotors produced and driven in laser tweezers with reversed direction of rotation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4653- 4655 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, " Complex micromachines produced and driven by light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249- 251 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

Gammelgaard, L.

Gauthie, R. C.

R. C. Gauthie, " Ray optics model and numerical computations for the radiation pressure micromotor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2269- 2271 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, R. C.

Gauthier, R. R. C.

Gluckstad, J.

Goodall, F. N.

R. A. Lawes, A. S. Holmes, and F. N. Goodall, " The formation of moulds for 3D microstructures using excimer laser ablation," Microsystem Technol. 3(1), 17- 19 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

Guntherodt, H. J.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, C. G. Smith, R. E. Mahrt, and H. J. Guntherodt, " SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095- 4097 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, R.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, C. G. Smith, R. E. Mahrt, and H. J. Guntherodt, " SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095- 4097 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Heckenberg, N. R.

A. I. Bishop, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, " Optical application and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic nonabsorbing material," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033802 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, " Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles," Nature 394, 348- 350 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Higurashi, E.

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, " Optically induced angular alignment of trapped birefringent micro-objects by linearly polarized light," Pys. Rev. E 59, 3676- 3681 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, " Optically induced rotation of a trapped micro-object about an axis perpendicular to the laser beam axis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2951- 2953 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. S.

R. A. Lawes, A. S. Holmes, and F. N. Goodall, " The formation of moulds for 3D microstructures using excimer laser ablation," Microsystem Technol. 3(1), 17- 19 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

Ikuta, K.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, " Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533- 539 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, " Optically induced angular alignment of trapped birefringent micro-objects by linearly polarized light," Pys. Rev. E 59, 3676- 3681 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, " Optically induced rotation of a trapped micro-object about an axis perpendicular to the laser beam axis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2951- 2953 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Korogi, H.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, " Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533- 539 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

S. L. Neale, M. P. MacDonald, K. Dholakia, and T. F. Krauss, " All-optical control of microfluidic components using form birefringence," Nature Mater. 4, 530- 533 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Lawes, R. A.

R. A. Lawes, A. S. Holmes, and F. N. Goodall, " The formation of moulds for 3D microstructures using excimer laser ablation," Microsystem Technol. 3(1), 17- 19 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

Leach, J.

V. Bingelyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, " Optically controlled three-dimensional rotation of microscopic objects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 829- 831 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, M. P.

S. L. Neale, M. P. MacDonald, K. Dholakia, and T. F. Krauss, " All-optical control of microfluidic components using form birefringence," Nature Mater. 4, 530- 533 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, " Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 296, 1101- 1103 ( 2002).
[PubMed]

MacVicar, I.

A. T. O'Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, " Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 ( 2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahrt, R. E.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, C. G. Smith, R. E. Mahrt, and H. J. Guntherodt, " SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095- 4097 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Marr, D. W. M.

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, Microfluidic control using colloidal devices, Science 296, 1841- 1844 ( 2002).

Maruo, S.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, " Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533- 539 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Mende, H.

Neale, S. L.

S. L. Neale, M. P. MacDonald, K. Dholakia, and T. F. Krauss, " All-optical control of microfluidic components using form birefringence," Nature Mater. 4, 530- 533 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Nieminen, T. A.

A. I. Bishop, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, " Optical application and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic nonabsorbing material," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033802 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, " Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles," Nature 394, 348- 350 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Oakey, J.

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, Microfluidic control using colloidal devices, Science 296, 1841- 1844 ( 2002).

O'Neil, A. T.

A. T. O'Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, " Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 ( 2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. O'Neil and M. J. Padgett, " Rotational control within optical tweezers by use of a rotating aperture," Opt. Lett. 27, 743- 745 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Ormos, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, " Orientation of flat particles in laser tweezers by linearly polarized light," Opt. Express 11, 446- 451 ( 2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, " Rotors produced and driven in laser tweezers with reversed direction of rotation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4653- 4655 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, " Complex micromachines produced and driven by light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249- 251 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

V. Bingelyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, " Optically controlled three-dimensional rotation of microscopic objects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 829- 831 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

A. T. O'Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, " Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 ( 2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. O'Neil and M. J. Padgett, " Rotational control within optical tweezers by use of a rotating aperture," Opt. Lett. 27, 743- 745 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, L.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, " Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 296, 1101- 1103 ( 2002).
[PubMed]

Pawlowicz, C.

Perch-Nielsen, I. R.

Rodrigo, P. J.

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

A. I. Bishop, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, " Optical application and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic nonabsorbing material," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033802 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, " Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles," Nature 394, 348- 350 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Salis, G.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, C. G. Smith, R. E. Mahrt, and H. J. Guntherodt, " SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095- 4097 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Sawada, R.

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, " Optically induced angular alignment of trapped birefringent micro-objects by linearly polarized light," Pys. Rev. E 59, 3676- 3681 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, " Optically induced rotation of a trapped micro-object about an axis perpendicular to the laser beam axis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2951- 2953 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, " Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 296, 1101- 1103 ( 2002).
[PubMed]

Smith, C. G.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, C. G. Smith, R. E. Mahrt, and H. J. Guntherodt, " SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095- 4097 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Tait, R. N.

Tait, R. Niall

Teh, W. H.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, C. G. Smith, R. E. Mahrt, and H. J. Guntherodt, " SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095- 4097 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

Terray, A.

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, Microfluidic control using colloidal devices, Science 296, 1841- 1844 ( 2002).

Ubriaco, M.

Yamaguchi, I.

A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, " Measurement and control of optically induced rotation of anisotropic shaped particles," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3104- 3108 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, A.

A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, " Measurement and control of optically induced rotation of anisotropic shaped particles," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3104- 3108 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, C. G. Smith, R. E. Mahrt, and H. J. Guntherodt, " SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095- 4097 ( 2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Bingelyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, " Optically controlled three-dimensional rotation of microscopic objects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 829- 831 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, " Optically induced rotation of a trapped micro-object about an axis perpendicular to the laser beam axis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2951- 2953 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Gauthie, " Ray optics model and numerical computations for the radiation pressure micromotor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2269- 2271 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, " Complex micromachines produced and driven by light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249- 251 ( 2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, " Rotors produced and driven in laser tweezers with reversed direction of rotation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4653- 4655 ( 2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, " Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533- 539 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

A. Yamamoto and I. Yamaguchi, " Measurement and control of optically induced rotation of anisotropic shaped particles," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3104- 3108 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Microsystem Technol.

R. A. Lawes, A. S. Holmes, and F. N. Goodall, " The formation of moulds for 3D microstructures using excimer laser ablation," Microsystem Technol. 3(1), 17- 19 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, " Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles," Nature 394, 348- 350 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater.

S. L. Neale, M. P. MacDonald, K. Dholakia, and T. F. Krauss, " All-optical control of microfluidic components using form birefringence," Nature Mater. 4, 530- 533 ( 2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

A. I. Bishop, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, " Optical application and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic nonabsorbing material," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033802 ( 2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. T. O'Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, " Intrinsic and extrinsic nature of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 053601 ( 2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pys. Rev. E

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, " Optically induced angular alignment of trapped birefringent micro-objects by linearly polarized light," Pys. Rev. E 59, 3676- 3681 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Science

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, " Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles," Science 296, 1101- 1103 ( 2002).
[PubMed]

Other

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, Microfluidic control using colloidal devices, Science 296, 1841- 1844 ( 2002).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Design of the integrated optical motor: B, cover glass baseplate; W, optical waveguide; A, axis assembly; R, rotor. The diameter of the rotor is 10 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top view of the photopolymerized integrated optical motor in the optical microscope where the polymerization was performed and where the function is observed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron micrograph of the integrated optical motor.

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