Abstract

Broadband integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) utilizing an incoherent tungsten lamp as a spectroscopic source is described. This novel approach has been termed W-ICOS. The technique has been applied to make quantitative measurements of Rayleigh scattering by carbon dioxide between 570 and 590  nm and to make measurements of aerosol and atmospheric extinction. Minimum detectable extinction coefficients (kext) made in a 94  cm optical cavity ranged between 3.4 and 35Mm-1 depending on the level of signal averaging employed. The level of sensitivity achieved should allow measurements on static gas samples and regular, quantitative measurements of the atmospheric extinction coefficient.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. Bulatov, M. Fisher, and I. Schechter, "Aerosol analysis by cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chim. Acta 466, 1-9 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995-1011 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2005

H. Mossmuller, R. Varma, and W. Amott, "Cavity ring-down and cavity enhanced detection techniques for the measurement of aerosol extinction," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 39, 30-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995-1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 284-294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Thompson, H. D. Nasajpour, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, "Atmospheric aerosol measurements by cavity ringdown turbidimetry," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37, 221-230 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Strawa, R. Casteneda, T. Owano, D. S. Baer, and B. A. Paldus, "The measurements of aerosol optical properties using continuous wave cavity ring-down techniques," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 454-465 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Ball and R. L. Jones, "Broad-band cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 103, 5239-5262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Brown, "Absorption spectroscopy in high-finesse cavities for atmospheric studies," Chem. Rev. 103, 5219-5238 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

V. Bulatov, M. Fisher, and I. Schechter, "Aerosol analysis by cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chim. Acta 466, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Thompson, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, "Monitoring atmospheric particulate matter through cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 74, 1962-1967 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. D. Smith and D. B. Atkinson, "A portable pulsed cavity ring-down transmissometer for measurement of the optical extinction of the atmospheric aerosol," Analyst (London) 126, 1216-1220 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Paul, J. J. Scherer, A. O'Keefe, L. Lapson, J. G. Anderson, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Infrared cavity ringdown and integrated cavity output spectroscopy for trace species monitoring," in Proc. SPIE 4577, 1-11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Paul, L. Lapson, and J. G. Anderson, "Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment," Appl. Opt. 40, 4904-4910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, "cw-integrated cavity output spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343-349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1977

Shardanand and A. D. Prasad Rao, "Absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections of gases and freons of stratospheric interest in the visible and ultraviolet regions," NASA Tech. Note D-8442 (NASA, 1977).

1974

1968

Amott, W.

H. Mossmuller, R. Varma, and W. Amott, "Cavity ring-down and cavity enhanced detection techniques for the measurement of aerosol extinction," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 39, 30-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. G.

J. B. Paul, L. Lapson, and J. G. Anderson, "Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment," Appl. Opt. 40, 4904-4910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Paul, J. J. Scherer, A. O'Keefe, L. Lapson, J. G. Anderson, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Infrared cavity ringdown and integrated cavity output spectroscopy for trace species monitoring," in Proc. SPIE 4577, 1-11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, D. B.

J. D. Smith and D. B. Atkinson, "A portable pulsed cavity ring-down transmissometer for measurement of the optical extinction of the atmospheric aerosol," Analyst (London) 126, 1216-1220 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bach, D. R.

Baer, D. S.

A. W. Strawa, R. Casteneda, T. Owano, D. S. Baer, and B. A. Paldus, "The measurements of aerosol optical properties using continuous wave cavity ring-down techniques," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 454-465 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ball, S. M.

S. M. Ball and R. L. Jones, "Broad-band cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 103, 5239-5262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brock, C. A.

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995-1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. S.

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995-1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Brown, "Absorption spectroscopy in high-finesse cavities for atmospheric studies," Chem. Rev. 103, 5219-5238 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulatov, V.

V. Bulatov, M. Fisher, and I. Schechter, "Aerosol analysis by cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chim. Acta 466, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

J. B. Paul, J. J. Scherer, A. O'Keefe, L. Lapson, J. G. Anderson, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Infrared cavity ringdown and integrated cavity output spectroscopy for trace species monitoring," in Proc. SPIE 4577, 1-11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Casteneda, R.

A. W. Strawa, R. Casteneda, T. Owano, D. S. Baer, and B. A. Paldus, "The measurements of aerosol optical properties using continuous wave cavity ring-down techniques," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 454-465 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

J. B. Paul, J. J. Scherer, A. O'Keefe, L. Lapson, J. G. Anderson, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Infrared cavity ringdown and integrated cavity output spectroscopy for trace species monitoring," in Proc. SPIE 4577, 1-11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cutten, D. R.

Fiedler, S. E.

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 284-294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, M.

V. Bulatov, M. Fisher, and I. Schechter, "Aerosol analysis by cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chim. Acta 466, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

J. B. Paul, J. J. Scherer, A. O'Keefe, L. Lapson, J. G. Anderson, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Infrared cavity ringdown and integrated cavity output spectroscopy for trace species monitoring," in Proc. SPIE 4577, 1-11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hese, A.

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 284-294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hill, E. S.

Hodkinson, J. R.

J. R. Hodkinson, "The optical measurement of aerosols," in Aerosol Science, C.N.Davies, ed. (Academic, 1966), pp. 287-357.

Jones, R. L.

S. M. Ball and R. L. Jones, "Broad-band cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 103, 5239-5262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lapson, L.

J. B. Paul, J. J. Scherer, A. O'Keefe, L. Lapson, J. G. Anderson, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Infrared cavity ringdown and integrated cavity output spectroscopy for trace species monitoring," in Proc. SPIE 4577, 1-11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Paul, L. Lapson, and J. G. Anderson, "Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment," Appl. Opt. 40, 4904-4910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Linne, M. A.

Lovejoy, E. R.

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995-1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mossmuller, H.

H. Mossmuller, R. Varma, and W. Amott, "Cavity ring-down and cavity enhanced detection techniques for the measurement of aerosol extinction," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 39, 30-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nasajpour, H. D.

J. E. Thompson, H. D. Nasajpour, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, "Atmospheric aerosol measurements by cavity ringdown turbidimetry," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37, 221-230 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naus, H.

O'Keefe, A.

J. B. Paul, J. J. Scherer, A. O'Keefe, L. Lapson, J. G. Anderson, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Infrared cavity ringdown and integrated cavity output spectroscopy for trace species monitoring," in Proc. SPIE 4577, 1-11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, "cw-integrated cavity output spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343-349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. O'Keefe, "Integrated cavity output analysis of ultra weak absorptions," Chem. Phys. Lett. 293, 331-336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Owano, T.

A. W. Strawa, R. Casteneda, T. Owano, D. S. Baer, and B. A. Paldus, "The measurements of aerosol optical properties using continuous wave cavity ring-down techniques," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 454-465 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paldus, B. A.

A. W. Strawa, R. Casteneda, T. Owano, D. S. Baer, and B. A. Paldus, "The measurements of aerosol optical properties using continuous wave cavity ring-down techniques," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 454-465 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paul, J. B.

J. B. Paul, J. J. Scherer, A. O'Keefe, L. Lapson, J. G. Anderson, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Infrared cavity ringdown and integrated cavity output spectroscopy for trace species monitoring," in Proc. SPIE 4577, 1-11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Paul, L. Lapson, and J. G. Anderson, "Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment," Appl. Opt. 40, 4904-4910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, "cw-integrated cavity output spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343-349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pettersson, A.

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995-1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prasad Rao, A. D.

Shardanand and A. D. Prasad Rao, "Absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections of gases and freons of stratospheric interest in the visible and ultraviolet regions," NASA Tech. Note D-8442 (NASA, 1977).

Prasad Rao, Shardanand

Shardanand and A. D. Prasad Rao, "Absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections of gases and freons of stratospheric interest in the visible and ultraviolet regions," NASA Tech. Note D-8442 (NASA, 1977).

Ravishankara, A. R.

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995-1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rudder, R. R.

Ruth, A. A.

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 284-294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sappey, A. D.

Schechter, I.

V. Bulatov, M. Fisher, and I. Schechter, "Aerosol analysis by cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chim. Acta 466, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, J. J.

J. B. Paul, J. J. Scherer, A. O'Keefe, L. Lapson, J. G. Anderson, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Infrared cavity ringdown and integrated cavity output spectroscopy for trace species monitoring," in Proc. SPIE 4577, 1-11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, "cw-integrated cavity output spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343-349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Setterson, T.

Smith, B. W.

J. E. Thompson, H. D. Nasajpour, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, "Atmospheric aerosol measurements by cavity ringdown turbidimetry," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37, 221-230 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Thompson, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, "Monitoring atmospheric particulate matter through cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 74, 1962-1967 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, J. D.

J. D. Smith and D. B. Atkinson, "A portable pulsed cavity ring-down transmissometer for measurement of the optical extinction of the atmospheric aerosol," Analyst (London) 126, 1216-1220 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strawa, A. W.

A. W. Strawa, R. Casteneda, T. Owano, D. S. Baer, and B. A. Paldus, "The measurements of aerosol optical properties using continuous wave cavity ring-down techniques," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 454-465 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, J. E.

J. E. Thompson, H. D. Nasajpour, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, "Atmospheric aerosol measurements by cavity ringdown turbidimetry," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37, 221-230 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Thompson, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, "Monitoring atmospheric particulate matter through cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 74, 1962-1967 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ubachs, W.

Varma, R.

H. Mossmuller, R. Varma, and W. Amott, "Cavity ring-down and cavity enhanced detection techniques for the measurement of aerosol extinction," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 39, 30-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

J. E. Thompson, H. D. Nasajpour, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, "Atmospheric aerosol measurements by cavity ringdown turbidimetry," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37, 221-230 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Thompson, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, "Monitoring atmospheric particulate matter through cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 74, 1962-1967 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aerosol Sci. Technol.

H. Mossmuller, R. Varma, and W. Amott, "Cavity ring-down and cavity enhanced detection techniques for the measurement of aerosol extinction," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 39, 30-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Thompson, H. D. Nasajpour, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, "Atmospheric aerosol measurements by cavity ringdown turbidimetry," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 37, 221-230 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

J. E. Thompson, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, "Monitoring atmospheric particulate matter through cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 74, 1962-1967 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta

V. Bulatov, M. Fisher, and I. Schechter, "Aerosol analysis by cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chim. Acta 466, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Analyst

J. D. Smith and D. B. Atkinson, "A portable pulsed cavity ring-down transmissometer for measurement of the optical extinction of the atmospheric aerosol," Analyst (London) 126, 1216-1220 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Phys. Lett.

A. O'Keefe, "Integrated cavity output analysis of ultra weak absorptions," Chem. Phys. Lett. 293, 331-336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, "Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 284-294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, "cw-integrated cavity output spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343-349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

S. M. Ball and R. L. Jones, "Broad-band cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 103, 5239-5262 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Brown, "Absorption spectroscopy in high-finesse cavities for atmospheric studies," Chem. Rev. 103, 5219-5238 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aerosol Sci.

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, "Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Aerosol Sci. 35, 995-1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.

A. W. Strawa, R. Casteneda, T. Owano, D. S. Baer, and B. A. Paldus, "The measurements of aerosol optical properties using continuous wave cavity ring-down techniques," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20, 454-465 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

NASA Tech. Note D-8442

Shardanand and A. D. Prasad Rao, "Absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections of gases and freons of stratospheric interest in the visible and ultraviolet regions," NASA Tech. Note D-8442 (NASA, 1977).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

J. B. Paul, J. J. Scherer, A. O'Keefe, L. Lapson, J. G. Anderson, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Infrared cavity ringdown and integrated cavity output spectroscopy for trace species monitoring," in Proc. SPIE 4577, 1-11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. R. Hodkinson, "The optical measurement of aerosols," in Aerosol Science, C.N.Davies, ed. (Academic, 1966), pp. 287-357.

"Model LPV-3 Long Path Visibility Transmissometer: Technical Manual for Theory of Operation and Operating Procedures" (Optec Inc., 2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the W-ICOS instrument used in this work. HV, high voltage; GRD, ground; PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured Rayleigh-scattering cross sections for CO2 as compared with data in the literature. The data points correspond to values measured through the W-ICOS approach described in the text, and the solid line represents the expected values.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Minimum detectable extinction coefficient (k ext) versus number of averaged spectra.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of the absolute uncertainty in the measured extinction coefficient (k ext) versus the measured value of the extinction coefficient given a 0.01 absolute uncertainty in cavity transmission (T).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Aerosol monitoring experiment during which an aqueous aerosol was generated with an atomizer and introduced into the W-ICOS measurement cell during the time denoted by the white bar above the data. As observed, the extinction coefficient rose immediately after particles were introduced into the measurement chamber and dropped to initial levels after turning off the atomizer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Observed cavity transmission and corresponding extinction coefficient (k ext) of ambient air at Kearney, Nebraska, on 4–5 July 2005. The rise in the extinction coefficient is believed to be a direct result of fireworks demonstrations in the vicinity of our sampling area. All times listed are local time.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the W-ICOS Technique with Other Techniques for the Measurement of the Extinction Coefficient through Aerosol-Laden Samples

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ I I = G A 1 + G A = 1 T ,
G = R 1 R ,
A = 1 exp ( - k ext z ) .
θ 1 / 2 7 ° ( λ d ) ,

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