Abstract

A shift-and-add (SAA) operation is conducted to reconstruct a high-spatial-resolution image from atmospherically degraded solar images. The self-deconvolving data reconstruction algorithm is used to augment high-spatial-frequency components in solar speckle images and rectify the background component that results from the SAA operation. Self-deconvolved solar speckle images are shift and added and the resulting image shows high-spatial-resolution features.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. S. Acton and R. C. Smithson, " Solar imaging with a segmented adaptive mirror," Appl. Opt. 31, 3161- 3169 ( 1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. R. Rimmel and R. R. Radick, " Solar adaptive optics at the National Solar Observatory," Proc. SPIE 3353, 72- 81 ( 1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. V. Stachnik, P. Nisenson, D. C. Ehn, R. H. Hudgin, and V. E. Schirf, " Speckle image reconstruction of solar features," Nature 266, 149- 151 ( 1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. von der Lühe, " Speckle imaging of solar small scale structure. I. Methods," Astron. Astrophys. 268, 374- 390 ( 1993).
  5. M. G. Löfdahl and G. B. Scharmer, " Wavefront sensing and image restoration from focused and defocused solar images," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 107, 243- 264 ( 1994).
  6. N. Baba, H. Tomita, and N. Miura, " Phase diversity imaging through atmospheric turbulence," Opt. Rev. 1, 308- 310 ( 1994).
  7. R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Löfdahl, G. B. Scharmer, and C. U. Keller, " Evaluation of phase-diverse techniques for solar-image restoration," Astrophys. J. 466, 1087- 1099 ( 1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Miura, K. Ohsawa, and N. Baba, " Parallel blind deconvolution applied to solar image," Opt. Rev. 1, 208- 210 ( 1994).
  9. N. Miura and N. Baba, " Segmentation-based multiframe blind deconvolution of solar images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1858- 1866 ( 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. H. T. Bates and F. M. Cady, " Towards true imaging by wideband speckle interferometry," Opt. Commun. 32, 365- 369 ( 1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. K. Hege, " First order imaging methods: an introduction," in Diffraction-Limited Imaging with Very Large Telescopes, D.M.Alloin and J.-M.Mariotti, eds. (Kluwer, 1989), pp. 141- 155.
  12. N. Baba, N. Miura, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Shift-and-add reconstruction of solar granulation images," Sol. Phys. 188, 41- 46 ( 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Kuwamura, N. Baba, N. Miura, M. Noguchi, Y. Norimoto, and S. Isobe, " Preliminary observational results of wideband speckle spectroscopy," in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J.M.Beckers and F.Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), pp. 461- 469.
  14. Y. Sudo and N. Baba, " Self-deconvolution for shift-and-add imaging," Opt. Lett. 30, 1309- 1311 ( 2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Sudo and N. Baba, " Self-deconvolution for shift-and-add imaging: erratum," Opt. Lett. 30, 2381 ( 2005).
    [PubMed]
  16. J. N. Caron, N. M. Namazi, R. L. Lucke, C. J. Rollins, and P. R. Lynn, Jr., " Blind data restoration with an extracted filter function," Opt. Lett. 26, 1164- 1166 ( 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. N. Caron, N. M. Namazi, and C. J. Rollins, " Noniterative blind data restoration by use of an extracted filter function," Appl. Opt. 41, 6884- 6889 ( 2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. C. Christou, " Image quality, tip-tilt correction, and shift-and-add infrared imaging," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 103, 1040- 1048 ( 1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Hozumi, N. Baba, and N. Miura, " Projection speckle spectroscopy for a real-time mode," Opt. Lett. 21, 887- 889 ( 1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. N. Miura, N. Baba, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Resolution improvement of solar images," Sol. Phys. 187, 347- 356 ( 1999).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Sudo and N. Baba, " Self-deconvolution for shift-and-add imaging: erratum," Opt. Lett. 30, 2381 ( 2005).
[PubMed]

Y. Sudo and N. Baba, " Self-deconvolution for shift-and-add imaging," Opt. Lett. 30, 1309- 1311 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

N. Miura, N. Baba, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Resolution improvement of solar images," Sol. Phys. 187, 347- 356 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, N. Miura, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Shift-and-add reconstruction of solar granulation images," Sol. Phys. 188, 41- 46 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. R. Rimmel and R. R. Radick, " Solar adaptive optics at the National Solar Observatory," Proc. SPIE 3353, 72- 81 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Löfdahl, G. B. Scharmer, and C. U. Keller, " Evaluation of phase-diverse techniques for solar-image restoration," Astrophys. J. 466, 1087- 1099 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Hozumi, N. Baba, and N. Miura, " Projection speckle spectroscopy for a real-time mode," Opt. Lett. 21, 887- 889 ( 1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (3)

N. Miura, K. Ohsawa, and N. Baba, " Parallel blind deconvolution applied to solar image," Opt. Rev. 1, 208- 210 ( 1994).

M. G. Löfdahl and G. B. Scharmer, " Wavefront sensing and image restoration from focused and defocused solar images," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 107, 243- 264 ( 1994).

N. Baba, H. Tomita, and N. Miura, " Phase diversity imaging through atmospheric turbulence," Opt. Rev. 1, 308- 310 ( 1994).

1993 (1)

O. von der Lühe, " Speckle imaging of solar small scale structure. I. Methods," Astron. Astrophys. 268, 374- 390 ( 1993).

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

J. C. Christou, " Image quality, tip-tilt correction, and shift-and-add infrared imaging," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 103, 1040- 1048 ( 1991).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. H. T. Bates and F. M. Cady, " Towards true imaging by wideband speckle interferometry," Opt. Commun. 32, 365- 369 ( 1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

R. V. Stachnik, P. Nisenson, D. C. Ehn, R. H. Hudgin, and V. E. Schirf, " Speckle image reconstruction of solar features," Nature 266, 149- 151 ( 1977).
[CrossRef]

Acton, D. S.

Baba, N.

Y. Sudo and N. Baba, " Self-deconvolution for shift-and-add imaging," Opt. Lett. 30, 1309- 1311 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sudo and N. Baba, " Self-deconvolution for shift-and-add imaging: erratum," Opt. Lett. 30, 2381 ( 2005).
[PubMed]

N. Baba, N. Miura, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Shift-and-add reconstruction of solar granulation images," Sol. Phys. 188, 41- 46 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Miura, N. Baba, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Resolution improvement of solar images," Sol. Phys. 187, 347- 356 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Hozumi, N. Baba, and N. Miura, " Projection speckle spectroscopy for a real-time mode," Opt. Lett. 21, 887- 889 ( 1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Miura and N. Baba, " Segmentation-based multiframe blind deconvolution of solar images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1858- 1866 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, H. Tomita, and N. Miura, " Phase diversity imaging through atmospheric turbulence," Opt. Rev. 1, 308- 310 ( 1994).

N. Miura, K. Ohsawa, and N. Baba, " Parallel blind deconvolution applied to solar image," Opt. Rev. 1, 208- 210 ( 1994).

S. Kuwamura, N. Baba, N. Miura, M. Noguchi, Y. Norimoto, and S. Isobe, " Preliminary observational results of wideband speckle spectroscopy," in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J.M.Beckers and F.Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), pp. 461- 469.

Bates, R. H. T.

R. H. T. Bates and F. M. Cady, " Towards true imaging by wideband speckle interferometry," Opt. Commun. 32, 365- 369 ( 1980).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, P.

N. Miura, N. Baba, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Resolution improvement of solar images," Sol. Phys. 187, 347- 356 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, N. Miura, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Shift-and-add reconstruction of solar granulation images," Sol. Phys. 188, 41- 46 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Cady, F. M.

R. H. T. Bates and F. M. Cady, " Towards true imaging by wideband speckle interferometry," Opt. Commun. 32, 365- 369 ( 1980).
[CrossRef]

Caron, J. N.

Christou, J. C.

J. C. Christou, " Image quality, tip-tilt correction, and shift-and-add infrared imaging," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 103, 1040- 1048 ( 1991).
[CrossRef]

Ehn, D. C.

R. V. Stachnik, P. Nisenson, D. C. Ehn, R. H. Hudgin, and V. E. Schirf, " Speckle image reconstruction of solar features," Nature 266, 149- 151 ( 1977).
[CrossRef]

Hege, E. K.

E. K. Hege, " First order imaging methods: an introduction," in Diffraction-Limited Imaging with Very Large Telescopes, D.M.Alloin and J.-M.Mariotti, eds. (Kluwer, 1989), pp. 141- 155.

Hozumi, K.

Hudgin, R. H.

R. V. Stachnik, P. Nisenson, D. C. Ehn, R. H. Hudgin, and V. E. Schirf, " Speckle image reconstruction of solar features," Nature 266, 149- 151 ( 1977).
[CrossRef]

Ichimoto, K.

N. Baba, N. Miura, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Shift-and-add reconstruction of solar granulation images," Sol. Phys. 188, 41- 46 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Miura, N. Baba, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Resolution improvement of solar images," Sol. Phys. 187, 347- 356 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Isobe, S.

S. Kuwamura, N. Baba, N. Miura, M. Noguchi, Y. Norimoto, and S. Isobe, " Preliminary observational results of wideband speckle spectroscopy," in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J.M.Beckers and F.Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), pp. 461- 469.

Keller, C. U.

R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Löfdahl, G. B. Scharmer, and C. U. Keller, " Evaluation of phase-diverse techniques for solar-image restoration," Astrophys. J. 466, 1087- 1099 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuwamura, S.

S. Kuwamura, N. Baba, N. Miura, M. Noguchi, Y. Norimoto, and S. Isobe, " Preliminary observational results of wideband speckle spectroscopy," in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J.M.Beckers and F.Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), pp. 461- 469.

Löfdahl, M. G.

R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Löfdahl, G. B. Scharmer, and C. U. Keller, " Evaluation of phase-diverse techniques for solar-image restoration," Astrophys. J. 466, 1087- 1099 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Löfdahl and G. B. Scharmer, " Wavefront sensing and image restoration from focused and defocused solar images," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 107, 243- 264 ( 1994).

Lucke, R. L.

Lynn, P. R.

Miura, N.

N. Baba, N. Miura, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Shift-and-add reconstruction of solar granulation images," Sol. Phys. 188, 41- 46 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Miura, N. Baba, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Resolution improvement of solar images," Sol. Phys. 187, 347- 356 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Hozumi, N. Baba, and N. Miura, " Projection speckle spectroscopy for a real-time mode," Opt. Lett. 21, 887- 889 ( 1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Miura and N. Baba, " Segmentation-based multiframe blind deconvolution of solar images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1858- 1866 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, H. Tomita, and N. Miura, " Phase diversity imaging through atmospheric turbulence," Opt. Rev. 1, 308- 310 ( 1994).

N. Miura, K. Ohsawa, and N. Baba, " Parallel blind deconvolution applied to solar image," Opt. Rev. 1, 208- 210 ( 1994).

S. Kuwamura, N. Baba, N. Miura, M. Noguchi, Y. Norimoto, and S. Isobe, " Preliminary observational results of wideband speckle spectroscopy," in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J.M.Beckers and F.Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), pp. 461- 469.

Namazi, N. M.

Nisenson, P.

R. V. Stachnik, P. Nisenson, D. C. Ehn, R. H. Hudgin, and V. E. Schirf, " Speckle image reconstruction of solar features," Nature 266, 149- 151 ( 1977).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, M.

S. Kuwamura, N. Baba, N. Miura, M. Noguchi, Y. Norimoto, and S. Isobe, " Preliminary observational results of wideband speckle spectroscopy," in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J.M.Beckers and F.Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), pp. 461- 469.

Norimoto, Y.

S. Kuwamura, N. Baba, N. Miura, M. Noguchi, Y. Norimoto, and S. Isobe, " Preliminary observational results of wideband speckle spectroscopy," in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J.M.Beckers and F.Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), pp. 461- 469.

Ohsawa, K.

N. Miura, K. Ohsawa, and N. Baba, " Parallel blind deconvolution applied to solar image," Opt. Rev. 1, 208- 210 ( 1994).

Paxman, R. G.

R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Löfdahl, G. B. Scharmer, and C. U. Keller, " Evaluation of phase-diverse techniques for solar-image restoration," Astrophys. J. 466, 1087- 1099 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

Radick, R. R.

T. R. Rimmel and R. R. Radick, " Solar adaptive optics at the National Solar Observatory," Proc. SPIE 3353, 72- 81 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Rimmel, T. R.

T. R. Rimmel and R. R. Radick, " Solar adaptive optics at the National Solar Observatory," Proc. SPIE 3353, 72- 81 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, C. J.

Sakurai, T.

N. Baba, N. Miura, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Shift-and-add reconstruction of solar granulation images," Sol. Phys. 188, 41- 46 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Miura, N. Baba, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Resolution improvement of solar images," Sol. Phys. 187, 347- 356 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Scharmer, G. B.

R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Löfdahl, G. B. Scharmer, and C. U. Keller, " Evaluation of phase-diverse techniques for solar-image restoration," Astrophys. J. 466, 1087- 1099 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Löfdahl and G. B. Scharmer, " Wavefront sensing and image restoration from focused and defocused solar images," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 107, 243- 264 ( 1994).

Schirf, V. E.

R. V. Stachnik, P. Nisenson, D. C. Ehn, R. H. Hudgin, and V. E. Schirf, " Speckle image reconstruction of solar features," Nature 266, 149- 151 ( 1977).
[CrossRef]

Seldin, J. H.

R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Löfdahl, G. B. Scharmer, and C. U. Keller, " Evaluation of phase-diverse techniques for solar-image restoration," Astrophys. J. 466, 1087- 1099 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

Smithson, R. C.

Soltau, D.

N. Baba, N. Miura, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Shift-and-add reconstruction of solar granulation images," Sol. Phys. 188, 41- 46 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Miura, N. Baba, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Resolution improvement of solar images," Sol. Phys. 187, 347- 356 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Stachnik, R. V.

R. V. Stachnik, P. Nisenson, D. C. Ehn, R. H. Hudgin, and V. E. Schirf, " Speckle image reconstruction of solar features," Nature 266, 149- 151 ( 1977).
[CrossRef]

Sudo, Y.

Y. Sudo and N. Baba, " Self-deconvolution for shift-and-add imaging," Opt. Lett. 30, 1309- 1311 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sudo and N. Baba, " Self-deconvolution for shift-and-add imaging: erratum," Opt. Lett. 30, 2381 ( 2005).
[PubMed]

Tomita, H.

N. Baba, H. Tomita, and N. Miura, " Phase diversity imaging through atmospheric turbulence," Opt. Rev. 1, 308- 310 ( 1994).

von der Lühe, O.

O. von der Lühe, " Speckle imaging of solar small scale structure. I. Methods," Astron. Astrophys. 268, 374- 390 ( 1993).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

O. von der Lühe, " Speckle imaging of solar small scale structure. I. Methods," Astron. Astrophys. 268, 374- 390 ( 1993).

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

M. G. Löfdahl and G. B. Scharmer, " Wavefront sensing and image restoration from focused and defocused solar images," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 107, 243- 264 ( 1994).

Astrophys. J. (1)

R. G. Paxman, J. H. Seldin, M. G. Löfdahl, G. B. Scharmer, and C. U. Keller, " Evaluation of phase-diverse techniques for solar-image restoration," Astrophys. J. 466, 1087- 1099 ( 1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (1)

R. V. Stachnik, P. Nisenson, D. C. Ehn, R. H. Hudgin, and V. E. Schirf, " Speckle image reconstruction of solar features," Nature 266, 149- 151 ( 1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. H. T. Bates and F. M. Cady, " Towards true imaging by wideband speckle interferometry," Opt. Commun. 32, 365- 369 ( 1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Rev. (2)

N. Miura, K. Ohsawa, and N. Baba, " Parallel blind deconvolution applied to solar image," Opt. Rev. 1, 208- 210 ( 1994).

N. Baba, H. Tomita, and N. Miura, " Phase diversity imaging through atmospheric turbulence," Opt. Rev. 1, 308- 310 ( 1994).

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. R. Rimmel and R. R. Radick, " Solar adaptive optics at the National Solar Observatory," Proc. SPIE 3353, 72- 81 ( 1998).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

J. C. Christou, " Image quality, tip-tilt correction, and shift-and-add infrared imaging," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 103, 1040- 1048 ( 1991).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys. (2)

N. Miura, N. Baba, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Resolution improvement of solar images," Sol. Phys. 187, 347- 356 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Baba, N. Miura, T. Sakurai, K. Ichimoto, D. Soltau, and P. Brandt, " Shift-and-add reconstruction of solar granulation images," Sol. Phys. 188, 41- 46 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Kuwamura, N. Baba, N. Miura, M. Noguchi, Y. Norimoto, and S. Isobe, " Preliminary observational results of wideband speckle spectroscopy," in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J.M.Beckers and F.Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), pp. 461- 469.

E. K. Hege, " First order imaging methods: an introduction," in Diffraction-Limited Imaging with Very Large Telescopes, D.M.Alloin and J.-M.Mariotti, eds. (Kluwer, 1989), pp. 141- 155.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

One of data frames (656 × 494 pixels). The field of view is 56.4 arcsec × 42.5 arcsec.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Best-shot image over 100 data frames. The field of view is 37.8 arc min × 25.8 arc min. (b) The SAA reconstructed image, a synthesized image from 16 × 9 subregions. (c) Iteratively reconstructed SAA image, where the SAA reconstructed image, instead of the best-shot image, is used as the reference frame in the next iterative step.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g i ( x , y ) = f ( x , y ) h i ( x , y ) + n i ( x , y ) ,
G i ( u , v ) = F ( u , v ) H i ( u , v ) + N i ( u , v ) .
D i ( u , v ) = H si * ( u , v ) | H s i ( u , v ) | 2 + ε i ,
H s i ( u , v ) = K d i Sm { | G i ( u , v ) N i ( u , v ) | α } ,
RMSC = x y g i     2 ( x , y ) [ x y g i ( x , y ) ] 2 / x y g i ( x , y ) .
g ̃ ( x , y ) = 1 M i = 1 M g ̃ i ( x x s i , y y s i ) ,

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